Primary prophylaxis of invasive fungal infections in patients with haematological malignancies: 2017 update of the recommendations of the Infectious Diseases Working Party (AGIHO) of the German Society for Haematology and Medical Oncology (DGHO).
Mellinghoff Sibylle C,Panse Jens,Alakel Nael,Behre Gerhard,Buchheidt Dieter,Christopeit Maximilian,Hasenkamp Justin,Kiehl Michael,Koldehoff Michael,Krause Stefan W,Lehners Nicola,von Lilienfeld-Toal Marie,Löhnert Annika Y,Maschmeyer Georg,Teschner Daniel,Ullmann Andrew J,Penack Olaf,Ruhnke Markus,Mayer Karin,Ostermann Helmut,Wolf Hans-H,Cornely Oliver A
Annals of hematology
Immunocompromised patients are at high risk of invasive fungal infections (IFI), in particular those with haematological malignancies undergoing remission-induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and recipients of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCT). Despite the development of new treatment options in the past decades, IFI remains a concern due to substantial morbidity and mortality in these patient populations. In addition, the increasing use of new immune modulating drugs in cancer therapy has opened an entirely new spectrum of at risk periods. Since the last edition of antifungal prophylaxis recommendations of the German Society for Haematology and Medical Oncology in 2014, seven clinical trials regarding antifungal prophylaxis in patients with haematological malignancies have been published, comprising 1227 patients. This update assesses the impact of this additional evidence and effective revisions. Our key recommendations are the following: prophylaxis should be performed with posaconazole delayed release tablets during remission induction chemotherapy for AML and MDS (AI). Posaconazole iv can be used when the oral route is contraindicated or not feasible. Intravenous liposomal amphotericin B did not significantly decrease IFI rates in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) patients during induction chemotherapy, and there is poor evidence to recommend it for prophylaxis in these patients (CI). Despite substantial risk of IFI, we cannot provide a stronger recommendation for these patients. There is poor evidence regarding voriconazole prophylaxis in patients with neutropenia (CII). Therapeutic drug monitoring TDM should be performed within 2 to 5 days of initiating voriconazole prophylaxis and should be repeated in case of suspicious adverse events or of dose changes of interacting drugs (BIItu). General TDM during posaconazole prophylaxis is not recommended (CIItu), but may be helpful in cases of clinical failure such as breakthrough IFI for verification of compliance or absorption.
Hyperammonaemia induces hepatic injury with alteration of gene expression profiles.
Jia Bin,Yu Zu-Jiang,Duan Zhen-Feng,Lü Xin-Quan,Li Jing-Jing,Liu Xiao-Rui,Sun Ran,Gao Xiao-Juan,Wang Yan-Fang,Yan Jing-Ya,Kan Quan-Cheng
Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
BACKGROUND:Hyperammonaemia is a serious metabolic disorder commonly observed in patients with hepatic failure. However, it is unknown whether hyperammonaemia has a direct adverse effect on the hepatocytes and thereby serves as both a cause and effect of hepatic failure. AIMS:The purposes were to determine whether hepatic injury can be caused by hyperammonaemia, and if so, screen the key genes involved in hyperammonaemia. METHODS:Hyperammonaemic rats were established via intragastric administration of the ammonium chloride solution. The liver tissues were assessed via biochemistry, histology, immunohistochemistry and microarray analysis. Selected genes were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. RESULTS:Administration of the ammonium chloride caused the hyperammonaemia, accompanied with the changes of plasma markers indicating hepatic injury. A pathological assessment demonstrated increased apoptosis and higher level of cyclin D1 and cyclin A in hyperammonaemic rat liver. Microarray was performed on the liver samples and 198 differentially expressed genes were identified in hyperammonaemic rats and validated by quantitative RT-PCR. These genes were associated with many vital functional classes and belonged to different signal transduction pathways. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates that hyperammonaemia can directly induce hepatic injury via the hepatocyte apoptosis. Gene expression profile may provide the possible explanations and mechanisms for the hepatic injury induced by hyperammonaemia.
Antifungal prophylaxis in adult patients with acute myeloid leukaemia treated with novel targeted therapies: a systematic review and expert consensus recommendation from the European Hematology Association.
The Lancet. Haematology
On the basis of improved overall survival, treatment guidelines strongly recommend antifungal prophylaxis during remission induction chemotherapy for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia. Many novel targeted agents are metabolised by cytochrome P450, but potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and the resulting risk-benefit ratio have not been assessed in clinical trials, leading to uncertainty in clinical management. Consequently, the European Haematology Association commissioned experts in the field of infectious diseases, haematology, oncology, clinical pharmacology, and methodology to develop up-to-date recommendations on the role of antifungal prophylaxis and management of pharmacokinetic DDIs with triazole antifungals. A systematic literature review was performed according to Cochrane methods, and recommendations were developed by use of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation Evidence to Decision framework. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Library, including Central Register of Controlled Trials, for randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews published from inception to March 10, 2020. We excluded studies that were not published in English. Evidence for any identified novel agent that is active against acute myeloid leukaemia was reviewed for the following outcomes: incidence of invasive fungal disease, prolongation of hospitalisation, days spent in intensive-care unit, mortality due to invasive fungal disease, quality of life, and potential DDIs. Recommendations and consensus statements were compiled for each targeted drug for patients with acute myeloid leukaemia and each specific setting. Evidence-based recommendations were developed for hypomethylating agents, midostaurin, and the venetoclax-hypomethylating agent combination. For all other agents, consensus statements were given for specific therapeutic settings, specifically for the management of patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukaemia, monotherapy, and combination with chemotherapy. Antifungal prophylaxis is recommended with moderate strength in most settings, and strongly recommended if the novel acute myeloid leukaemia agent is administered in combination with intensive induction chemotherapy. For ivosidenib, lestaurtinib, quizartinib, and venetoclax, we moderately recommend adjusting the dose of the antileukaemic agent during administration of triazoles. This is the first guidance supporting clinical decision making on antifungal prophylaxis in recipients of novel targeted drugs for acute myeloid leukaemia. Future studies including therapeutic drug monitoring will need to determine the role of dosage adjustment of novel antileukaemic drugs during concomitant administration of CYP3A4-inhibiting antifungals with respect to adverse effects and remission status.
Diagnosis of invasive fungal diseases in haematology and oncology: 2018 update of the recommendations of the infectious diseases working party of the German society for hematology and medical oncology (AGIHO).
Ruhnke Markus,Behre Gerhard,Buchheidt Dieter,Christopeit Maximilian,Hamprecht Axel,Heinz Werner,Heussel Claus-Peter,Horger Marius,Kurzai Oliver,Karthaus Meinolf,Löffler Jürgen,Maschmeyer Georg,Penack Olaf,Rieger Christina,Rickerts Volker,Ritter Jörg,Schmidt-Hieber Martin,Schuelper Nikolai,Schwartz Stefan,Ullmann Andrew,Vehreschild Jörg Janne,von Lilienfeld-Toal Marie,Weber Thomas,Wolf Hans H
Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) are a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with haematological malignancies. These infections are mostly life-threatening and an early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy are essential for the clinical outcome. Most commonly, Aspergillus and Candida species are involved. However, other Non-Aspergillus moulds are increasingly identified in case of documented IFD. For definite diagnosis of IFD, a combination of diagnostic tools have to be applied, including conventional mycological culture and non-conventional microbiological tests such as antibody/antigen and molecular tests, as well as histopathology and radiology. Although varying widely in cancer patients, the risk of invasive fungal infection is highest in those with allogeneic stem cell transplantation and those with acute leukaemia and markedly lower in patients with solid cancer. Since the last edition of Diagnosis of Invasive Fungal Diseases recommendations of the German Society for Hematology and Oncology in 2012, integrated care pathways have been proposed for the management and therapy of IFDs with either a diagnostic driven strategy as opposed to a clinical or empirical driven strategy. This update discusses the impact of this additional evidence and effective revisions.