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    Effect of artificial liver blood purification treatment on the survival of critical ill COVID-19 patients. Dai Xiahong,Zhang Yimin,Yu Liang,Jiang Ying-An,Chen Liang,Chen Ye,Li Ming,Gao Chunming,Shang Jia,Xiang Shulin,Li Yongguo,Li Jianzhou,Zhou Chenliang,Zhou Xiaoyang,Chen Nan,Liu Yuanchun,Liu Jing,Zhang Yuanyuan,Chen Xiaobei,Zhu Danhua,Gao Hainv,Tang Lingling,Zhu Mengfei,Li Lanjuan Artificial organs Our aim was to investigate the effect of artificial liver blood purification treatment on the survival of severe/critical patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A total of 101 severe and critical patients with coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 infection were enrolled in this open, case-control, multicenter, prospective study. According to the patients' and their families' willingness, they were divided into two groups. One was named the treatment group, in which the patients received artificial liver therapy plus comprehensive treatment (n = 50), while the other was named the control group, in which the patients received only comprehensive treatment (n = 51). Clinical data and laboratory examinations, as well as the 28-day mortality rate, were collected and analyzed. Baseline data comparisons on average age, sex, pre-treatment morbidity, initial symptoms, vital signs, pneumonia severity index score, blood routine examination and biochemistry indices etc. showed no difference between the two groups. Cytokine storm was detected, with a significant increase of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) level. The serum IL-6 level decreased from 119.94 to 20.49 pg/mL in the treatment group and increased from 40.42 to 50.81 pg/mL in the control group (P < .05), indicating that artificial liver therapy significantly decreased serum IL-6. The median duration of viral nucleic acid persistence was 19 days in the treatment group (ranging from 6 to 67 days) and 17 days in the control group (ranging from 3 to 68 days), no significant difference was observed (P = .36). As of 28-day follow-up,17 patients in the treatment group experienced a median weaning time of 24 days, while 11 patients in the control group experienced a median weaning time of 35 days, with no significant difference between the two groups (P = .33). The 28-day mortality rates were 16% (8/50) in the treatment group and 50.98% (26/51) in the control group, with a significant difference (z = 3.70, P < .001). Cytokine storm is a key factor in the intensification of COVID-19 pneumonia. The artificial liver therapy blocks the cytokine storm by clearing inflammatory mediators, thus preventing severe cases from progressing to critically ill stages and markedly reducing short-term mortality. 10.1111/aor.13884
    Evaluating mortality and recovery of extreme hyperbilirubinemia in critically ill patients by phasing the peak bilirubin level: A retrospective cohort study. Han Hong Seok,Park Chi-Min,Lee Dae-Sang,Sinn Dong Hyun,Gil Eunmi PloS one BACKGROUND:Hyperbilirubinemia is a devastating complication in patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU). The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score classifies hyperbilirubinemia without further detailed analyses for bilirubin increase above 12 mg/dL. We evaluated whether the level of bilirubin increase in patients with extreme hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin ≥ 12 mg/dL) affects and also helps estimate mortality or recovery. METHODS:A retrospective cohort analysis comprising 427 patients with extreme hyperbilirubinemia admitted to the ICU of Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between 2011 and 2015 was conducted. Extreme hyperbilirubinemia was classified into four grades: grade 1 (12-14.9 mg/dL), grade 2 (15-19.9 mg/dL), grade 3 (20-29.9 mg/dL), and grade 4 (≥ 30 mg/dL). These grades were then assessed for their association with hospital mortality and recovery from hyperbilirubinemia to SOFA grade (point) 2 or below (total bilirubin < 6 mg/dL). The influences of various factors, some of which caused extreme hyperbilirubinemia, while others induced bilirubin recovery, were assessed. RESULTS:A total of 427 patients (mean age: 59.8 years, male: 67.0%) were evaluated, and the hospital mortality for these patients was very high (76.1%). Extreme hyperbilirubinemia was observed in 111 (grade 1, 26.0%), 99 (grade 2, 23.2%), 131 (grade3, 30.7%), and 86 (grade 4, 20.1%) patients with mortality rates of 62.2%, 71.7%, 81.7%, and 90.7%, respectively (p < 0.001). The peak bilirubin value correlated with the mortality (odds ratio [OR], 1.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.15, p < 0.001). Compared to those with grade 1 extreme hyperbilirubinemia, the mortality rate gradually increased as the grade increased (OR [95% CI]: 1.92 [0.70-5.28], 3.55 [1.33-9.48], and 12.47 [3.07-50.59] for grades 2, 3 and 4, respectively). The main causes of extreme hyperbilirubinemia were infection including sepsis and hypoxic hepatitis. The recovery from hyperbilirubinemia was observed in 110 (25.8%) patients. Mortality was lower for those who recovered from hyperbilirubinemia than for those who did not (29.1% vs. 92.4%, p < 0.001). The favorable factors of bilirubin recovery were albumin and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). CONCLUSIONS:This study determined that the level of extreme hyperbilirubinemia is an important prognostic factor in critically ill patients. We expect the results of this study to help predict the clinical course of and determine the optimal treatment for extreme hyperbilirubinemia. 10.1371/journal.pone.0255230
    Low total cholesterol and high total bilirubin are associated with prognosis in patients with prolonged sepsis. Yamano Shuhei,Shimizu Kentaro,Ogura Hiroshi,Hirose Tomoya,Hamasaki Toshimitsu,Shimazu Takeshi,Tasaki Osamu Journal of critical care PURPOSE:Nutritional biochemical indexes are generally used as markers for critically ill patients. However, they are easily influenced by acute phase changes after injury and are difficult to use as common and practical biomarkers. The objective of this study was to determine the most valuable prognostic markers among 15 common laboratory tests in patients with sepsis. METHODS:We included all sepsis patients who stayed in the intensive care unit for more than 2 weeks. We evaluated 15 biochemistry indexes including serum albumin, total protein, C-reactive protein, cholinesterase, total cholesterol (T-Cho), triglyceride, sodium, potassium, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, total bilirubin (T-Bil), and prothrombin time. The minimum and maximum values of these indexes during the first 14 days from admission were analyzed by classification and regression tree and multivariate logistic regression analyses. RESULTS:This study comprised 91 patients with sepsis. The primary split was the minimum value of serum T-Cho (T-Cho (Min)), and the cutoff value was 73.5 mg/dL by classification and regression tree analysis. The second split was the maximum value of T-Bil (T-Bil (Max)), and the cutoff value was 1.35 mg/dL. The rate of mortality was 63% (17/27) in the group with T-Cho (Min) less than 73.5 mg/dL and T-Bil (Max) greater than 1.35 mg/dL. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that T-Cho (Min) and T-Bil (Max) were the biomarkers most closely associated with prognosis. CONCLUSIONS:Total cholesterol and T-Bil could be associated with prognosis in patients with sepsis. 10.1016/j.jcrc.2015.09.033
    The association of serum bilirubin levels on the outcomes of severe sepsis. Patel Jayshil J,Taneja Amit,Niccum David,Kumar Gagan,Jacobs Elizabeth,Nanchal Rahul Journal of intensive care medicine PURPOSE:Admission serum bilirubin levels have been incorporated into severity of illness scoring systems in critical illness as a marker of liver dysfunction. The purpose of our study is to determine the independent association of serum bilirubin with mortality in severe sepsis and septic shock. METHODS:We conducted a retrospective study of adult patients admitted with severe sepsis and septic shock. We excluded patients with a prior history of liver disease. We identified the highest serum bilirubin within 72 hours of admission and stratified bilirubin levels into ≤1 mg/dL (normal), 1.1 to 2 mg/dL (abnormal up to 2 mg/dL), and >2 mg/dL. We sought to determine the independent association of hyperbilirubinemia with mortality and length of intensive care unit stay in persons with severe sepsis and septic shock. RESULTS:A total of 251 patients met criteria for severe sepsis. In all, 200 patients had a bilirubin of <1 mg/dL, and 51 had a bilirubin of >1 mg/dL. Of these 51, 12 had a bilirubin >2 mg/dL. Mortality was 12%, 24%, and 42% in persons with a bilirubin ≤1, 1.1 to 2, and >2 mg/dL, respectively. Compared to those with a bilirubin ≤ 1 mg/dL, adjusted odds of mortality in patients were 3.85 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-12.2) and 9.85 (95% CI 1.92-50.5) times higher in persons with bilirubin levels between 1.1 and 2 and >2 mg/dL, respectively. CONCLUSION:After multivariable adjustment for potential confounding factors, elevated serum bilirubin levels within 72 hours of admission are associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. Prospective studies are warranted to further validate our findings. 10.1177/0885066613488739