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    Paclitaxel induces inactivation of p70 S6 kinase and phosphorylation of Thr421 and Ser424 via multiple signaling pathways in mitosis. Le Xiao-Feng,Hittelman Walter N,Liu Jiaxin,McWatters Amanda,Li Chun,Mills Gordon B,Bast Robert C Oncogene The 70 kDa ribosomal S6 kinase (p70S6K) is important for cell growth and survival. Activation of p70S6K requires sequential phosphorylation of multiple serine and threonine sites often triggered by growth factors and hormones. Here, we report that paclitaxel, a microtubule-damaging agent, induces phosphorylation of p70S6K at threonine 421 and serine 424 (T421/S424) in a concentration- and time-dependent manner in multiple breast and ovarian cancer cell lines demonstrated by a T421/S424 phospho-p70S6K antibody. Phosphoamino-acid analysis and Western blot analysis by serine-/threonine-specific antibodies further confirms that both serine and threonine residues are phosphorylated in p70S6K following treatment with paclitaxel. Paclitaxel-induced p70S6K(T421/S424) phosphorylation requires both de novo RNA and protein synthesis via multiple signaling pathways including ERK1/2 MAP kinase, JNK, PKC, Ca(++), PI3K, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Despite phosphorylation of p70S6K(T421/S424), paclitaxel inactivates this kinase in a concentration- and time-dependent manner as illustrated by in vitro kinase assay. Inhibitors of mTOR, PI3K, and Ca(++) impair p70S6K activity, whereas inhibitors of JNK and PKC stimulate p70S6K activity. Inhibition of PKC and JNK prevents paclitaxel-induced p70S6K inactivation. Moreover, the paclitaxel-induced phosphorylation and low activity of p70S6K mainly occurs during mitosis. In summary, paclitaxel is able to induce p70S6K(T421/S424) phosphorylation and decrease its activity in mitotic cells via multiple signaling pathways. Our data suggest that paclitaxel-induced p70S6K(T421/S424) phosphorylation and kinase inactivation are differentially regulated. Our data also indicate that paclitaxel may exert its antitumor effect, at least in part, via inhibition of p70S6K. 10.1038/sj.onc.1206175
    Co-delivery of cisplatin and rapamycin for enhanced anticancer therapy through synergistic effects and microenvironment modulation. Guo Shutao,Lin C Michael,Xu Zhenghong,Miao Lei,Wang Yuhua,Huang Leaf ACS nano The tumor microenvironment plays an important role in the tumor's progression and metastasis. Therefore, successful alteration of this delicate setting against the tumor's favor can open a window for therapeutic efficacy. We have developed a modality to bring about treatment-induced alterations in the tumor microenvironment by employing the synergistic effects between two drugs. Co-delivery of rapamycin (RAPA), an mTOR inhibitor that may offer notable therapy through antiangiogenic activity, alongside cisplatin can foster significant potency as RAPA sensitizes A375 melanoma cells to cisplatin therapy through microenvironment modulation. However, encapsulation of these drugs into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) NPs was inefficient due to the incompatibility between the two free drugs and the polymer matrix. Here, we show cisplatin can be made hydrophobic by coating a nanoprecipitate (cores) of the drug with dioleoylphosphatidic acid (DOPA). These DOPA coated cisplatin cores are compatible with PLGA and can be coencapsulated in PLGA NPs alongside RAPA at a molar ratio to promote synergistic antitumor activity. The presence of the cisplatin cores significantly improved the encapsulation of RAPA into PLGA NPs. Furthermore, PLGA NPs containing both cisplatin cores and RAPA induced significant apoptosis on A375-luc human melanoma cells in vitro. Additionally, they inhibited the growth of A375-luc melanoma in a xenograft tumor model through modulation of the tumor vasculature and permitted enhanced penetration of NPs into the tumor. 10.1021/nn5010815
    Rapamycin-enhanced mitomycin C-induced apoptotic death is mediated through the S6K1-Bad-Bak pathway in peritoneal carcinomatosis. Song X,Dilly A-K,Kim S-Y,Choudry H A,Lee Y J Cell death & disease Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is the most common secondary cancerous disease, and more effective novel regimens are needed. In this study, we identified a novel combination treatment for PC, chemotherapeutic agent mitomycin C in combination with mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor rapamycin. We observed that the combination of mitomycin C and rapamycin induced synergistic cytotoxicity and apoptosis, which was mediated through an increase in caspase activation. The combination of mitomycin C and rapamycin inactivated p70 S6 ribosomal kinase (S6K1) and dephosphorylated Bad, leading to dissociation of Bcl-xL from Bak, which resulted in Bak oligomerization, mitochondria dysfunction and cytochrome c release. PF-4708671, a S6K1-specific inhibitor, enhanced the combination treatment-induced apoptosis, whereas S6K1 E389 DeltaCT-HA (S6K1 active form) dramatically decreased the induction of apoptosis. In addition, the combination treatment significantly inhibited LS174T intraperitoneal tumor growth in vivo. This study provides a preclinical rationale for apoptosis induction linked with the mTOR pathway through a combination of chemotherapeutic agents and mTOR inhibitor, and will support this combinatorial strategy to PC patients. 10.1038/cddis.2014.242
    p70 Ribosomal protein S6 kinase (Rps6kb1): an update. Bahrami-B Farnaz,Ataie-Kachoie Parvin,Pourgholami Mohammad H,Morris David L Journal of clinical pathology The Rps6kb1 gene encodes the 70 kDa ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), which is a serine/threonine kinase regulated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. p70S6K plays a crucial role in controlling cell cycle, growth and survival. The PI3K/mTOR signalling pathway is one of the major mechanisms for controlling cell survival, proliferation and metabolism and is the central regulator of translation of some components of protein synthesis system. Upon activation, this kinase phosphorylates S6 protein of ribosomal subunit 40S resulting in selective translation of unique family of mRNAs that contain oligopyrimidine tract on 5' transcriptional site (5'TOP). 5'TOP mRNAs are coding the components of translational apparatus including ribosomal proteins and elongation factors. Due to the role of p70S6K in protein synthesis and also its involvement in a variety of human diseases ranging from diabetes and obesity to cancer, p70S6K is now being considered as a new therapeutic target for drug development. Furthermore, p70S6K acts as a biomarker for response to immunosuppressant as well as anticancer effects of inhibitors of the mTOR. Because of the narrow therapeutic index of mTOR inhibitors, drug monitoring is essential, and this is usually done by measuring blood drug levels, therapeutic response and drug-induced adverse effects. Recent studies have suggested that plasma p70S6K is a reliable index for the monitoring of patient response to mTOR inhibitors. Therefore, a better understanding of p70S6K and its role in various pathological conditions could enable the development of strategies to aid diagnosis, prognosis and treatment schedules. 10.1136/jclinpath-2014-202560