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    Disrupting Circadian Rhythm via the PER1-HK2 Axis Reverses Trastuzumab Resistance in Gastric Cancer. Cancer research Trastuzumab is the only approved targeted drug for first-line treatment of HER2-positive advanced gastric cancer, but the high rate of primary resistance and rapid emergence of secondary resistance limit its clinical benefits. We found that trastuzumab-resistant (TR) gastric cancer cells exhibited high glycolytic activity, which was controlled by hexokinase 2 (HK2)-dependent glycolysis with a circadian pattern [higher at zeitgeber time (ZT) 6, lower at ZT18]. Mechanistically, HK2 circadian oscillation was regulated by a transcriptional complex composed of PPARγ and the core clock gene PER1. In vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that silencing PER1 disrupted the circadian rhythm of PER1-HK2 and reversed trastuzumab resistance. Moreover, metformin, which inhibits glycolysis and PER1, combined with trastuzumab at ZT6, significantly improved trastuzumab efficacy in gastric cancer. Collectively, these data introduce the circadian clock into trastuzumab therapy and propose a potentially effective chronotherapy strategy to reverse trastuzumab resistance in gastric cancer. SIGNIFICANCE:In trastuzumab-resistant HER2-positive gastric cancer, glycolysis fluctuates with a circadian oscillation regulated by the BMAL1-CLOCK-PER1-HK2 axis, which can be disrupted with a metformin-based chronotherapy to overcome trastuzumab resistance. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-21-1820
    Lycorine hydrochloride inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis through promoting FBXW7-MCL1 axis in gastric cancer. Li Chongyang,Deng Chaowei,Pan Guangzhao,Wang Xue,Zhang Kui,Dong Zhen,Zhao Gaichao,Tan Mengqin,Hu Xiaosong,Shi Shaomin,Du Juan,Ji Haoyan,Wang Xiaowen,Yang Liqun,Cui Hongjuan Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR BACKGROUND:Lycorine hydrochloride (LH), an alkaloid extracted from the bulb of the Lycoris radiata, is considered to have anti-viral, anti-malarial, and anti-tumorous effects. At present, the underlying mechanisms of LH in gastric cancer remain unclear. MCL1, an anti-apoptotic protein of BCL2 family, is closely related to drug resistance of tumor. Therefore, MCL1 is considered as a potential target for cancer treatment. METHODS:The effect of LH on gastric cancer was assessed in vitro (by MTT, BrdU, western blotting…) and in vivo (by immunohistochemistry). RESULTS:In this study, we showed that LH has an anti-tumorous effect by down-regulating MCL1 in gastric cancer. Besides, we unveiled that LH reduced the protein stability of MCL1 by up-regulating ubiquitin E3 ligase FBXW7, arrested cell cycle at S phase and triggered apoptosis of gastric cancer cells. Meanwhile, we also demonstrated that LH could induce apoptosis of the BCL2-drug-resistant-cell-lines. Moreover, PDX (Patient-Derived tumor xenograft) model experiment proved that LH combined with HA14-1 (inhibitor of BCL2), had a more significant therapeutic effect on gastric cancer. CONCLUSIONS:The efficacy showed in our data suggests that lycorine hydrochloride is a promising anti-tumor compound for gastric cancer. 10.1186/s13046-020-01743-3