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    Innate immune signaling and gut-liver interactions in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Bieghs Veerle,Trautwein Christian Hepatobiliary surgery and nutrition Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome and covers a disease spectrum ranging from steatosis to inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The innate immune response in the liver plays an important role during NAFLD progression. In addition, changes in the intestinal microbial balance and bacterial translocation can further affect disease progression. Immune cells in the liver recognize cell damage or pathogen invasion with intracellular or surface-expressed pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), subsequently initiating signaling cascades that trigger the release of factors promoting the inflammatory response during NAFLD progression. Therefore, mechanisms by which cells of the immune system are activated and recruited into the liver and how these cells cause injury and stress are important for understanding the inflammatory response during NAFLD. 10.3978/j.issn.2304-3881.2014.12.04
    Immunobiology and immunotherapy of HCC: spotlight on innate and innate-like immune cells. Ruf Benjamin,Heinrich Bernd,Greten Tim F Cellular & molecular immunology Immune-based therapies such as immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized the systemic treatment of various cancer types. The therapeutic application of monoclonal antibodies targeting inhibitory pathways such as programmed cell death-1(PD-1)/programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and CTLA-4 to cells of the adaptive immune system has recently been shown to generate meaningful improvement in the clinical outcome of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nevertheless, current immunotherapeutic approaches induce durable responses in only a subset of HCC patients. Since immunologic mechanisms such as chronic inflammation due to chronic viral hepatitis or alcoholic and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease play a crucial role in the initiation, development, and progression of HCC, it is important to understand the underlying mechanisms shaping the unique tumor microenvironment of liver cancer. The liver is an immunologic organ with large populations of innate and innate-like immune cells and is exposed to bacterial, viral, and fungal antigens through the gut-liver axis. Here, we summarize and highlight the role of these cells in liver cancer and propose strategies to therapeutically target them. We also discuss current immunotherapeutic strategies in HCC and outline recent advances in our understanding of how the therapeutic potential of these agents might be enhanced. 10.1038/s41423-020-00572-w
    Innate Immune Signaling in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Cardiovascular Diseases. Cai Jingjing,Xu Meng,Zhang Xiaojing,Li Hongliang Annual review of pathology The physiological significance of innate immune signaling lies primarily in its role in host defense against invading pathogens. It is becoming increasingly clear that innate immune signaling also modulates the development of metabolic diseases, especially nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular diseases, which are characterized by chronic, low-grade inflammation due to a disarrangement of innate immune signaling. Notably, recent studies indicate that in addition to regulating canonical innate immune-mediated inflammatory responses (or immune-dependent signaling-induced responses), molecules of the innate immune system regulate pathophysiological responses in multiple organs during metabolic disturbances (termed immune-independent signaling-induced responses), including the disruption of metabolic homeostasis, tissue repair, and cell survival. In addition, emerging evidence from the study of immunometabolism indicates that the systemic metabolic status may have profound effects on cellular immune function and phenotypes through the alteration of cell-intrinsic metabolism. We summarize how the innate immune system interacts with metabolic disturbances to trigger immune-dependent and immune-independent pathogenesis in the context of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, as representative of metabolic diseases, and cardiovascular diseases. 10.1146/annurev-pathmechdis-012418-013003
    Natural Killer Cells and Type 1 Innate Lymphoid Cells Are New Actors in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease. Luci Carmelo,Vieira Elodie,Perchet Thibaut,Gual Philippe,Golub Rachel Frontiers in immunology Obesity and associated liver diseases (Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, NAFLD) are a major public health problem with increasing incidence in Western countries (25% of the affected population). These complications develop from a fatty liver (steatosis) to an inflammatory state (steatohepatitis) evolving toward fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Lipid accumulation in the liver contributes to hepatocyte cell death and promotes liver injury. Local immune cells are activated either by Danger Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPS) released by dead hepatocytes or by bacterial products (PAMPS) reaching the liver due to increased intestinal permeability. The resulting low-grade inflammatory state promotes the progression of liver complications toward more severe grades. Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are an heterogeneous family of five subsets including circulating Natural Killer (NK) cells, ILC1, ILC2, ILC3, and lymphocytes tissue-inducer cells (LTi). NK cells and tissue-resident ILCs, mainly located at epithelial surfaces, are prompt to rapidly react to environmental changes to mount appropriate immune responses. Recent works have demonstrated the interplay between ILCs subsets and the environment within metabolic active organs such as liver, adipose tissue and gut during diet-induced obesity leading or not to hepatic abnormalities. Here, we provide an overview of the newly roles of NK cells and ILC1 in metabolism focusing on their contribution to the development of NAFLD. We also discuss recent studies that demonstrate the ability of these two subsets to influence tissue-specific metabolism and how their function and homeostasis are affected during metabolic disorders. 10.3389/fimmu.2019.01192
    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis pathogenesis: sublethal hepatocyte injury as a driver of liver inflammation. Ibrahim Samar H,Hirsova Petra,Gores Gregory J Gut A subset of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease develop an inflammatory condition, termed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NASH is characterised by hepatocellular injury, innate immune cell-mediated inflammation and progressive liver fibrosis. The mechanisms whereby hepatic inflammation occurs in NASH remain incompletely understood, but appear to be linked to the proinflammatory microenvironment created by toxic lipid-induced hepatocyte injury, termed lipotoxicity. In this review, we discuss the signalling pathways induced by sublethal hepatocyte lipid overload that contribute to the pathogenesis of NASH. Furthermore, we will review the role of proinflammatory, proangiogenic and profibrotic hepatocyte-derived extracellular vesicles as disease biomarkers and pathogenic mediators during lipotoxicity. We also review the potential therapeutic strategies to block the feed-forward loop between sublethal hepatocyte injury and liver inflammation. 10.1136/gutjnl-2017-315691
    Immunological mechanisms and therapeutic targets of fatty liver diseases. Wang Hua,Mehal Wajahat,Nagy Laura E,Rotman Yaron Cellular & molecular immunology Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are the two major types of chronic liver disease worldwide. Inflammatory processes play key roles in the pathogeneses of fatty liver diseases, and continuous inflammation promotes the progression of alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Although both ALD and NAFLD are closely related to inflammation, their respective developmental mechanisms differ to some extent. Here, we review the roles of multiple immunological mechanisms and therapeutic targets related to the inflammation associated with fatty liver diseases and the differences in the progression of ASH and NASH. Multiple cell types in the liver, including macrophages, neutrophils, other immune cell types and hepatocytes, are involved in fatty liver disease inflammation. In addition, microRNAs (miRNAs), extracellular vesicles (EVs), and complement also contribute to the inflammatory process, as does intertissue crosstalk between the liver and the intestine, adipose tissue, and the nervous system. We point out that inflammation also plays important roles in promoting liver repair and controlling bacterial infections. Understanding the complex regulatory process of disrupted homeostasis during the development of fatty liver diseases may lead to the development of improved targeted therapeutic intervention strategies. 10.1038/s41423-020-00579-3
    The Role of Innate Immune Cells in Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis. Cai Jingjing,Zhang Xiao-Jing,Li Hongliang Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) Inflammation and metabolic dysfunction are hallmarks of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which is one of the fastest-growing liver diseases worldwide. Emerging evidence indicates that innate immune mechanisms are pivotal drivers of inflammation and other pathological manifestations observed in NASH, such as hepatosteatosis, insulin resistance (IR), and fibrosis. This robust innate immune reaction is intrinsic to the liver, which is an important immunological organ that contains a coordinated network of innate immune cells, including Kupffer cells (KCs), dendritic cells (DCs), and lymphocytes. Hepatocytes and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells (LSECs) are not formally innate immune cells, but they take on immune cell function when stressed. These cells can sense excess metabolites and bacterial products and translate those signals into immune responses and pathological hepatic changes during the development of NASH. In this review, we take a historical perspective in describing decades of research that aimed to identify the key molecular and cellular players in the innate immune system in the setting of NASH. Furthermore, we summarize the innate immune cells that are involved in the progression of NASH and illustrate how they sense disturbances in circulating metabolic factors by innate immune receptors and subsequently initiate the intercellular signaling cascades that lead to persistent inflammation and progression of hepatic complications. 10.1002/hep.30506