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    Assessment of health-related quality of life in patients with heart failure: a cross-sectional study in Saudi Arabia. Health and quality of life outcomes BACKGROUND:As a precarious clinical condition and a public health problem, heart failure (HF) is associated with a significant burden of morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. As almost all of the published research has been conducted in Western countries, there is a need for culturally relevant studies in Saudi Arabia. This is the first study to investigate health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and its associated factors among Saudi patients with HF in the Qassim region. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted at the only tertiary care hospital in the Qassim region of Saudi Arabia during the period from November 2020 to July 2021. The participants were interviewed face-to-face by trained interviewers using the standard validated 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire for HRQoL assessment. The data were analyzed using STATA version 16. RESULTS:The participants included 246 HF patients whose mean (SD) age was 56.7 (10.9) years. A majority of the respondents (80%, n = 197) were male, and 49% (n = 121) had an education level of less than secondary school. The median scores were high for the domains of social functioning (100 points) and bodily pain (75 points) and low for role-physical functioning (25 points). In general, the median scores for the physical and mental component summaries were 58.1 and 63.7, respectively. Patients with an education level less than secondary school were more likely to have a low physical component summary score (aOR 3.00, 95% CI 1.46-6.17), while female patients were more likely to have a low mental component summary score (aOR 2.67, 95% CI 1.38-5.16). CONCLUSIONS:Health-related quality of life was found to be moderate among these HF patients. Periodic HRQoL assessment is recommended for HF patients to minimize their physical and psychological concerns, particularly for patients with low education levels and female patients. 10.1186/s12955-022-02040-7
    The effect of a pay-for-performance program on health-related quality of life for patients with hepatitis in Taiwan. Health and quality of life outcomes PURPOSE:Chronic viral hepatitis is a major global public health problem. The guidelines suggest the long-term performance of regular ongoing liver examinations to monitor liver inflammation and screen for hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the effects of regular liver examinations on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) have not been adequately evaluated. Therefore, this study evaluated the effects of regular ongoing examinations on the quality of life of patients with hepatitis. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted from October to December 2016 in four hospitals in northern Taiwan. A hepatitis pay-for-performance (P4P) program was launched in 2010 to ensure that hepatitis patients have regular ongoing liver examinations. The study group consisted of patients who joined and stayed in the program for more than one year. The study assessed HRQoL utilizing the five-level version of the EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D-5L) and the EuroQoL visual analog scale (EQ-VAS). The responses for the EQ-5D-5L in hepatitis patients were transformed into the EQ-5D index according to the Taiwanese population's value set. Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were collected by questionnaire, and descriptive statistics were presented. A two-part model and generalized linear model with a Poisson distribution and a log link function, respectively, were used to examine the associations of the EQ-5D index and EQ-VAS score with participation in the hepatitis P4P program. We applied propensity score weighting with inverse probability weighting to control for selection bias. RESULTS:In all, 508 patients (aged 57.6 ± 11.6 years; 60.8% male) were enrolled in this study. The mean (standard deviation, SD) reported EQ-5D index and EQ-VAS scores were 0.93 (0.12) and 75.1 (13.8), and the median (interquartile range, IQR) values were 1 (0.108) and 80 (15), respectively. The study group had a moderately significantly higher EQ-VAS score (mean ratio = 1.029, P < 0.001). However, the differences in the EQ-5D index scores between the study and control groups were not significant. CONCLUSION:Patients with hepatitis partially benefited from receiving hepatitis P4P in Taiwan, which featured regular ongoing liver examinations, in that their EQ-VAS scores were enhanced but not their EQ-5D index scores. 10.1186/s12955-022-02038-1