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    Acquisition of Higher-Order Cognitive Skills (HOCS) Using the Flipped Classroom Model: A Quasi-Experimental Study. Cureus Introduction Flipped classroom refers to a teaching model where the lecture and homework elements of the class are reversed. Students develop knowledge and understanding during the pre-class session, and use the in-class time for active learning such as small group discussions, wherein they are expected to develop the skills of problem-solving (application) and critical thinking (analysis). An educational psychologist, Benjamin Bloom, proposed Bloom's Taxonomy for the cognitive domain. According to this taxonomy, knowledge, and understanding have been considered to be lower-order cognitive skills (LOCS), while application (problem-solving), analysis (critical thinking), synthesis, and evaluation have been considered higher-order cognitive skills (HOCS). Only one study has reported that flipped classroom approach helps in the acquisition of HOCS such as application, analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. The present study aims to compare the flipped classroom model with the traditional lecture model and focuses particularly on the acquisition of HOCS such as application and analysis, by assessing the students using multiple-choice questions based on clinical vignettes. Methods The study was conducted in the Department of Physiology at Government Medical College, Bhavnagar. A total of 102 students in two groups, Group A (n=52) and Group B (n=50), participated in all the phases of the study. In the flipped classroom group, students watched the pre-recorded videos and studied standard textbooks, followed by a group discussion in the class. The traditional Lecture group attended the didactic lecture only. Topic I was taught to Group A using the flipped classroom model and to Group B using the traditional didactic lecture approach. Topic II was taught to Group B by using the flipped classroom method and to Group A using the traditional didactic lecture. Both groups of students were assessed after a gap of one week with multiple-choice questions based on clinical vignettes for checking the HOCS. These questions were designed based on Blooming Biology Tool (BBT). The feedback collected responses regarding the learning experience, perceived value of the flipped classroom, the course materials, the teaching process, and the evaluation system. Results The students, who participated in the flipped classrooms, performed statistically better than those in the traditional lecture model (5.36 ± 1.69 vs. 4.94 ± 1.34) (p<0.05). The students strongly agreed that the flipped classroom method was an enjoyable way of learning: it enhanced their problem solving and analytical ability as well as developed their ability to work as team members and plan their own work. Students in both the flipped classrooms gave a similar perception indicated by the small effect size (r <0.3). Conclusion The pre-class time of the flipped classroom model helps students remember the facts and understand the concepts (both lower-order cognitive skills), and uses the valuable in-class time to master the application of the concepts and critically analyze them (application and analysis being higher-order cognitive skills). 10.7759/cureus.24249
    Effects of an Interaction and Cognitive Engagement-Based Blended Teaching on Obstetric and Gynecology Nursing Course. International journal of environmental research and public health An interaction and cognitive engagement-based blended teaching mode was applied to obstetrics and gynecology nursing course to examine the effects on nursing students' competency, self-directed learning level. A randomized controlled trail design was designed. The experimental group engaged with the blended teaching, and the control group was assigned a usual teaching. The level of competency, self-directed learning was compared between two groups. The total score and scores of each dimension of core competence and self-induced learning ability in intervention group were all higher than those in control group ( &lt; 0.05). 10.3390/ijerph19127472
    Comparison of performance of medical students between two teaching modalities "Flip the classroom" and traditional lectures: A single center educational interventional study. Pakistan journal of medical sciences OBJECTIVES:This study aims to compare the students' performance in Obstetrics and Gynecology by using two teaching modalities, i.e., Flip the classroom (FTC) compared to Traditional lectures (TL) among final year medical students and assessment of the students' satisfaction towards FTC as learning modality. METHODS:An educational interventional study was conducted on 136 females final year medical students at Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Saudi Arabia from September to December; 2017. Out of 40 core topics of Obstetrics and Gynecology, eight were chosen for FTC and eight for TL. The performance in each teaching modality was assessed by comparing the score of the students in multiple choice question (MCQ) and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the final examination. The final performance was compared between the FTC and TL selected topics. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). RESULTS:MCQ and OSCE grades of students (n=136) were significantly higher in FTC versus TL topics, i.e., mean ± standard deviation (13.4 ± 2.7 vs. 12.3 ± 2.4; p < 0.001) and (33.9 ± 4.3 vs. 30.4 ± 4.7; p < 0.001), respectively. Almost 60% of the students expressed their satisfaction with FTC modality. CONCLUSION:Scores were significantly high for Flip the classroom topics compared to Traditional lectures. 10.12669/pjms.36.5.2730