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    The Role of 2D and 3D Echo in Mitral Stenosis. Monteagudo Ruiz Juan Manuel,Zamorano Gómez José Luis Journal of cardiovascular development and disease Mitral stenosis is an important cause of heart valve disease globally. Echocardiography is the main imaging modality used to diagnose and assess the severity and hemodynamic consequences of mitral stenosis as well as valve morphology. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) is sufficient for the management of most patients. The focus of this review is the role of current two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) echocardiographic imaging for the evaluation of mitral stenosis. 10.3390/jcdd8120171
    Left atrial asynchrony and mechanical function in patients with mitral stenosis before and immediately after percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty: a real time three-dimensional echocardiography study. Deng Yan,Guo Sheng-lan,Su Hong-yue,Wang Qian,Tan Zhen,Wu Ji,Zhang Di Echocardiography (Mount Kisco, N.Y.) OBJECTIVE:This study evaluated the feasibility of assessing left atrium (LA) function and asynchrony in patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis (MS) before and immediately after percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty (PBMV) by real time three-dimensional echocardiography (RT3DE). METHODS:Thirty patients with rheumatic MS who underwent PBMV and 30 controls were enrolled. RT3DE was used to measure LA volume and function, the standard deviation of time to the minimal systolic volume divided into 16 segments, 12 segments, or 6 segments (Tmsv 16-SD, Tmsv 12-SD, Tmsv 6-SD), and the maximum differences (Tmsv 16-Dif, 12-Dif, 6-Dif) in RT3DE derived values in MS patients before and 2 days after PBMV were obtained and compared with those of normal controls. The associations between the LA asynchrony and heart volume, function, mitral valve area (MVA), maximum mitral valve gradient (MVGmax ), mean mitral valve gradient (MVGmean), and mean LA pressure (MLAP) were investigated. RESULTS:Left atrium asynchrony indexes were significantly larger, and LA function parameters were significantly lower in the MS group than in the controls (P < 0.05 for all). Of all the LA asynchrony indexes, LA Tmsv16-SD was most significantly correlated with the LA volume and function parameters, MVGmax , MVGmean , and MLAP (P < 0.05 for all). LA asynchrony indexes and LA volume significantly deceased, and LA function significantly increased post-PBMV (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION:Real time three-dimensional echocardiography is a reliable and reproducible method to quantify LA function and asynchrony. RT3DE revealed a significant, early improvement in LA function and asynchrony in MS patients after PBMV. 10.1111/echo.12645
    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging for assessment of mitral stenosis before and after percutaneous balloon valvuloplasty in comparison to two- and three-dimensional echocardiography. Abdelaziz Hanaa Mm,Tawfik Ahmed M,Abd-Elsamad Ayman A,Sakr Sherif A,Algamal Abdulsalam M Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987) BACKGROUND:The experience with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in mitral stenosis (MS) is limited in contrast to mitral regurgitation. PURPOSE:To compare CMR versus 2D and 3D transthoracic (TTE) and 3D transesophgeal (TEE) echocardiography in assessment of rheumatic MS before and after percutaneous balloon mitral valvuloplasty (PBMV). MATERIAL AND METHODS:Twenty consecutive symptomatic patients with MS were evaluated prospectively and independently by CMR, TTE, and TEE pre-PBMV, and by CMR and TTE post-PBMV. Mitral valve area (MVA) was assessed by CMR planimetry, TTE and TEE planimetry, and pressure half time (PHT). Further assessment included trans-mitral velocity, mitral regurgitation (MR), and left atrial (LA) volume. RESULTS:PBMV was successful in 18 patients and failed in two patients (one with MVA <1.5 cm, one developed severe MR). Pre-PBMV and MVA by CMR, 2D TTE, biplane, 3D TTE, 3D TEE, and PHT were 1.16, 1.16, 1.10, 1.02, 1.05, and 0.99 cm, respectively. Post-PBMV, a significant increase in MVA was observed (2.15, 2.06, 2.07, 2.04, and 2.03 cm, respectively). High agreement was observed between CMR and echocardiography before and after PBMV, except for PHT method. CMR significantly underestimated trans-mitral velocity and gradients compared to echocardiography (P<0.001). Before PBMV, mild MR was observed in 11, 12, and 19 patients by 2D TTE, 3D TTE, and CMR. After PBMV, MR was observed in all patients (19 mild, one severe) by all modalities. Echocardiography significantly underestimated LA volume compared to CMR (P<0.001). LA volume decreased significantly after PBMV (P<0.001). CONCLUSION:CMR provides comprehensive assessment of several parameters in MS patients before and after intervention. Agreement with echocardiography is acceptable. 10.1177/0284185119897368