An analysis of the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire using the Rasch measurement model.
Kyriakides Leonidas,Kaloyirou Chrystalla,Lindsay Geoff
The British journal of educational psychology
BACKGROUND:Bullying is a problem in schools in many countries. There would be a benefit in the availability of a psychometrically sound instrument for its measurement, for use by teachers and researchers. The Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire has been used in a number of studies but comprehensive evidence on its validity is not available. AIMS:To examine the conceptual design, construct validity and reliability of the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire (OBVQ) and to provide further evidence on the prevalence of different forms of bullying behaviour. SAMPLE:All 335 pupils (160 [47.8%] girls; 175 [52.2%]) boys, mean age 11.9 years [range 11.2-12.8 years]), in 21 classes of a stratified sample of 7 Greek Cypriot primary schools. METHOD:The OBVQ was administered to the sample. Separate scales were created comprising (a) the items of the questionnaire concerning the extent to which pupils are being victimized; and (b) those concerning the extent to which pupils express bullying behaviour. Using the Rasch model, both scales were analysed for reliability, fit to the model, meaning, and validity. Both scales were also analysed separately for each of two sample groups (i.e. boys and girls) to test their invariance. RESULTS:Analysis of the data revealed that the instrument has satisfactory psychometric properties; namely, construct validity and reliability. The conceptual design of the instrument was also confirmed. The analysis leads also to suggestions for improving the targeting of items against student measures. Support was also provided for the relative prevalence of verbal, indirect and physical bullying. As in other countries, Cypriot boys used and experienced more bullying than girls, and boys used more physical and less indirect forms of bullying than girls. CONCLUSIONS:The OBVQ is a psychometrically sound instrument that measures two separate aspects of bullying, and whose use is supported for international studies of bullying in different countries. However, improvements to the questionnaire were also identified to provide increased usefulness to teachers tackling this significant problem facing schools in many countries.
A comparison of the Gatehouse Bullying Scale and the peer relations questionnaire for students in secondary school.
Bond Lyndal,Wolfe Sarah,Tollit Michelle,Butler Helen,Patton George
The Journal of school health
BACKGROUND:Bullying occurs in all schools. Measuring bullying in schools is complicated because both definitions of bullying and methods for measuring bullying vary. This study compared a brief 12-item Gatehouse Bullying Scale (GBS) with items drawn from the Peer Relations Questionnaire (PRQ), a well-established bullying questionnaire to measure the concurrent validity of the GBS. METHODS:Year 8 secondary school students (14 years of age) in metropolitan and regional Victoria, Australia, completed questionnaires assessing being teased, being deliberately left out, had rumors spread about oneself, and/or being physically threatened or hurt. RESULTS:The prevalence of bullying using GBS and PRQ was 57% and 61%, respectively. Percent agreement between the 2 measures was high. Agreement adjusted for chance was moderate (kappa 0.5). The GBS had good to moderate test-retest reliability (rho 0.65). CONCLUSIONS:The GBS is a short, reliable tool measuring the occurrence of bullying in schools. As well as a global estimate of bullying, the GBS provides estimates of 2 covert and 2 overt types of bullying which can be useful for schools to better plan interventions dealing with school bullying.
Digital mental health literacy -program for the first-year medical students' wellbeing: a one group quasi-experimental study.
BMC medical education
BACKGROUND:Medical students are prone to mental disorders, such as depression and anxiety, and their psychological burden is mainly related to their highly demanding studies. Interventions are needed to improve medical students' mental health literacy (MHL) and wellbeing. This study assessed the digital Transitions, a MHL program for medical students that covered blended life skills and mindfulness activities. METHODOLOGY:This was a one group, quasi-experimental pretest-posttest study. The study population was 374 first-year students who started attending the medical faculty at the University of Turku, Finland, in 2018-2019. Transitions was provided as an elective course and 220 students chose to attend and 182 agreed to participate in our research. Transitions included two 60-minute lectures, four weeks apart, with online self-learning material in between. The content focused on life and academic skills, stress management, positive mental health, mental health problems and disorders. It included mindfulness audiotapes. Mental health knowledge, stigma and help-seeking questionnaires were used to measure MHL. The Perceived Stress Scale and General Health Questionnaire measured the students' stress and health, respectively. A single group design, with repeated measurements of analysis of variance, was used to analyze the differences in the mean outcome scores for the 158 students who completed all three stages: the pre-test (before the first lecture), the post-test (after the second lecture) and the two-month follow-up evaluation. RESULTS:The students' mean scores for mental health knowledge improved (-1.6, 95% Cl -1.9 to -1.3, P<.001) and their emotional symptoms were alleviated immediately after the program (0.5, 95% Cl 0.0 to 1.1, P=.040). The changes were maintained at the two-month follow up (-1.7, 95% Cl -2.0 to -1.4, P<.001 and 1.0, 95% Cl 0.2 to 1.8, P=.019, respectively). The students' stress levels reduced (P=.022) and their attitudes towards help-seeking improved after the program (P<.001), but these changes were not maintained at the two-month follow up. The stigma of mental illness did not change during the study (P=.13). CONCLUSIONS:The digital Transitions program was easily integrated into the university curriculum and it improved the students' mental health literacy and wellbeing. The program may respond to the increasing global need for universal digital services, especially during the lockdowns due to the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION:The trial was registered at the ISRCTN registry (26 May 2021), registration number 10.1186/ ISRCTN10565335 ).