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    Assessment of implementation of a standardized parenteral formulation for early nutritional support of very preterm infants. Lenclen Richard,Crauste-Manciet Sylvie,Narcy Philippe,Boukhouna Saida,Geffray Amélie,Guerrault Marie-Noëlle,Bordet François,Brossard Denis European journal of pediatrics INTRODUCTION:Parenteral nutrition (PN) plays an important role in the nutritional support of very preterm newborns. It has been suggested that a high proportion of PN orders could be standardized. In 2002, we implemented in our unit the preparation of three standardized formulations for PN adapted to the nutritional requirements of premature infants<32 weeks. Following this change of practice, a retrospective observational study was conducted to evaluate the relevance of the implemented standardized PN regime. Twenty premature inborn infants<32 weeks gestation who had received standardized (STD) PN in 2003 were matched for 20 infants who had received individualized (IND) PN in 2001. Adequacy of nutrition was assessed by comparing daily intravenous nutrient intake and biochemical parameters during the first week. Amino-acid intakes on day 3 were higher in the STD group (1.5+/-0.2 g/kg/d vs. 0.9+/-0.5, p<0.001), and the calcium phosphate intakes were better balanced. The cumulated intake of amino acids for the first week was greater in the STD group (+20% ; p=0.0003). Biochemical parameters were similar in both groups. Insulin infusions were less frequent in the STD group (p<0.06). CONCLUSION:Standardized parenteral formulations provided higher early intakes of amino acid and glucose, a better calcium phosphate ratio, and a greater amount of amino-acid intakes during the first week while maintaining the same biochemical parameters. This strategy forms part of an approach concerning quality control and the respect of good professional practice for the preparation of parenteral nutrition solutions. 10.1007/s00431-006-0124-1
    Effect of enteral zinc supplementation on growth and neurodevelopment of preterm infants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of perinatology : official journal of the California Perinatal Association OBJECTIVE:To evaluate effect of enteral zinc supplementation on growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes of preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN:A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) examining growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes after zinc supplementation in preterm infants. RESULTS:Of eight RCTs involving 742 infants included, seven reported growth anthropometrics at 3-6 months corrected age (CA) and two reported neurodevelopmental outcomes at 6-12 months CA. Zinc supplementation was associated with increased weight z-score (weighted mean difference (WMD) = 0.50; 95% CI 0.23-0.76, heterogeneity I = 89.1%; P < 0.01), length z-score (WMD = 1.12; 95% CI 0.63-1.61, heterogeneity I = 96.0%; P < 0.01) and motor developmental score (WMD = 9.54; 95% CI 6.6-12.4 heterogeneity I = 0%; P = 0.52). There was no effect on head circumference and total developmental score. Evidence is "moderate" certainty for weight and length and "very low" certainty for neurodevelopment. CONCLUSION:Zinc supplementation may enhance weight gain and linear growth in preterm infants. There is a lack of data about relationship between zinc supplementation and neurodevelopment. 10.1038/s41372-021-01094-7
    Enteral Iron Supplementation in Preterm or Low Birth Weight Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Pediatrics BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Iron is needed for growth and development of infants globally, but preterm and low birth weight (LBW) infants are at risk for severe iron deficiencies. To assess the effect of enteral iron supplementation on mortality, morbidity, growth, and neurodevelopment outcomes in preterm or LBW infants fed human milk. Secondary objectives were to assess the effect on biomarkers and dose and timing. METHODS:Data sources include PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases to March 16, 2021. Study Selection includes controlled or quasi experimental study designs. Two reviewers independently extracted data. RESULTS:Eight trials (eleven reports; 1093 participants, 7 countries) were included. No trials reported mortality. At latest follow-up, there was little effect on infection (very low certainty evidence, 4 studies, 401 participants, relative risk [RR] 0.98, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.56 to 1.73, I2 = 0.00%) and necrotising enterocolitis (3 studies, 375 participants, RR 1.47, 95% CI 0.68 to 3.20, I2 = 0.00%). There was an increase in linear growth (length) (moderate certainty evidence, 3 studies, 384 participants, mean difference 0.69 cm, 95% CI 0.01 to 1.37, I2 = 0%) but little effect on weight, head circumference, or cognitive development. There was an improvement in anemia (moderate certainty evidence, 2 studies, 381 participants, RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.62, I2 = 0.00%) but no effect on serum ferritin. Limitations include heterogeneity in the included studies. CONCLUSIONS:There are important benefits for human milk-fed preterm and LBW infants from enteral iron supplementation. However, more randomized control trials are required to improve the certainty of evidence. 10.1542/peds.2022-057092I
    Enteral Zinc Supplementation in Preterm or Low Birth Weight Infants: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Pediatrics BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Evidence on the effect of zinc supplementation on health outcomes in preterm or low birth weight (LBW) infants is unclear. We estimated the effect of enteral zinc versus no zinc supplementation in human milk fed preterm or LBW infants on mortality, growth, morbidities, and neurodevelopment. METHODS:Data sources include PubMed, Cochrane Central and Embase databases through March 24, 2021. Study selection was randomized or quazi-experimental trials. Two reviewers independently screened, extracted data, and assessed quality. We reported pooled relative risks (RR) for categorical outcomes, and mean differences (MD) for continuous outcomes. RESULTS:Fourteen trials with 9940 preterm or LBW infants were included. Moderate to low certainty evidence showed that enteral zinc supplementation had little or no effect on mortality (risk ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.46 to 1.16), but increased weight (MD 378.57, 95% CI 275.26 to 481.88), length (MD 2.92, 95% CI 1.53 to 4.31), head growth (MD 0.56, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.90), and decreased diarrhea (RR 0.81; 95% CI 0.68 to 0.97). There was no effect on acute respiratory infections, bacterial sepsis, and psychomotor development scores. The effect of zinc supplementation on mental development scores is inconclusive. There was no evidence of serious adverse events. Eight trials had some concerns or high risk of bias, small-sized studies, and high heterogeneity between trials led to moderate to very low certainty of evidence. CONCLUSIONS:Zinc supplementation in preterm or LBW infants have benefits on growth and diarrhea prevention. Further research is needed to generate better quality evidence. 10.1542/peds.2022-057092J
    Iron Supplementation Is Associated with Improvement of Motor Development, Hemoglobin Level, and Weight in Preterm Infants during the First Year of Life in China. Nutrients Iron supplementation is recommended for preterm infants due to impaired iron endowment. However, the health outcomes of this recommendation remain controversial. Thus, this study aimed to determine the association of iron supplementation with neurobehavioral development, hemoglobin (Hb), and anthropometric characteristics in preterm infants. A retrospective cohort design was applied to collect data from 1568 preterm infants at 0-3 months of corrected age (mo CA) from a hospital in South China. Infants were categorized into a 3-month iron supplementation group (IG, = 697) or a control group (CG, = 871) according to medical records, and then followed through to 12 mo CA. Data on neurobehavioral development, anthropometry, Hb level, history of diseases, and nutrition were collected at 3, 6, and 12 mo CA. The results showed that, compared with the CG, iron supplementation was positively related to improved gross motor skills and weight at 6 mo CA ( = 1.894, = 5.322) and 12 mo CA ( = 4.019, = 6.830) and fine motor skills at 12 mo CA ( = 1.980), after adjustment for confounding factors including illness, nutritional supplements, and diet. Iron supplementation was also related to elevated Hb levels and its increase at 3 mo CA ( = 2.196, = 3.920) and 6 mo CA ( = 3.011, = 7.259). In conclusion, iron supplementation for 3 months in Chinese preterm infants is positively associated with improved motor development, elevated Hb levels, and higher body weight during the first year of life. 10.3390/nu14132624
    Selenium deficiency and the effects of supplementation on preterm infants. Freitas Renata Germano B O N,Nogueira Roberto Jose N,Antonio Maria Angela R G M,Barros-Filho Antonio de Azevedo,Hessel Gabriel Revista paulista de pediatria : orgao oficial da Sociedade de Pediatria de Sao Paulo OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to review the literature about blood concentrations of selenium associated with gestational age, feeding, supplementation and related clinical features in preterm infants. DATA SOURCES:Systematic review in the following databases: MEDLINE, PubMed, Google academics, SciELO. org, ScienceDirect (Elsevier) and CINAHL-Plus with Full Text (EBSCO). Articles published up to January 2013 with the keywords "selenium deficiency", "selenium supplementation", "neonates", "infants", "newborn" and "preterm infants" were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS:The studies reported that low blood selenium levels are associated with increased risk of respiratory diseases. Preterm infants, especially with low birth weight, presented lower selenium levels. Selenium deficiency has also been associated with the use of oral infant formula, enteral and parenteral nutrition (with or without selenium addition). The optimal dose and length of selenium supplementation is not well-established, since they are based only on age group and selenium ingestion by breastfed children. Furthermore, the clinical status of the infant affected by conditions that may increase oxidative stress, and consequently, selenium requirements is not taken into account. CONCLUSIONS:Prematurity and low birth weight can contribute to low blood selenium in premature infants. Selenium supplementation seems to minimize or prevent clinical complications caused by prematurity. 10.1590/s0103-05822014000100019
    Iron Balance and Iron Nutritional Status in Preterm Infants During the First Four Months of Life. Cooke Richard J,Griffin Ian Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition OBJECTIVES:To determine whether iron absorption occurs in a dose-dependent fashion and/or is a function of iron nutritional status (INS) in preterm infants during the first 4 months of life. METHODS:Preterm very-low-birth-weight infants (VLBWI) were fed an iron-fortified (0.7 mg/dL) infant formula. Three 48 h balance studies were performed on each infant. INS was determined by serially measuring hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), hematocrit, ferritin, transferrin and transferrin saturation levels. The data were analyzed using ANOVA and stepwise regression. RESULTS:Fifty-four balance studies were performed in 18 infants (birth weight, 1347 ± 201 g; gestation, 30 ± 1.3 weeks; mean ± standard deviation) at 33 ± 1.3, 34 ± 1.2, and 48 ± 0.5 weeks corrected age and weights of 1768 ± 260, 2298 ± 314, 5127 ± 939 g. No relationship was detected between iron intake and absorption. Intake decreased during the study (1.17 ± .08, 1.24 ± 0.11 > 1.1 ± 0.15 mg · kg-1 · day-1) but net (0.32 ± 0.26, 0.36 ± 31 < 0.49 ± .23 mg · kg-1 · day-1) and % (27 ± 22, 29 ± 23 < 46 ± 21) absorption increased (P < 0.01). Serum ferritin, transferrin saturation and MCV fell, while hematocrit and hemoglobin remained stable. No relationship was noted between serum ferritin and iron absorption but transferrin saturation (54%), MCV (7%), and hematocrit (6%) accounted for 67% of the variation in iron absorption (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:At intakes of 0.8-1.4  mg · kg-1 · day-1, iron absorption is not dose-dependent nor affected by iron stores. Only when iron delivery to the tissues decreases does absorption increase to meet needs in these otherwise normal and rapidly growing infants. 10.1097/MPG.0000000000003183
    Intestinal Microbiome in Preterm Infants Influenced by Enteral Iron Dosing. Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition OBJECTIVES:The aim of the study was to compare the intestinal microbiome in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants who received different enteral iron supplementation (EIS) doses. STUDY DESIGN:Longitudinal stool collection in 80 VLBW infants were conducted up to 2 months postnatally in a prospective study. The 16S rRNA regions V4 was used to calculate microbiome compositions and the Piphillin software was used for bacterial functional prediction. Linear mixed effect models and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were performed to examine the relationships between initial EIS dosage and stool microbiome and bacterial functional potential. RESULTS:There were 105 samples collected before and 237 collected after EIS started from infants with birth gestational age and weight of 28.1 ± 2.4 weeks and 1103 ± 210 g, respectively. The average postnatal age at start of EIS was 17.9 ± 6.9 days and the average initial EIS dose was 4.8 ± 1.1 mg · kg-1 · day-1. Infants who were started on ≥6 mg · kg-1 · day-1 had higher abundances of Proteus and Bifidobacterium and a lower alpha diversity than those started on lower doses (P < 0.05). Infants given higher EIS doses had higher bacterial predicted functional potentials for ferroptosis and epithelial invasion after 2 weeks post EIS. CONCLUSIONS:Higher EIS dosage is linked to higher abundances of Proteus and Bifidobacterium, and a less diverse microbiome and higher predicted potential of bacterial epithelial invasion. These observational findings should be further studied in a randomized study to elucidate the optimal dosage of EIS in VLBW infants. 10.1097/MPG.0000000000003033
    Micronutrient Intakes and Health Outcomes in Preterm Infants. Nestle Nutrition Institute workshop series Deficiency or excess of specific micronutrients is common in preterm infants and can have many effects on health outcomes, ranging from life-threatening electrolyte disturbances to long-term effects on growth, brain development, bone health, and the risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Iron supplementation of low birth weight infants reduces the risk of behavioral problems. However, due to the risk of adverse effects, iron supplementation of very preterm infants in the NICU should be individualized, considering birth weight, postnatal age, diet, and serum ferritin concentrations. Sodium intakes should be minimized during the first 3 days of life in very preterm infants to avoid hypernatremia. However, after 4 days of age, sodium supplements can reduce hyponatremia and improve growth. Adequate parenteral and enteral calcium and phosphorus intakes are crucial for the prevention of osteopenia of prematurity. Screening of serum phosphate concentrations is useful. Deficiencies of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) are frequently observed in extremely preterm infants. A recent Swedish study suggests that combined DHA and AA supplementation may reduce the risk of severe ROP. When prescribing enteral and parenteral nutrition for preterm infants, it is important to consider micronutrients. Many preterm infants will need different micronutrient supplements. 10.1159/000519393
    Early and late Iron supplementation for low birth weight infants: a meta-analysis. Jin Hong-Xing,Wang Rong-Shan,Chen Shu-Jun,Wang Ai-Ping,Liu Xi-Yong Italian journal of pediatrics BACKGROUND:Iron deficiency in infancy is associated with a range of clinical and developmentally important issues. Currently, it is unclear what is the optimal timing to administer prophylactic enteral iron supplementation in preterm and very low birth weight infants. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate early compared with late iron supplementation in low birth weight infants. METHODS:PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were searched up to May 10, 2014 for studies that compared the benefit of early and late iron supplementation in infants of low birth weight. Sensitivity analysis was carried out using the leave one-out approach and the quality of the included data was assessed. RESULTS:The data base search and detailed review identified four studies that were included in the meta-analysis. The number of included patients was 246 (n=121 for early supplementation and n=125 for late supplementation) and the majority were premature infants. Across studies, early supplementation ranged from as early as enteral feeding was tolerated to 3 weeks, and late supplementation ranged from 4 weeks to about 60 days. Early treatment was associated with significantly smaller decreases in serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels (P<0.001). In addition, the rate of blood transfusions was lower with early compared with late iron supplementation (P=0.022). There was no difference between early and late supplementation in the number of patients with nectorizing enteroclitis (>bell stage 2) (P=0.646). Sensitivity analysis indicated no one study overly influenced the findings and that the data was reliable. CONCLUSION:In conclusion, early iron supplementation resulted in less a decrease in serum ferritin and hemoglobin levels in infants with low birth rate. However, caution should be used when treating infants with iron so as not to result in iron overload and possibly negative long-term effects on neurodevelopment. 10.1186/s13052-015-0121-y
    Trace elements in nutrition for premature infants. Zlotkin S H,Atkinson S,Lockitch G Clinics in perinatology Ten trace elements that are nutritionally essential include: zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, manganese, molybdenum, cobalt, fluoride, iodine, and iron. This article briefly reviews the biochemistry of these trace elements, describes clinical deficiency states, and provides a rationale for recommended enteral and parenteral intakes for preterm infants.
    Current practice of iron prophylaxis in preterm and low birth weight neonates: A survey among Italian Neonatal Units. Parodi Emilia,Ferrero Anna,Perrone Barbara,Saracco Paola,Giraudo Maria Teresa,Regoli Daniela Pediatrics and neonatology BACKGROUND:Preterm babies are at high risk of iron deficiency. METHODS:We investigated current practices regarding iron prophylaxis in preterm and low birth weight newborns among Local Neonatal Units (LNUs, n = 74) and Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs, n = 20) of three Italian Regions (Piemonte, Marche and Lazio). RESULTS:Birth weight is considered an indicative parameter in only 64% of LNUs and 71% of NICUs, with a significant difference between LNUs in the three regions (86%, 20% and 62%, respectively; p < 0.001). Iron is recommended to infants with a birth weight between 2000 and 2500 g in only 25% of LNUs and 21% of NICUs, and to late-preterm (gestational age between 34 and 37 weeks) in a minority of Units (26% of LNUs, 7% of NICUs). CONCLUSIONS:Our pilot survey documents a great variability and the urgent need to standardize practices according to literature recommendations. 10.1016/j.pedneo.2018.01.013
    The predictive ability of the Lacey Assessment of Preterm Infants (LAPI), Cranial Ultrasound (cUS) and General Movements Assessment (GMA) for Cerebral Palsy (CP): A prospective, clinical, single center observational study. Early human development BACKGROUND AND AIM:The LAPI, cUS and GMA are assessments used clinically in the UK to identify preterm infants at high risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities such as cerebral palsy. This study investigated the ability of these assessments to predict cerebral palsy at 2 years corrected gestational age. METHODS:Design: Prospective longitudinal cohort study including infants born <30 weeks' gestation from a single tertiary neonatal intensive care unit. The LAPI and cUS were undertaken as part of routine care before term equivalent age and the GMA was undertaken at 11-18 weeks corrected gestational age. RESULTS:There were 123 eligible infants and 95 infants (77.2%) were included. Thirteen infants (13.7%) had a diagnosis of CP at 2 years. There was no significant difference in gestational age, gender, or birth weight between the groups with and without a diagnosis of CP. The highest accuracy of prediction of CP was achieved by an aberrant, absent fidgety general movements classification with a sensitivity of 92.3% and specificity of 98.9%. Combining the GMA to include the cUS or LAPI did not increase the predictive accuracy. CONCLUSION:The GMA when undertaken in clinical practice had high accuracy for predicting CP at 2 years corrected age in infants born <30 weeks gestation; LAPI and cUS did not improve this accuracy. 10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2022.105589
    Aluminum Contamination in Parenteral Nutrition Admixtures for Low-Birth-Weight Preterm Infants in Mexico. Lima-Rogel Victoria,Romano-Moreno Silvia,de Jesús López-López Esperanza,de Jesús Escalante-Padrón Francisco,Hurtado-Torres Gilberto Fabian JPEN. Journal of parenteral and enteral nutrition BACKGROUND:Aluminum contamination from intravenous solutions still represents an unsolved clinical and biochemical problem. Increased aluminum intake constitutes a risk factor for the development to metabolic bone disease, anemia, cholestasis, and neurocognitive alterations. Low-birth-weight preterm infants (LBWPIs) are one of the most exposed populations for aluminum toxicity. METHODS:To determine the presence of aluminum in components employed in the preparation of parenteral nutrition (PN) admixtures in Mexico and compare with the maximal aluminum recommended intake from the Food and Drug Administration. RESULTS:Cysteine, trace elements, levocarnitine, phosphate, and calcium salts tested positive for aluminum contamination. All components analyzed were contained in glass vials. Total aluminum intake for 2 sample PN admixtures were calculated in basis to cover nutrition requirements of 2 hypothetical LBWPIs. Aluminum contents, stratified in micrograms per kilogram of weight, exceeded maximal aluminum recommendations, particularly for the very LBWPIs. Substituting sodium phosphate for potassium phosphate salts reduced aluminum intake by 52.7%. Calcium gluconate was the leading aluminum contamination source and confers the greatest risk for aluminum overdose, even with the salt substitution of potassium phosphate by sodium phosphate salts. Adding cysteine and trace elements might increase aluminum content in PN admixtures. CONCLUSION:Cysteine, trace elements, phosphate, and gluconate salts are the main sources of aluminum in PN prepared in Mexico. Substituting sodium phosphate for potassium phosphate salts reduces aluminum intake but does not resolve aluminum contamination risk. Mineral salts contained in plastic vials should be explored as an additional measure to reduce aluminum contamination. 10.1177/0148607114550001
    Adequacy of Parenteral Nutrition in Preterm Infants According to Current Recommendations: A Study in A Spanish Hospital. Sánchez-García Ana María,Zaragoza-Martí Ana,Murcia-López Ana Cristina,Navarro-Ruiz Andrés,Noreña-Peña Ana International journal of environmental research and public health BACKGROUND:In preterm infants, it is important to ensure adequate nutritional intake to accomplish foetal growth requirements. This study evaluated clinical practice regarding the prescription of parenteral nutrition in preterm infants in the neonatology unit of a tertiary hospital. METHODS:It was a retrospective observational study of a sample of preterm infants (n = 155) born between January 2015 and December 2017 who were prescribed parenteral nutrition. Compliance with the hospital's protocol and with the guidelines of the scientific societies American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN), European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) and Spanish Society of Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (SENPE) was evaluated. The differences in macronutrient intake and total duration of parenteral nutrition were analysed according to gestational age and birth weight. RESULTS:The established protocol was followed in a high percentage (95.5%-100%) except with respect to the initiation of supplying established trace elements (64.9%). Compliance with the recommendations set forth in the guidelines was between 82.1% and 100%, with the exception of the initial carbohydrate intake recommended by ASPEN and ESPEN, for which compliance was 8.3%. Lower gestational age and birth weight were correlated with longer duration of parenteral nutrition ( < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:A lower gestational age and birth weight are related to a longer duration of parenteral nutrition. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of developing and evaluating protocols in clinical practice. 10.3390/ijerph17062131
    First-year growth of 834 preterm infants in a Chinese population: a single-center study. Deng Ying,Yang Fan,Mu Dezhi BMC pediatrics BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to follow the growth and hematological indicators of preterm infants during their first year. METHODS:Neonates below 37 gestational weeks had routine follow-ups up through 1 year from January 2012 to December 2015 at West China 2nd University Hospital, Sichuan University. Weight, length and head circumference (HC) were measured monthly during the first 6 months, followed by monitoring every second month until 12 months. The catch-up growth defined as a gain of Z-score > 0.67 according to previous study. All preterm infants were prescribed iron prophylaxis based on national guideline. The hemoglobin concentration was examined at 6 and 12 months. RESULTS:Altogether, 132 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW), 504 low-birth-weight (LBW) and 198 normal-birth-weight (NBW) infants were followed. The rates of catch-up growth for weight, length and HC 12 months of corrected age (CA) were 22.6, 29.1 and 14.6%, respectively. SGA and VLBW infants showed higher catch-up growth rates. The overall prevalence of anemia was 6.8% at 6 months and 7.8% at 12 months. The Z-scores for weight-for-length, length and HC were lower in the VLBW and SGA preterm infant groups than in the other preterm groups throughout the first year of life. The incidences of stunting, microcephaly and wasting changed from 5, 1.3 and 3.7% to 2, 1.1, 0.9 and 2.4%, respectively, during the first year. However, the incidences of wasting and stunting were higher for the VLBW infants than for the LBW and NBW infants at 12 months (9.3% vs. 1.4%, p < 0.01; 9.3% vs. 1%, p < 0.01,respectively; 4.7% vs. 0.8%, p < 0.01, 4.7% vs. 0%, p < 0.01,respectively). Similar results were observed between SGA and AGA infants (8.7% vs. 1.5%, p < 0.01; 5.8% vs. 0.4%, p < 0.01). Logistic regression revealed SGA and VLBW as risk factors for poor growth (WLZ < -2SD) at 12 months (OR = 5.5, 95% CI: 2.1-14.8, p < 0.01: OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 1.8-12.8, p < 0.01, respectively). CONCLUSION:The VLBW and SGA preterm infants showed significant catch-up growth during their first year of life. However, SGA and VLBW were risk factors for poor growth during the preterm infants' first year of life. Prophylactic iron supplementation in preterm infants appears to reduce the prevalence of anemia. 10.1186/s12887-019-1752-8
    Iron Deficiency and Iron Homeostasis in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants: A Systematic Review. Moreno-Fernandez Jorge,Ochoa Julio J,Latunde-Dada Gladys O,Diaz-Castro Javier Nutrients Iron is an essential micronutrient that is involved in many functions in humans, as it plays a critical role in the growth and development of the central nervous system, among others. Premature and low birth weight infants have higher iron requirements due to increased postnatal growth compared to that of term infants and are, therefore, susceptible to a higher risk of developing iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia. Notwithstanding, excess iron could affect organ development during the postnatal period, particularly in premature infants that have an immature and undeveloped antioxidant system. It is important, therefore, to perform a review and analyze the effects of iron status on the growth of premature infants. This is a transversal descriptive study of retrieved reports in the scientific literature by a systematic technique. PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines were adapted for the review strategy. The inclusion criteria for the studies were made using the PICO (population, intervention, comparison, outcome) model. Consequently, the systematic reviews that included studies published between 2008-2018 were evaluated based on the impact of iron status on parameters of growth and development in preterm infants. 10.3390/nu11051090
    ESPGHAN/ESPEN/ESPR/CSPEN guidelines on pediatric parenteral nutrition: Iron and trace minerals. Domellöf M,Szitanyi P,Simchowitz V,Franz A,Mimouni F, Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) 10.1016/j.clnu.2018.06.949
    Review of Trace Mineral Requirements for Preterm Infants: What Are the Current Recommendations for Clinical Practice? Vanek Vincent W Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 10.1177/0884533615598965
    Response to "Review of Trace Mineral Requirements for Preterm Infants: What Are the Current Recommendations for Clinical Practice?". Finch Carolyn Weiglein Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition 10.1177/0884533615598966
    Nutritional care of premature infants: microminerals. Domellöf Magnus World review of nutrition and dietetics Microminerals, including iron, zinc, copper, selenium, manganese, iodine, chromium and molybdenum, are essential for a remarkable array of critical functions and need to be supplied in adequate amounts to preterm infants. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants carry a very high risk of developing iron deficiency which can adversely affect neurodevelopment. However, a too high iron supply in iron-replete VLBW infants may induce adverse effects such as increased infection risks and impaired growth. Iron needs are influenced by birth weight, growth rates, blood losses (phlebotomy) and blood transfusions. An enteral iron intake of 2 mg/kg/day for infants with a birth weight of 1,500-2,500 g and 2-3 mg/kg/day for VLBW infants is recommended. Higher doses up to 6 mg/kg/day are needed in infants receiving erythropoietin treatment. Regular monitoring of serum ferritin during the hospital stay is advisable. Routine provision of iron with parenteral nutrition for VLBW infants is not recommended. Less certainty exists for the advisable intakes of other microminerals. It appears prudent to provide enterally fed VLBW infants with daily amounts per kilogram body weight of 1.4-2.5 mg zinc, 100-230 μg copper, 5-10 μg selenium, 1-15 μg manganese, 10-55 μg iodine, 0.03-2.25 μg chromium, and 0.3-5 μg molybdenum. Future scientific findings may justify deviations from these suggested ranges. 10.1159/000358462
    Review of trace mineral requirements for preterm infants: what are the current recommendations for clinical practice? Finch Carolyn Weiglein Nutrition in clinical practice : official publication of the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition Inadequate nutrient stores at birth are an inevitable consequence of being born prematurely. Preterm infants also have high nutrient requirements, which increase with earlier gestational ages. As a result, early nutrition intervention is required to prevent further deficits that, if not corrected, can affect growth and long-term outcomes. Preterm infants often require several weeks of parenteral nutrition (PN) support, which includes trace mineral supplementation. Trace minerals are considered essential nutrients, unable to be synthesized in the human body. Deficiencies of trace minerals have been reported, yet evidence-based guidelines for assessment and supplementation have not been clearly defined. Food and Drug Administration-approved parenteral trace mineral intake guidelines are more than 30 years old. In an effort to more clearly define trace mineral supplementation and monitoring guidelines for preterm infants, a review of literature was performed with the purpose to (1) summarize trace mineral roles in preterm infants, (2) describe clinical signs of deficiency and toxicity, and (3) present intake recommendations and considerations for preterm infants based on current available literature. Review of literature was completed using PubMed and Cochrane databases to find relevant studies specific to trace mineral requirements for preterm infants, trace mineral supplementation of PN, human milk fortifiers, and preterm infant formulas. Review of literature supports that trace mineral depletion can lead to clinical compromise in preterm infants; therefore, suggesting that every effort be made to ensure adequate provision of trace minerals is given to preterm infants. Practical considerations for the clinical nutrition management of preterm infants were also identified in this review. 10.1177/0884533614563353