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    Intestinal virome in patients with alcohol use disorder and after abstinence. Hepatology communications Alcohol use is a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, and changes in the microbiome associated with alcohol use contribute to patients' risk for liver disease progression. Less is known about the effects of alcohol use on the intestinal viral microbiome (virome) and interactions between bacteriophages and their target bacteria. We studied changes in the intestinal virome of 62 clinically well-characterized patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) during active alcohol use and after 2 weeks of alcohol abstinence, by extracting virus-like particles and performing metagenomic sequencing. We observed decreased abundance of Propionibacterium, Lactobacillus, and Leuconostoc phages in patients with active AUD when compared with controls, whereas after 2 weeks of alcohol abstinence, patients with AUD demonstrated an increase in the abundance of Propionibacterium, Lactobacillus, and Leuconostoc phages. The intestinal virome signature was also significantly different in patients with AUD with progressive liver disease, with increased abundance of phages targeting Enterobacteria and Lactococcus species phages compared with patients with AUD with nonprogressive liver disease. By performing moderation analyses, we found that progressive liver disease is associated with changes in interactions between some bacteriophages and their respective target bacteria. In summary, active alcohol use and alcohol-associated progressive liver disease are associated with changes in the fecal virome, some of which are partially reversible after a short period of abstinence. Progression of alcohol-associated liver disease is associated with changes in bacteriophage-bacteria interactions. 10.1002/hep4.1947
    Changes in the composition of the human intestinal microbiome in alcohol use disorder: a systematic review. Litwinowicz Kamil,Choroszy Marcin,Waszczuk Ewa The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse : A growing body of evidence highlights the role of the intestine in the development of various alcohol use disorder (AUD) complications. The intestinal microbiome has been proposed as an essential factor in mediating the development of AUD complications such as alcoholic liver disease.: To provide a comprehensive description of alcohol-induced intestinal microbiome alterations.: We conducted a systematic review of studies investigating the effect of alcohol on the intestinal microbiome using the PRISMA checklist. We searched the Medline database on the PubMed platform for studies determining the effect of alcohol on microbiota in individuals with AUD. The manual search included references of retrieved articles. Only human studies examining the intestinal bacterial microbiome using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing were included. Data comparing relative abundances of bacteria comprising intestinal microbiota was extracted.: We retrieved 17 studies investigating intestinal microbiome alterations in individuals with AUD. Intestinal microbiome alterations in individuals with AUD included depletion of and and an increase of Enterobacteriaceae. At the phylum level, a higher abundance of Proteobacteria and lower of Bacteroidetes were found. Mixed results regarding were obtained. Several species of short-chain fatty acids producing bacteria had a lower abundance in individuals with alcohol use disorder.: Intestinal microbiome alterations associated with dysbiosis in individuals with AUD are generally consistent across studies, making it a promising target in potential AUD complications treatment. 10.1080/00952990.2019.1669629
    Gut microbiota dysbiosis: The potential mechanisms by which alcohol disrupts gut and brain functions. Frontiers in microbiology Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a high-risk psychiatric disorder and a key cause of death and disability in individuals. In the development of AUD, there is a connection known as the microbiota-gut-brain axis, where alcohol use disrupts the gut barrier, resulting in changes in intestinal permeability as well as the gut microbiota composition, which in turn impairs brain function and worsens the patient's mental status and gut activity. Potential mechanisms are explored by which alcohol alters gut and brain function through the effects of the gut microbiota and their metabolites on immune and inflammatory pathways. Alcohol and microbiota dysregulation regulating neurotransmitter release, including DA, 5-HT, and GABA, are also discussed. Thus, based on the above discussion, it is possible to speculate on the gut microbiota as an underlying target for the treatment of diseases associated with alcohol addiction. This review will focus more on how alcohol and gut microbiota affect the structure and function of the gut and brain, specific changes in the composition of the gut microbiota, and some measures to mitigate the changes caused by alcohol exposure. This leads to a potential intervention for alcohol addiction through fecal microbiota transplantation, which could normalize the disruption of gut microbiota after AUD. 10.3389/fmicb.2022.916765
    Integrated Analyses of the Gut Microbiota, Intestinal Permeability, and Serum Metabolome Phenotype in Rats with Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome. Yang Fan,Wei Jidong,Shen Mengke,Ding Yating,Lu Yufan,Ishaq Hafiz Muhammad,Li Duan,Yan Dong,Wang Qi,Zhang Ruiling Applied and environmental microbiology The etiology of alcohol dependence is not completely understood. Increasing evidence reveals that gut microbiota dysbiosis is associated with certain psychiatric disorders, including alcoholism, through the "microbiota-gut-brain" axis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of alcohol abuse on the gut microbiota, intestinal permeability and serum metabolic profile and to determine whether alcohol-induced alterations in gut microbiota are correlated with gut permeability and serum metabolic phenotype changes. 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing and nontarget metabolomics techniques were applied in an alcohol-dependent rat model in the present study. The results showed that alcohol intake altered the composition and structure of the colonic microbiota, especially the relative abundances of commensal microbes in the families and , which were significantly decreased. Alcohol-dependent rats developed gut leakiness and a serum metabolic phenotype disorder. The valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis pathways and arginine and proline metabolism pathways were obviously influenced by alcohol intake. Moreover, alcohol consumption disturbed the brain's neurotransmitter homeostasis. Regression analysis showed that alcohol-induced colonic microbiota dysbiosis was strongly associated with increased intestinal permeability and serum metabolic phenotype and neurotransmitter disorders. These results revealed that gut microbiota dysbiosis and serum metabolite alteration might be a cofactor for developing of alcohol dependence. Gut microbiota dysbiosis is associated with certain psychiatric disorders through the "microbiota-gut-brain" axis. Here, we revealed that alcohol consumption induced colonic microbiota dysbiosis, increased intestinal permeability, and altered the serum metabolic phenotype in rats, and there was a strong correlation between gut microbiota dysbiosis and serum metabolite disorders. Thus, gut microbiota dysbiosis and serum metabolite alteration may be a cofactor for development of alcohol dependence. 10.1128/AEM.00834-21
    Gut microbiome and metabolome in a non-human primate model of chronic excessive alcohol drinking. Translational psychiatry A relationship between the gut microbiome and alcohol use disorder has been suggested. Excessive alcohol use produces changes in the fecal microbiome and metabolome in both rodents and humans. Yet, these changes can be observed only in a subgroup of the studied populations, and reversal does not always occur after abstinence. We aimed to analyze fecal microbial composition and function in a translationally relevant baboon model of chronic heavy drinking that also meets binge criteria (drinking too much, too fast, and too often), i.e., alcohol ~1 g/kg and blood alcohol levels (BALs) ≥ 0.08 g/dL in a 2-hour period, daily, for years. We compared three groups of male baboons (Papio anubis): L = Long-term alcohol drinking group (12.1 years); S = Short-term alcohol drinking group (2.7 years); and C = Control group, drinking a non-alcoholic reinforcer (Tang®) (8.2 years). Fecal collection took place during 3 days of Drinking (D), followed by a short period (3 days) of Abstinence (A). Fecal microbial alpha- and beta-diversity were significantly lower in L vs. S and C (p's < 0.05). Members of the commensal families Lachnospiraceae and Prevotellaceae showed a relative decrease, whereas the opportunistic pathogen Streptococcus genus showed a relative increase in L vs. S and C (p's < 0.05). Microbiota-related metabolites of aromatic amino acids, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and pentose increased in L vs. S and C (FDR-corrected p < 0.01), with the latter two suggesting high energy metabolism and enhanced glycolysis in the gut lumen in response to alcohol. Consistent with the long-term alcohol exposure, mucosal damage and oxidative stress markers (N-acetylated amino acids, 2-hydroxybutyrate, and metabolites of the methionine cycle) increased in L vs. S and C (FDR-corrected p < 0.01). Overall, S showed few differences vs. C, possibly due to the long-term, chronic alcohol exposure needed to alter the normal gut microbiota. In the three groups, the fecal microbiome barely differed between conditions D and A, whereas the metabolome shifted in the transition from condition D to A. In conclusion, changes in the fecal microbiome and metabolome occur after significant long-term excessive drinking and are only partially affected by acute forced abstinence from alcohol. These results provide novel information on the relationship between the fecal microbiome and metabolome in a controlled experimental setting and using a unique non-human primate model of chronic excessive alcohol drinking. 10.1038/s41398-021-01728-6
    Gut Microbiome Dysbiosis in Alcoholism: Consequences for Health and Recovery. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology Since the mid 1980's, the impact of gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome changes during alcohol use disorder has been an area of significant interest. This work has resulted in the identification of specific changes in the abundance of certain members of the GI microbiome and the role these changes play in a variety of alcohol related disorders ( alcoholic liver disease). Interestingly, some findings suggest a possible role for the GI microbiome in alcohol addiction or withdrawal. Unfortunately, there is a significant gap in knowledge in this area. Here we describe differences in the GI microbiome of alcoholic and non-alcoholic individuals and discuss the possible impact of microbes on the gut-brain axis, which could impact alcohol related behaviors ( addiction). Understanding the role of the GI microbiome in alcohol related disorders will potentially lead to the development of successful microbiome-targeted therapeutics to help mitigate these disorders. 10.3389/fcimb.2022.840164
    Alcohol Addiction, Gut Microbiota, and Alcoholism Treatment: A Review. Wang Shao-Cheng,Chen Yuan-Chuan,Chen Shaw-Ji,Lee Chun-Hung,Cheng Ching-Ming International journal of molecular sciences Alcohol addiction is a leading risk factor for personal death and disability. In 2016, alcohol use caused 2.2% of female deaths and 6.8% of male deaths, and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) were 2.3% in female and 8.9% in male. Individuals with alcohol use disorder are at high risk of anxiety, depression, impaired cognition performance, and illicit drug use and are comorbid with liver disease, such as alcoholic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis, which is a major cause of personal death and disability worldwide. Psychological interventions, such as cognitive behavior therapy and motivational interviewing, as well as medical treatments, such as disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate, and nalmefene, are used for the treatment of alcohol addiction in Europe and the United States. However, the effect of current interventions is limited, and the need for additional interventions is substantial. Alcohol use impairs the intestinal barrier and causes changes to the intestinal permeability as well as the gut microbiota composition. Emerging studies have tried to reveal the role of the gut-brain axis among individuals with alcohol use disorder with or without alcohol liver disease. Bacterial products penetrate the impaired intestinal barrier and cause central inflammation; changes to the gut microbiota impair enterohepatic circulation of bile acids; alcohol abuse causes shortage of vital nutrients such as thiamine. Several studies have suggested that probiotics, through either oral administration or fecal microbiota transplantation, increased intestinal levels of potentially beneficial bacteria such as bifidobacteria and lactobacilli, improving the levels of liver-associated enzymes in patients with mild alcoholic hepatitis, and demonstrating beneficial psychotropic effects on anxiety and depression. In addition to medications for alcohol addiction, gene editing therapy such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs) may be another potential research target. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), which are associated with ADH and ALDH genes, are major enzymes involved in alcohol metabolism, and gene editing approaches may have the potential to directly modify specific genes to treat alcoholism caused by genetic defects. Further research is needed to study the effect of the combined treatment for alcohol addiction. 10.3390/ijms21176413
    Gut Microbiota-Induced Changes in β-Hydroxybutyrate Metabolism Are Linked to Altered Sociability and Depression in Alcohol Use Disorder. Leclercq Sophie,Le Roy Tiphaine,Furgiuele Sonia,Coste Valentin,Bindels Laure B,Leyrolle Quentin,Neyrinck Audrey M,Quoilin Caroline,Amadieu Camille,Petit Géraldine,Dricot Laurence,Tagliatti Vanessa,Cani Patrice D,Verbeke Kristin,Colet Jean-Marie,Stärkel Peter,de Timary Philippe,Delzenne Nathalie M Cell reports Patients with alcohol use disorder (AUD) present with important emotional, cognitive, and social impairments. The gut microbiota has been recently shown to regulate brain functions and behavior but convincing evidence of its role in AUD is lacking. Here, we show that gut dysbiosis is associated with metabolic alterations that affect behavioral (depression, sociability) and neurobiological (myelination, neurotransmission, inflammation) processes involved in alcohol addiction. By transplanting the gut microbiota from AUD patients to mice, we point out that the production of ethanol by specific bacterial genera and the reduction of lipolysis are associated with a lower hepatic synthesis of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), which thereby prevents the neuroprotective effect of BHB. We confirm these results in detoxified AUD patients, in which we observe a persisting ethanol production in the feces as well as correlations among low plasma BHB levels and social impairments, depression, or brain white matter alterations. 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108238
    Restoring an adequate dietary fiber intake by inulin supplementation: a pilot study showing an impact on gut microbiota and sociability in alcohol use disorder patients. Amadieu Camille,Coste Valentin,Neyrinck Audrey M,Thijssen Victoria,Leyrolle Quentin,Bindels Laure B,Piessevaux Hubert,Stärkel Peter,de Timary Philippe,Delzenne Nathalie M,Leclercq Sophie Gut microbes Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a chronic relapsing disease associated with malnutrition, metabolic disturbances, and gut microbiota alterations that are correlated with the severity of psychological symptoms. This study aims at supplementing AUD patients with prebiotic fiber during alcohol withdrawal, in order to modulate the gut microbiota composition and to evaluate its effect on gastrointestinal tolerance, metabolism, and patient's behavior. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study included 50 AUD patients assigned to inulin maltodextrin daily supplementation for 17 days. Biological measurements (fecal microbial 16S rDNA sequencing, serum biology), dietary intake, validated psychological questionnaires, and gastrointestinal tolerance assessment were performed before and after the intervention. Inulin significantly decreased the richness and evenness and induced changes of 8 genera (q < 0.1) including and . Prebiotic had minor effects on gastrointestinal symptoms and nutritional intakes compared to placebo. All patients showed an improvement in depression, anxiety, and craving scores during alcohol withdrawal regardless of the intervention group. Interestingly, only patients treated with inulin significantly improved the sociability score and had an increased serum level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. This pilot study shows that inulin is well tolerated and modulates the gut microbiota and the social behavior in AUD patients, without further improving other psychological and biological parameters as compared to placebo. Gut2Brain study, clinicaltrial.gov: NCT03803709, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03803709. 10.1080/19490976.2021.2007042
    Liver alterations are not improved by inulin supplementation in alcohol use disorder patients during alcohol withdrawal: A pilot randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. EBioMedicine BACKGROUND:Emerging evidence highlights that targeting the gut microbiota could be an interesting approach to improve alcohol liver disease due to its important plasticity. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of inulin supplementation on liver parameters in alcohol use disorder (AUD) patients (whole sample) and in a subpopulation with early alcohol-associated liver disease (eALD). METHODS:Fifty AUD patients, hospitalized for a 3-week detoxification program, were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study and assigned to prebiotic (inulin) versus placebo for 17 days. Liver damage, microbial translocation, inflammatory markers and 16S rDNA sequencing were measured at the beginning (T1) and at the end of the study (T2). FINDINGS:Compared to placebo, AST (β = 8.55, 95% CI [2.33:14.77]), ALT (β = 6.01, 95% CI [2.02:10.00]) and IL-18 (β = 113.86, 95% CI [23.02:204.71]) were statistically significantly higher in the inulin group in the whole sample at T2. In the eALD subgroup, inulin supplementation leads to specific changes in the gut microbiota, including an increase in Bifidobacterium and a decrease of Bacteroides. Despite those changes, AST (β = 14.63, 95% CI [0.91:28.35]) and ALT (β = 10.40, 95% CI [1.93:18.88]) at T2 were higher in the inulin group compared to placebo. Treatment was well tolerated without important adverse events or side effects. INTERPRETATION:This pilot study shows that 17 days of inulin supplementation versus placebo, even though it induces specific changes in the gut microbiota, did not alleviate liver damage in AUD patients. Further studies with a larger sample size and duration of supplementation with adequate monitoring of liver parameters are needed to confirm these results. Gut2Brain study: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03803709 FUNDING: Fédération Wallonie-Bruxelles, FRS-FNRS, Fondation Saint-Luc. 10.1016/j.ebiom.2022.104033