Diagnostic biomarkers from proteomic characterization of cerebrospinal fluid in patients with brain malignancies.
Schmid Dominic,Warnken Uwe,Latzer Pauline,Hoffmann Dirk C,Roth Judith,Kutschmann Stefanie,Jaschonek Hannah,Rübmann Petra,Foltyn Martha,Vollmuth Philipp,Winkler Frank,Seliger Corinna,Felix Marius,Sahm Felix,Haas Jürgen,Reuss David,Bendszus Martin,Wildemann Brigitte,von Deimling Andreas,Wick Wolfgang,Kessler Tobias
Journal of neurochemistry
Recent technological advances in molecular diagnostics through liquid biopsies hold the promise to repetitively monitor tumor evolution and treatment response of brain malignancies without the need of invasive surgical tissue accrual. Here, we implemented a mass spectrometry-based protein analysis pipeline which identified hundreds of proteins in 251 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients with four types of brain malignancies (glioblastoma, lymphoma, brain metastasis, and leptomeningeal disease [LMD]) and from healthy individuals with a focus on glioblastoma in a retrospective and confirmatory prospective observational study. CSF proteome deregulation via disruption of the blood brain barrier appeared to be largely conserved across brain tumor entities. CSF analysis of glioblastoma patients identified two proteomic clusters that correlated with tumor size and patient survival. By integrating CSF data with proteomic analyses of matching glioblastoma tumor tissue and primary glioblastoma cells, we identified potential CSF biomarkers for glioblastoma, in particular chitinase-3-like protein 1 (CHI3L1) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). Key findings were validated in a prospective cohort consisting of 35 glioma patients. Finally, in LMD patients who frequently undergo repeated CSF work-up, we explored our proteomic pipeline as a mean to profile consecutive CSF samples. Therefore, proteomic analysis of CSF in brain malignancies has the potential to reveal biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy monitoring.
The genomic and transcriptional landscape of primary central nervous system lymphoma.
Primary lymphomas of the central nervous system (PCNSL) are mainly diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) confined to the central nervous system (CNS). Molecular drivers of PCNSL have not been fully elucidated. Here, we profile and compare the whole-genome and transcriptome landscape of 51 CNS lymphomas (CNSL) to 39 follicular lymphoma and 36 DLBCL cases outside the CNS. We find recurrent mutations in JAK-STAT, NFkB, and B-cell receptor signaling pathways, including hallmark mutations in MYD88 L265P (67%) and CD79B (63%), and CDKN2A deletions (83%). PCNSLs exhibit significantly more focal deletions of HLA-D (6p21) locus as a potential mechanism of immune evasion. Mutational signatures correlating with DNA replication and mitosis are significantly enriched in PCNSL. TERT gene expression is significantly higher in PCNSL compared to activated B-cell (ABC)-DLBCL. Transcriptome analysis clearly distinguishes PCNSL and systemic DLBCL into distinct molecular subtypes. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)+ CNSL cases lack recurrent mutational hotspots apart from IG and HLA-DRB loci. We show that PCNSL can be clearly distinguished from DLBCL, having distinct expression profiles, IG expression and translocation patterns, as well as specific combinations of genetic alterations.