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    Contrast-enhanced color Doppler US in malignant portal vein thrombosis. Ricci P,Cantisani V,Biancari F,Drud F M,Coniglio M,Di Filippo A,Fasoli F,Passariello R Acta radiologica (Stockholm, Sweden : 1987) PURPOSE:To assess the role of contrast-enhanced color Doppler US in the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant portal vein thrombosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Fifty-six patients with portal vein thrombosis underwent color and power Doppler US examination before and after i.v. injection of galactose-palmitic acid suspension. The criterion for diagnosing the presence and extension of thrombosis was the lack of visualization of portal vein flow in a segment of the portal vein. The criterion for diagnosing malignant portal vein thrombosis was the detection of pulsatile arterial flow, either hepatopetal or hepatofugal, in the thrombus. The US data were correlated with the types of portal vein thrombosis. RESULTS:Among the 56 patients, there were 40 benign and 16 malignant portal thromboses. Unenhanced Doppler US detected continuous blood flow in 24 benign thromboses and pulsatile in 3 malignant thromboses. No flow, either continuous or pulsatile, was detected in 16 cases with benign thrombosis and in 13 cases with malignant thrombosis. Contrast-enhanced Doppler US allowed to assess pulsatile flow in 15 cases with malignant thrombosis (94%). The use of pulsatile flow as diagnostic criterion of malignant thrombosis yielded a sensitivity of 57% and a specificity of 95% with conventional Doppler US, whereas contrast-enhanced US achieved a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 100%. CONCLUSION:Contrast-enhanced Doppler US is a reliable diagnostic tool for assessing malignant portal vein thrombosis. 10.1080/028418500127345703
    General principles and overview of vascular contrast-enhanced ultrasonography. Rafailidis Vasileios,Huang Dean Y,Yusuf Gibran Timothy,Sidhu Paul S Ultrasonography (Seoul, Korea) Ultrasonography (US) is the first-line modality for the evaluation of vascular pathology. Although well-established for many diseases, US has inherent limitations that can occasionally hinder an accurate diagnosis. The value of US was improved by the introduction of microbubbles as ultrasonographic contrast agents (UCAs) and the emergence of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), following the introduction of second-generation UCAs and the emergence of modern contrast-specific techniques. CEUS offers valuable information about vascular disease, both on a macrovascular and a microvascular level, with well-established applications for carotid disease, post-interventional follow-up of abdominal aortic aneurysms, and the assessment of portal vein thrombosis. The purpose of this review is to discuss the principles of CEUS and to present an overview of its vascular applications. 10.14366/usg.19022
    Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography for the evaluation of malignant focal liver lesions. Chammas Maria Cristina,Bordini André Leopoldino Ultrasonography (Seoul, Korea) In this review, the authors address the analysis of different types of malignant focal liver lesions (FLLs) using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). The specific enhancing patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and metastases are discussed and exemplified with images. In addition, the use of CEUS in malignant portal vein thrombosis is discussed. The advantages and limitations of CEUS for the analysis of malignant FLLs are also discussed. 10.14366/usg.21001
    Contrast-enhanced sonography versus biopsy for the differential diagnosis of thrombosis in hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Sorrentino Paolo,D'Angelo Salvatore,Tarantino Luciano,Ferbo Umberto,Bracigliano Alessandra,Vecchione Raffaela World journal of gastroenterology AIM:To clarify which method has accuracy: 2nd generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound or biopsy of portal vein thrombus in the differential diagnosis of portal vein thrombosis. METHODS:One hundred and eighty-six patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and portal vein thrombosis underwent in blinded fashion a 2nd generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound and biopsy of portal vein thrombus; both results were examined on the basis of the follow-up of patients compared to reference-standard. RESULTS:One hundred and eight patients completed the study. Benign thrombosis on 2nd generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound was characterised by progressive hypoenhancing of the thrombus; in malignant portal vein thrombosis there was a precocious homogeneous enhancement of the thrombus. On follow-up there were 50 of 108 patients with benign thrombosis: all were correctly diagnosed by both methods. There were 58 of 108 patients with malignant thrombosis: amongst these, 52 were correctly diagnosed by both methods, the remainder did not present malignant cells on portal vein thrombus biopsy and showed on 2nd generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound an inhomogeneous enhancement pattern. A new biopsy during the follow-up, guided to the area of thrombus that showed up on 2nd generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound, demonstrated an enhancing pattern indicating malignant cells. CONCLUSION:In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma complicated by portal vein thrombosis, 2nd generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound of portal vein thrombus is very useful in assessing the benign or malignant nature of the thrombus. Puncture biopsy of thrombus is usually accurate but presents some sampling errors, so, when pathological results are required, 2nd generation contrast-enhanced ultrasound could guide the sampling needle to the correct area of the thrombus. 10.3748/wjg.15.2245
    Diagnosis of benign and malignant portal vein thrombosis in cirrhotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma: color Doppler US, contrast-enhanced US, and fine-needle biopsy. Tarantino L,Francica G,Sordelli I,Esposito F,Giorgio A,Sorrentino P,de Stefano G,Di Sarno A,Ferraioli G,Sperlongano P Abdominal imaging BACKGROUND:We assessed the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant portal vein thrombosis in patients who had cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS:Fifty-four consecutive patients who had cirrhosis, biopsy-proved HCC, and thrombosis of the main portal vein and/or left/right portal vein on US were prospectively studied with color Doppler US (CDUS) and CEUS. CEUS was performed at low mechanical index after intravenous administration of a second-generation contrast agent (SonoVue, Bracco, Milan, Italy). Presence or absence of CDUS signals or thrombus enhancement on CEUS were considered diagnostic for malignant or benign portal vein thrombosis. Twenty-eight patients also underwent percutaneous portal vein fine-needle biopsy (FNB) under US guidance. All patients were followed-up bimonthly by CDUS. Shrinkage of the thrombus and/or recanalization of the vessels on CDUS during follow-up were considered definitive evidence of the benign nature of the thrombosis, whereas enlargement of the thrombus, disruption of the vessel wall, and parenchymal infiltration over follow-up were considered consistent with malignancy. CDUS, CEUS, and FNB results were compared with those at follow-up. RESULTS:Follow-up (4 to 21 months) showed signs of malignant thrombosis in 34 of 54 patients. FNB produced a true-positive result for malignancy in 19 of 25 patients, a false-negative result in six of 25 patients, and a true-negative result in three of three patients. CDUS was positive in seven of 54 patients. CEUS showed enhancement of the thrombus in 30 of 54 patients. No false-positive result was observed at CDUS, CEUS, and FNB. Sensitivities of CDUS, CEUS, and FNB in detecting malignant thrombi were 20%, 88%, and 76% respectively. Three patients showed negative CDUS and CEUS and positive FNB results; follow-up confirmed malignant thrombosis in these patients. One patient showed negative CDUS, CEUS, and FNB findings. However, follow-up of the thrombus showed US signs of malignancy. Another FNB confirmed HCC infiltration of the portal vein. CONCLUSION:CEUS seems to be the most sensitive and specific test for diagnosing malignant portal vein thrombosis in patients with cirrhosis. 10.1007/s00261-005-0150-x
    Diagnosis of portal vein thrombosis discontinued with liver tumors in patients with liver cirrhosis and tumors by contrast-enhanced US: a pilot study. Song Ze-Zhou,Huang Min,Jiang Tian-An,Zhao Qi-Yu,Yao Lei,Mou Yun,Zhao Jun-Kang,Ao Jian-Yang,Chen Fen,Chen Yan European journal of radiology AIMS:We assessed the role of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant portal vein thrombosis (PVT) in patients who had liver tumors. METHODS:Seventeen consecutive patients who had cirrhosis, liver tumors, and PVT were prospectively studied with CEUS. CEUS was performed at low mechanical index after intravenous administration of a second-generation contrast agent (SonoVue, Bracco, Milan, Italy). Presence or absence of thrombus enhancement on CEUS were considered diagnostic for malignant or benign PVT. Five patients also underwent percutaneous portal vein fine-needle biopsy under US guidance. All patients were followed-up. Shrinkage of the thrombus and/or recanalization of the vessels on CDUS during follow-up were considered definitive evidence of the benign nature of the thrombosis, whereas the enlargement of the thrombus, disruption of the vessel wall, and parenchymal infiltration over follow-up were considered consistent with malignancy. RESULTS:Follow-up showed signs of malignant thrombosis in 14 of 17 patients. CEUS showed early arterial enhancement of the PVT in 14 patients of 14 malignant PVT, 1 patient of 3 benign PVT and the absence of thrombus enhancement in 2 patients of 3 benign PVT. FNB confirmed the results for malignant PVT in four of five patients, for benign granulomatous inflammation PVT in one of five patients in which CEUS showed early arterial enhancement of the PVT. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy is 100%, 66.7% and 93.3% at diagnosis of malignant PVT using CEUS. In one patient with intrahepatic bile duct stone, CEUS were positive for malignant PVT, whereas FNB was negative (benign granulomatous inflammation PVT); follow-up examination confirmed benign PVT. CONCLUSION:CEUS seems to be the pretty sensitive and specific test for diagnosing malignant portal vein thrombosis in patients with cirrhosis and tumors. 10.1016/j.ejrad.2009.04.021
    Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Portal Vein Thrombosis: A Pictorial Review. Iliescu Laura,Toma Letitia,Mercan-Stanciu Adriana,Grumeza Mihaela,Ioanitescu Simona Ultrasound quarterly Portal vein thrombosis is a frequently encountered complication in hepatology and hematology. In patients with liver cirrhosis, it can occur in the natural history of the disease due to clotting disorders or associated with hepatocellular carcinoma. The development of a malignant thrombus is a contraindication to several therapeutic procedures in liver cancer, such as liver resection or transplantation or transarterial chemoembolization; therefore, patients need to be attentively evaluated. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography is a relatively new noninvasive imagistic investigation with proven accuracy in focal liver lesions. Its use in differentiating malignant and nonmalignant portal vein thrombosis is still controversial. This article revises the characteristics of portal vein thrombosis on contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in order to determine its accuracy in the diagnosis of malignant portal vein thrombosis. 10.1097/RUQ.0000000000000451
    Characterization of portal vein thrombus with the use of contrast-enhanced sonography. Ueno Norio,Kawamura Harunobu,Takahashi Hirokazu,Fujisawa Nobutaka,Yoneda Masato,Kirikoshi Hiroyuki,Sakaguchi Takashi,Saito Satoru,Togo Shinji Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine OBJECTIVES:To select an appropriate treatment regimen, it is essential to accurately characterize the nature of a thrombus. This study prospectively assessed the ability of contrast-enhanced sonography to differentiate between benign and malignant portal vein thrombosis in a population of high-risk patients. METHODS:Fifty-five patients (43 men and 12 women; mean age, 66 years; range, 55-83 years) with thrombi of the portal venous system were examined by power Doppler sonography and contrast-enhanced sonography with the intravenous contrast agent SH U 508A (Levovist; Schering AG, Berlin, Germany). Of the thrombi, 40 were characterized as malignant and 15 as benign. Pulsatile flow in the thrombus on power Doppler sonography and positive enhancement of the thrombus on contrast-enhanced sonography were judged as indications of a malignant thrombus. The sensitivity and specificity of both methods in differentiating the nature of the thrombus were evaluated. RESULTS:The detection of pulsatile flow in a portal vein thrombus as the criterion for diagnosing malignant portal vein thrombus yielded overall sensitivity of 82.5% and specificity of 100%, whereas positive enhancement of the portal vein thrombus itself as a criterion for diagnosing malignancy yielded overall sensitivity and specificity of 100% for each. CONCLUSIONS:Contrast-enhanced sonography can be helpful in discriminating between benign and malignant portal vein thrombi.
    Differentiating malignant from benign thrombosis in hepatocellular carcinoma: contrast-enhanced ultrasound. Raza S Arsalan,Jang Hyun-Jung,Kim Tae Kyoung Abdominal imaging BACKGROUND:To determine the accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in differentiating malignant and benign venous thrombosis complicating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS:Fifty patients (M:F = 41:9; age range 46-83 years) with HCC and venous thrombosis [portal vein (PV) in 45 and hepatic vein (HV) in 5] detected on CT or MR scan were evaluated with CEUS. Reference standard of malignant and benign thrombosis was based on serial clinicoradiologic follow-up (n = 43) or pathology (n = 7). Two independent, blinded readers retrospectively recorded the enhancement features of the venous thrombosis and diagnosed as benign or malignant thrombosis with a five-point confidence scale. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated to determine the diagnostic performance of CEUS in differentiating malignant from benign thrombosis. Confidence level ratings were also used to calculate the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for the diagnosis of malignant thrombosis. Inter-reader agreement was calculated using κ statistics in each assessed finding. Gray scale and Doppler characteristics of primary tumor and thrombosis were also assessed. RESULTS:Of the 50 patients, 37 were malignant (33 with PV thrombosis and 4 with HV thrombosis) and 13 were benign (12 with PV thrombosis and 1 with HV thrombosis). In ROC curve analysis for differentiating malignant from benign thrombosis, Az was 0.947 (CI 0.841-0.991) for reader 1 and 0.958 (CI 0.861-0.995) for reader 2 with excellent inter-reader agreement (κ = 0.86). When the confidence level ratings of 1 or 2 were considered malignant thrombosis, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV in differentiating malignant from benign thrombosis were 100%, 83%, 95%, and 100% for reader 1 and 100%, 92%, 97%, and 100% for reader 2. CONCLUSION:CEUS is useful to differentiate malignant and benign venous thrombosis associated with HCC with high diagnostic accuracy. 10.1007/s00261-013-0034-4
    The value of contrast enhanced ultrasound in the evaluation of the nature of portal vein thrombosis. Dănilă Mirela,Sporea Ioan,Popescu Alina,Sirli Roxana,Sendroiu Mădălina Medical ultrasonography UNLABELLED:Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a relatively common complication in patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma, but might also occur in the absence of liver disease. Ultrasound (US) is the first imaging method used for assessing PVT. THE PURPOSE:To evaluate the utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for the differentiation between benign and malignant PVT. MATERIALS AND METHODS:from October 2009 to October 2010, 38 PVTs were evaluated by means of ultrasound (standard, Doppler and CEUS). 29 PVT were in patients with liver cirrhosis and 9 in subjects without liver cirrhosis. RESULTS:15 of 38 patients (39.5%) had benign PVT and 23 patients (60.5%) had malignant PVT. Results of CEUS examination were conclusive in 37/38 (97.2%) of the examinations for PVT, allowing the differentiation between benign and malignant thrombosis. When the result was inconclusive, another imaging method was performed (MRI). CONCLUSION:CEUS is a very good method for the evaluation of benign or malignant nature of portal vein thrombosis.
    Portal vein thrombosis in liver cirrhosis - the added value of contrast enhanced ultrasonography. Danila Mirela,Sporea Ioan,Popescu Alina,Șirli Roxana Medical ultrasonography Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is a frequent complication of liver cirrhosis and its prevalence increases with the severity of liver disease. Patients with liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma may have either malignant or blunt (benign) PVT. In these patients, the diagnosis and characterization of PVT is important for the prognosis and further treatment. Ultrasound (US) is the modality of choice for the diagnosis of PVT. The features of PVT on B-mode (gray-scale) US include: dilatation of the portal vein, visualization of the thrombus and, in chronic PVT- cavernous transformation. Sensitivity of US in the diagnosis of PVT is improved by the use of Doppler US and of ultrasound contrast agents. In the latter years, contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) showed high sensitivity in the differential diagnosis between benign and malignant PVT and could be the diagnostic method of choice for the characterization of PVT. Blunt thrombi are avascular and will not enhance during CEUS examination, while a hyperenhancement pattern of the portal thrombus in the arterial phase, with "wash out" in the portal or late phase is typical for malignant PVT. 10.11152/mu.2013.2066.182.pvt
    Characterization of Malignant Portal Vein Thrombosis with Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography. Chammas Maria C,Oliveira Andre C,D Ávilla Mario J,Moraes Pedro H,Takahashi Marcelo Straus Ultrasound in medicine & biology We prospectively evaluated the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) for differentiation of benign versus malignant portal vein thrombosis (PVT). We studied a total of 43 patients with chronic liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma-suggestive nodules and confirmed PVT, in whom the nature of the PVT was confirmed by follow-up imaging (US, computed tomography and/or magnetic resonance imaging) performed up to 6 mo after CEUS. PVT was assessed by US, Doppler US and CEUS with respect to vessel wall disruption and/or invasion, color Doppler vascularization, pulsed Doppler vascularization pattern and CEUS enhancement and vascularization pattern, and thrombi were classified as benign or malignant based on these findings. Follow-up studies revealed malignant PVT in 22 of the 43 patients (51%) and benign PVT in 21 patients (49%). CEUS findings were consistent with follow-up studies in 41 of the 43 patients (95%), with κ = 0.903 (p < 0.0001), sensitivity = 91% and specificity = 100%, indicating that CEUS can be confidently used to differentiate benign from malignant portal vein thrombosis in the setting of chronic liver disease. 10.1016/j.ultrasmedbio.2018.09.009
    Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in differentiating malignant from benign portal vein thrombosis in hepatocellular carcinoma. Tarantino Luciano,Ambrosino Pasquale,Di Minno Matteo Nicola Dario World journal of gastroenterology Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) may occur in liver cirrhosis patients. Malignant PVT is a common complication in cirrhotic patients with concomitant hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and, in some cases, it may be even the initial sign of an undetected HCC. Detection of malignant PVT in a patient with liver cirrhosis heavily affects the therapeutic strategy. Gray-scale ultrasound (US) is widely unreliable for differentiating benign and malignant thrombi. Although effective for this differential diagnosis, fine-needle biopsy remains an invasive technique. Sensitivity of color-doppler US in detection of malignant thrombi is highly dependent on the size of the thrombus. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MRI) can be useful to assess the nature of portal thrombus, while limited data are currently available about the role of positron emission tomography (PET) and PET-CT. In contrast with CT, MRI, PET, and PET-CT, contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a fast, effective, well tolerated and cheap technique, that can be performed even in the same session in which the thrombus has been detected. CEUS can be performed bedside and can be available also in transplanted patients. Moreover, CT and MRI only yield a snapshot analysis during contrast diffusion, while CEUS allows for a continuous real-time imaging of the microcirculation that lasts several minutes, so that the whole arterial phase and the late parenchymal phase of the contrast diffusion can be analyzed continuously by real-time US scanning. Continuous real-time monitoring of contrast diffusion entails an easy detection of thrombus maximum enhancement. Moreover, continuous quantitative analyses of enhancement (wash in - wash out studies) by CEUS during contrast diffusion is nowadays available in most CEUS machines, thus giving a more sophisticated and accurate evaluation of the contrast distribution and an increased confidence in diagnosis in difficult cases. In conclusion, CEUS is a very reliable technique with a high intrinsic sensitivity for portal vein patency assessment. More expensive and sophisticated techniques (i.e., CT, MRI, PET, and PET-CT) should only be indicated in undetermined cases at CEUS. 10.3748/wjg.v21.i32.9457
    Diagnostic Role of Contrast-enhanced Ultrasound in the Discrimination of Malignant Portal Vein Thrombosis in Patients With Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Kwon Jung Hyun,Yoo Sun Hong,Nam Soon Woo,Lee Youn Joo,Shin Yu Ri Anticancer research BACKGROUND/AIM:To investigate the accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in differentiating benign and malignant portal vein thrombosis (PVT) complicating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), compared to diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI). PATIENTS AND METHODS:Forty-nine patients with HCC who had PVT were enrolled. The quantitative and qualitative parameters of CEUS were analysed. We examined the diagnostic performance of CEUS compared with DWI. The relationships between CEUS parameters and biomarkers were also assessed. RESULTS:All qualitative CEUS parameters (e.g., arterial-phase enhancement, washout in the venous phase, vessel occlusion, and expansion) were significantly more common in malignant thrombosis than in benign thrombosis (p<0.05). Among the quantitative CEUS parameters, increased area under the time-intensity curve, prolonged time for full width at half maximum, and prolonged rise time were observed in malignant thrombosis, compared to benign thrombosis (p<0.05). CEUS and DWI performed similarly in discriminating between malignant and benign thrombi (p>0.05). Several CEUS parameters exhibited significant correlations with the tumour marker and stage (p<0.05). CONCLUSION:CEUS was useful for characterisation of PVT and showed a consistent high diagnostic accuracy, compared to DWI. 10.21873/anticanres.14438