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    Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma. Nakaguro Masato,Nagao Toshitaka Surgical pathology clinics Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma is an uncommon low-grade salivary gland carcinoma. It is classically characterized by biphasic tubular structures composed of inner eosinophilic ductal cells and outer clear myoepithelial cells. In addition, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma sometimes shows various histologic features, including a cribriform pattern, basaloid appearance, and sebaceous differentiation. Because clear myoepithelial cells are also noted in other benign and malignant salivary gland tumors, the histologic variety and similarity with other tumor entities make the diagnosis of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma challenging. A recent analysis revealed that HRAS hotspot point mutations are specifically identified in epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma and the assessment of given genes facilitate the correct diagnosis. 10.1016/j.path.2020.10.002
    Clear cell sarcoma in unusual sites mimicking metastatic melanoma. Obiorah Ifeyinwa E,Ozdemirli Metin World journal of clinical oncology BACKGROUND:Clear cell sarcoma is an aggressive rare malignant neoplasm with morphologic and immunohistochemical similarities to malignant melanoma. Both disease entities display melanin pigment and melanocytic markers, making differentiation between the two difficult. Although clear cell sarcoma cases in the literature have mainly involved deep soft tissues of the extremities, trunk or limb girdles, we report here two cases of primary clear cell sarcoma in unusual sites and describe their clinicopathologic findings. CASE SUMMARY:The first case involves a 37-year-old female, who presented with jaw pain and a submandibular mass. The second case involves a 33-year-old male, who presented with back pain and a thoracic spine tumor. Both cases showed tumors with diffuse infiltration of neoplastic cells that were positive for melanocytic markers, and in both cases this finding led to an initial diagnosis of metastatic melanoma. However, further analysis by fluorescence hybridization (commonly known as FISH) showed a rearrangement of the EWS RNA binding protein 1 ( gene on chromosome 22q12 in both patients, confirming the diagnosis of clear cell sarcoma. CONCLUSION:Distinction between clear cell sarcoma and malignant melanoma can be made by FISH, particularly in cases of unusual tumor sites. 10.5306/wjco.v10.i5.213
    Hyalinizing Clear Cell Carcinoma of the Maxilla. Bostanci Asli,Ozbudak Irem Hicran,Turhan Murat Journal of maxillofacial and oral surgery Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is a rare low-grade salivary gland tumor with distinctive clear cell morphology, accounting for < 1% of all salivary gland tumors. In the majority of cases, the tumor originates typically from the minor salivary glands in the oral cavity. A total of 155 cases of HCCCs from head and neck region have been reported in the literature until 2017, of which only 16 are of maxillary origin. Due to its low incidence, there is no clear consensus on prognostic factors and optimal treatment strategies yet. In this paper, a new case of HCCC of the maxilla is presented and its clinical and histopathological features are discussed. 10.1007/s12663-018-1163-7
    Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma on lower lip and microinvasive verrucous carcinoma in vocal cord: Case report. Gurbuz Begum Calim,Karabulut Murat Hakan,Karabulut Burak,Aydemir Merve,Inceman Hande Nur,Zemheri Itır Ebru Northern clinics of Istanbul Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma is a biphasic low-grade malignant tumor, which represents approximately 1% of all salivary gland tumors. This tumor occurs mostly in the parotid gland, followed by submandibular gland and minor salivary glands. Women, mostly fifth to the eighth decade of life, are commonly affected. Histopathologically, epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma is composed of an inner single layer of eosinophilic cuboidal ductal cells and outer single or multiple layers of clear myoepithelial cells. We present a case of a 69 years old man who had a scar on lower the lip for 10 years and voice annoyance for three months. The biopsy for lower lip was reported "infiltrative clear cell epithelioid neoplasm" and vocal cord biopsy result was "verrucous carcinoma". After cordectomy and wedge resection of the lower lip, histopathology revealed Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma for the lower lip and microinvasive verrucous carcinoma for the left vocal cord. Our case has a very uncommon location and presentation for EMC. The tumor location was minor salivary glands of the lower lip and the clinical presentation was quite different. Coexistence with microinvasive verrucous carcinoma of the vocal cord is the other unique part of our case. 10.14744/nci.2019.48991
    Epithelial-Myoepithelial Carcinoma of the Palate: Report of a Case and Review of the Literatures. Mahdavi Nazanin,Ghorbanpour Maedeh Iranian journal of pathology Epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma (EMC) is considered as a rare malignant salivary gland neoplasm with good prognosis, low recurrence rate and rare metastasis. Here we present a case of epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma in a 42-year-old female with a swelling of 3-year duration in her palate. Histopathologic evaluation of the lesion demonstrated a well-circumscribed, biphasic salivary gland tumor composed of double-layered ductal/glandular structures, composed of small luminal eosinophilic cells and abluminal larger clear myoepithelial cells, and luminal cells were positive for pan-cytokeratin, while the abluminal cells exhibited strong immunoreactivity for p63. Ki-67 proliferative index was 1% in abluminal cells. In this article, histopathologic and immunohistochemical features of EMC and its mimics are discussed and the previously reported cases of EMC in the literature are summarized. 10.30699/ijp.2020.105039.2076
    Clear Cell Hidradenoma-Basal Cell Carcinoma Collision. Piqué-Duran Enric,Duran-Hernández MªCristina,Pérez-Cejudo Juan A,García-Vázquez Odalys The American Journal of dermatopathology ABSTRACT:A 91-year-old man presented with a tumor on the left temporal area, clinically suspicious of basal cell carcinoma. The histopathologic study showed a central solid-cystic tumor composed by 3 different types of cells (clear or finely granular cells, polygonal cells, and squamoid cells). It had a sclerotic stroma. At the periphery, another tumor composed by smaller interconnected nests was evident. Some nests were separated from the stroma by clefts. The stroma of this second tumor was highly cellular. There was a sharp delimitation between both tumors, with no transitional area. Immunochemistry demonstrated they are different tumor. A diagnosis of clear cell hidradenoma-basal cell carcinoma collision was performed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of this challenging association. 10.1097/DAD.0000000000001763
    [Clinicopathological features of clear cell carcinoma of salivary gland in the head and neck]. Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology To investigate the clinical, histologic, immunohistochemical (IHC) and molecular genetic features of clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of salivary gland in the head and neck regions. Seven cases of CCC diagnosed in the Department of Pathology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University from 2018 to 2021 were included. The clinical and pathologic data, HE sections and IHC staining were reviewed, and EWSR1 gene translocation was detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The relevant literature was also reviewed. There were five males and two females, with an age range of 32 to 71 years (mean 50 years). The tumors were located in the palate, base of tongue, subglottic, right submaxillary and nasopharynx. Histologically the tumors were composed of sheets, nests, and trabecular of large, monomorphic cells which possessed abundant clear and eosinophilic cytoplasm. The stroma was characterized by abundant hyalinized fibrous strands admixed with cellular fibrous (desmoplastic) tissue. The tumor growth was infiltrative. IHC staining revealed positivity for CKpan and squamous cell immunophenotypic markers (CK5/6, p63 and p40), but negativity for myoepithelial markers (SMA, calponin, GFAP and CD10). The EWSR1 gene translocation was detected by FISH. The prognosis was excellent, with the follow-up periods ranging from 8 months to 33 months. During this period, six patients survived without tumor, only one patient with cervical lymph node metastasis. CCC of salivary gland is rare and needs to be differentiated from various other types of tumors containing clear cells. Awareness of the histopathologic characteristics, and combined with IHC and molecular genetic examination can avoid misdiagnosis. The biological behavior of the tumor is indolent with a good overall prognosis. 10.3760/cma.j.cn112151-20211117-00837
    LPAR2 correlated with different prognosis and immune cell infiltration in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and kidney renal clear cell carcinoma. Hereditas BACKGROUND:Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and its receptors play a key role in regulating cancer progression. Upregulation of LPA receptor 2 (LPAR2) plays a role in carcinogenesis; however, the exact role of LPAR2 in tumors remains elusive. This study aims to explore the correlation between LPAR2 expression with tumor prognosis and immune infiltration in pan-cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The expression of LPAR2 in pan-cancers was analyzed using the Online Cancer Microarray Database (Oncomine), Tumor Immune Estimation Resource (TIMER), and UALCAN databases. The effects of LPAR2 on the clinical prognosis in pan-cancer were examined using the Kaplan-Meier plotter (KM plotter) as well as Gene Expression Profiling Interactive Analysis (GEPIA), UALCAN, and Human Protein Atlas (HPA) databases. Moreover, the R software program was applied for validation of expression and prognostic value of LPAR2 in tumor patients in the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset and the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The relationship between the expression level of LPAR2 and the clinical and molecular criteria of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC) and kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC) was analyzed using UALCAN, whereas the relationship between LPAR2 expression and prognosis in patients with HNSC and KIRC with different clinical characteristics was examined using the KM plotter. Furthermore, the correlation between LPAR2 expression and tumor immune infiltration was examined using TIMER. The correlation between LPAR2 expression and gene markers of tumor immune infiltrates was analyzed using TIMER and GEPIA. In addition, the cBioPortal for Cancer Genomics was used to calculate the mutations, methylations, and altered neighbor genes of LPAR2. RESULTS:The expression of LPAR2 was significantly correlated with the outcome of multiple types of cancer, especially HNSC and KIRC. Furthermore, high expression of LPAR2 was significantly associated with various immune markers in the immune cell subsets of HNSC and KIRC. CONCLUSIONS:High expression of LPAR2 plays significantly different prognostic roles in HNSC and KIRC possibly owing to its association with different immune markers. LPAR2 is correlated with tumor immune cell infiltration and is a valuable prognostic biomarker for HNSC and KIRC. However, further experiments are required to validate these findings. 10.1186/s41065-022-00229-w
    Primary Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Head and Neck: A Population-Based Analysis. Mukdad Laith,Han Albert Y,Badran Karam,Alonso Jose E,Nasser Hassan B,Goel Alexander N,St John Maie A Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery OBJECTIVE:To characterize the epidemiology and clinicopathologic determinants of survival following the diagnosis of clear cell adenocarcinoma in the head and neck region. STUDY DESIGN:Retrospective cohort study. SETTING:The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry (1994 to 2014). SUBJECTS AND METHODS:A total of 173 cases were identified. Study variables included age, sex, race, tumor subsite, tumor stage, tumor grade, surgical excision, and regional and distant metastases. Survival measures included overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS). RESULTS:Median age at diagnosis was 63 years, 48% were female, and 80.2% were white. Fourteen percent of patients presented with regional lymph node metastases, while 3.3% of patients presented with distant metastases. Most of the tumors presented in the oral cavity, salivary glands, and pharynx. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated OS and DSS of 77.2% and 83.7% at 5 years, respectively. Median OS after diagnosis was 153 months. Bivariate analysis showed that surgical excision was associated with 5-fold increased OS and DSS, whereas advanced age, high tumor grade, advanced stage, larger tumor size, nodal disease, and distant metastases were all significant predictors of decreased OS and DSS. CONCLUSIONS:Clear cell adenocarcinoma is a rare neoplasm that typically affects white individuals in their early 60s, with a generally favorable prognosis. It most commonly arises in the oral cavity, major salivary glands, and pharynx. Surgical excision is associated with 5-fold survival benefit, whereas advanced age, high tumor grade, advanced stage, nodal disease, and distant metastases are independently associated with worse OS and DSS. 10.1177/0194599820903028
    Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma of the head and neck: Case series and update. Albergotti W Greer,Bilodeau Elizabeth A,Byrd J Kenneth,Mims Mark M,Lee Stella,Kim Seungwon Head & neck BACKGROUND:Hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma (HCCC) is a rare neoplasm of salivary gland origin which is low-grade in nature. In this series, we report on 9 cases of HCCC and update the literature. METHODS:A comprehensive literature search was performed. Our institutional database was queried for cases of HCCC. Pathology reports and slides were reviewed. Data was extracted, including demographics, staging, primary treatment, histopathologic findings, recurrence, and disease status. Statistical analysis was performed using a Pearson's chi-square test. RESULTS:One hundred thirty-six total cases were included for analysis. The overall recurrence rate was 19.8%. Necrosis was associated with risk of recurrence (p = .003). Positive margins and lymph node status were associated with risk of recurrence. Prognosis was good with only 3 of 82 patients reported dying with disease. CONCLUSION:HCCC has an overall good prognosis with potential for aggressive behavior. The presence of necrosis, locoregional disease, or positive margins is associated with risk for recurrence. 10.1002/hed.23902