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    Endometrial cancer: Preoperative versus intraoperative staging. Rei Mariana,Rodrigues Inês,Condeço Pedro,Igreja Fernando,Veríssimo Carlos,Mendinhos Gustavo Journal of gynecology obstetrics and human reproduction PURPOSE:To determine the accuracy of transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in preoperative staging of endometrial cancer in comparison to frozen section (FS) for the assessment of myometrial invasion, considering permanent section as the gold standard. METHODS:A retrospective longitudinal study of all endometrial carcinomas diagnosed in our institution between March 2012 and October 2018 was conducted. Women with histologically confirmed endometrial malignancy, planned for surgery as primary treatment and submitted either to TVS, MRI and/or intraoperative FS followed by comprehensive surgical staging were eligible. RESULTS:From a total of 187 endometrial carcinomas, 156 were eligible for the study. The most frequent histology was endometrioid carcinoma (n=115), followed by serous carcinoma (n=25); the majority presented a FIGO stage IA (n=85) or IB (n=21). TVS, MRI and FS presented a sensitivity 56 %, 71 % and 67 % [95 %CI 0.35-0.75; 0.49-0.87; 0.45-0.84] and a specificity of 90 %, 78 % and 94 % [95 %CI 0.79-0.97; 0.58-0.91; 0.84-0.98], respectively. FS was the method with the lowest overestimation rate (6.5 %, 95 %CI 0.02-0.16), whereas MRI showed the lowest underestimation rate (29.2 %, 95 %CI 0.13-0.51). Agreement was superior between MRI and FS (Pa=0.79, K=0.56) and secondly between MRI and TVS (Pa=0.78, K=0.47). CONCLUSIONS:Intraoperative FS presents the higher specificity and the lowest overestimation rate, while MRI seems to be the exam with the highest sensitivity in the evaluation of myometrial invasion. Agreement between the different methods is reasonable, suggesting that the best alternative will be highly dependent on the availability and experience of each institution. 10.1016/j.jogoh.2019.101647
    Local staging of endometrial carcinoma: comparison of transvaginal and intraoperative sonography and gross visual inspection. Teefey S A,Stahl J A,Middleton W D,Huettner P C,Bernhard L M,Brown J J,Hildebolt C F,Mutch D G AJR. American journal of roentgenology OBJECTIVE:The purposes of this study were to compare transvaginal sonography (TVS), intraoperative sonography (IOS), and gross visual inspection of the uterus with the histopathologic findings in patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and to compare the accuracies of TVS, IOS, and gross visual inspection in staging of the tumor. SUBJECTS AND METHODS:Sixteen patients with endometriod carcinoma were prospectively evaluated with TVS and IOS. Intraoperative gross visual inspection was also performed. Gray-scale, duplex, and color Doppler findings were used to stage patients. The location and depth of myometrial invasion and the presence of cervical involvement were recorded. At gross visual inspection, only the absence or presence and the depth of myometrial invasion (< or = 50% or >50%) were recorded. The data were analyzed three ways. First, in uterine specimens with myometrial invasion, a site-by-site comparison was made among the TVS and IOS findings and the final histologic results regarding location and depth of tumor invasion. Next, to determine tumor stage, myometrial invasion was defined in two ways: (1) absent, 50% or less, or greater than 50%; and (2) 50% or less or greater than 50%. Then imaging findings, gross visual inspection, and the final histologic results were compared. RESULTS:Of the 16 uterine specimens, eight had myometrial invasion, with 13 separate sites of tumor invasion. IOS correctly identified the location and depth (+/- 10% of the histologic depth) of tumor invasion at four (31%) sites, and TVS at one (8%) site. TVS and IOS overestimated myometrial invasion due to adenomyosis, bulky intraluminal tumor, and lymphovascular invasion. When myometrial invasion was defined as absent, 50% or less, or greater than 50%, TVS was correct in 60% of cases, IOS in 56%, and gross visual inspection in 53%. When myometrial invasion was defined as 50% or less or greater than 50%, TVS was correct in 93% of cases, IOS in 81%, and gross visual inspection in 80%. CONCLUSION:TVS and IOS are inaccurate in predicting the precise location and depth of myometrial tumor invasion. However, when a less rigorous definition of invasion is used, the accuracies of TVS and IOS are comparable to gross visual inspection in staging of the tumor. 10.2214/ajr.166.3.8623626
    Accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound for the evaluation of myometrial invasion in endometrial carcinoma. Ruangvutilert Pornpimol,Sutantawibul Anuwat,Sunsaneevithayakul Prasert,Boriboonhirunsarn Dittakarn,Chuenchom Thinnakorn Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound for the evaluation of myometrial invasion in endometrial carcinoma in comparison with standard paraffin section. METHOD:A total of 111 patients with endometrial carcinoma diagnosed from fractional curettage underwent pre-operative transvaginal ultrasonography to assess myometrial invasion. Operation for surgical staging was subsequently performed and the hysterectomy specimen was evaluated for depth of myometrial invasion by standard paraffin section blinded from transvaginal ultrasound results. Final histopathologic diagnosis and depth of myometrial invasion were obtained from standard paraffin section. Ultrasonographic assessment was compared with the histopathological results. RESULTS:In evaluation of myometrial invasion, transvaginal ultrasound yielded the sensitivity of 69.4 per cent, specificity of 70.6 per cent, positive predictive value of 53.2 per cent, negative predictive value of 82.8 per cent, and accuracy of 70.3 per cent. The accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, false positive and negative rates were comparable between grade 3 and grade 1 and 2 tumors. However, the positive predictive value was significantly higher among grade 3 than grade 1 and 2 tumors. The Kappa coefficients were 0.57 and 0.22 for grade 3 and grade 1 and 2 tumors respectively. CONCLUSION:Transvaginal ultrasound for assessment of depth of myometrial invasion in endometrial carcinoma provided acceptable accuracy compared with standard paraffin section. This technique might be of value for the decision making in the intra-operative management of endometrial carcinoma.
    The Use of Transvaginal Ultrasound in Type II Endometrial Cancer. Billingsley Caroline C,Kenne Kimberly A,Cansino Catherine D,Backes Floor J,Cohn David E,O'Malley David M,Copeland Larry J,Fowler Jeffrey M,Salani Ritu International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society OBJECTIVE:To determine the use of the transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) in postmenopausal women with type II endometrial cancer. METHODS/MATERIALS:A retrospective review was conducted for 173 women with pathology proven type II endometrial cancer at a single institution. Those who underwent preoperative TVUS were included, and the following data were obtained: endometrial stripe (EMS) measurement, uterine and/or adnexal findings, and uterine size/volume. Clinicopathologic factors were abstracted. Descriptive and regression analyses were performed. RESULTS:Fifty-eight women comprised the cohort, and the median age was 66.5 years (50-85 years). The most commonly reported symptom was postmenopausal bleeding in 53 patients (91.4%). The EMS was reported as thin (≤ 5 mm) or indistinct in 16 patients (27.5%). Approximately 60% of patients had 1 or more ultrasound abnormalities: intracavitary mass (31%), intracavitary fluid (12.1%), myometrial lesion (31.03%), and adnexal mass (12.1%). Poorly differentiated endometrioid cancer (53.45%) represented the predominant histology. Of the 16 (27.5%) women with a thin/indistinct EMS, 5 women (8.6%) did not have any abnormal ultrasound findings whatsoever. CONCLUSIONS:Women with type II endometrial cancer had a thin/indistinct EMS on TVUS in approximately 25% of cases. Lack of any ultrasound abnormality, including a thickened EMS, was noted in approximately 10% of patients. The use of TVUS, which has been of value in type I cancer, is limited in type II endometrial cancer. Therefore, endometrial sampling should be included in the evaluation of all women with postmenopausal bleeding, regardless of EMS thickness. 10.1097/IGC.0000000000000423
    Preoperative prediction of high-risk endometrial cancer by expert and non-expert transvaginal ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and endometrial histology. Dueholm Margit,Hjorth Ina Marie,Dahl Katja,Marinovskij Edvard,Ørtoft Gitte European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology OBJECTIVE:To identify women with high-risk endometrial cancers using expert and non-expert transvaginal ultrasonography (TVS) and MRI. STUDY DESIGN:Myometrial involvement was prospectively evaluated in patients with atypical hyperplasia or endometrial cancer on ultrasound by non-experts at first visit (non-expert-TVS: n = 266) and experts (expert-TVS: n = 188) at second visit. MRI (n = 175) was performed when high-risk cancer was suspected on non-expert-TVS. Preoperatively, high-risk cancer was defined as myometrial involvement ≥50 %, or preoperative unfavorable tumor histology (grade 3 endometrioid, non-endometrioid tumors, or tumor in cervical biopsies) obtained by endometrial sampling or hysteroscopic biopsies. Preoperative evaluations were compared with final histopathology obtained at surgery, high-risk cancer being defined as unfavorable tumor histology or patients with FIGO stage ≥1b. RESULTS:Preoperative unfavorable tumor histology was seen in 64 women and correctly identified 63 of 128 high-risk cancers. Preoperative diagnosis of unfavorable tumor histology or myometrial involvement ≥50 %, i.e. judged high-risk, had an area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity of 79.5 %, 93.8 %, 65.2 % on non-expert-TVS; 85.5 %, 84.4 %, 86.5 % on expert-TVS, and 85.4 %, 89.6 %, 81.2 % on MRI. AUC values were not significantly different between MRI and expert-TVS, but lower on non-expert-TVS (p < 0.02). However, sensitivity was highest on non-expert-TVS, where a low cutpoint for myometrial involvement was used (included potentially deep and difficult evaluations) in contrast to an exact cutpoint of myometrial involvement ≥50 % used on expert-TVS and MRI. The highest AUC, 88.6 %, was seen when MRI was performed in patients with myometrial involvement ≥50 %, determined on non-expert TVS. Sensitivity was reduced to 85.9 %, while specificity increased to 91.3 %. Thus, MRI was needed for risk classification in only 104 (39 %) patients. CONCLUSION:Diagnostically, expert-TVS and MRI were comparable and superior to non-expert-TVS. However, non-expert-TVS classified all patients with unclear myometrial involvement ≥50 %, and thereby only misdiagnosed 6.2 % of high-risk cases. Non-expert-TVS combined with MRI when myometrial involvement was ≥50 % on non-expert-TVS was a simple and effective method comparable with expert imaging to identify low- and high-risk cancer and select patients for SLND. Addition of MRI to the diagnostic regimen was needed in only 39 % of our patients. 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2021.05.041
    Validation of ultrasound strategies to assess tumor extension and to predict high-risk endometrial cancer in women from the prospective IETA (International Endometrial Tumor Analysis)-4 cohort. Verbakel J Y,Mascilini F,Wynants L,Fischerova D,Testa A C,Franchi D,Frühauf F,Cibula D,Lindqvist P G,Fruscio R,Haak L A,Opolskiene G,Alcazar J L,Mais V,Carlson J W,Sladkevicius P,Timmerman D,Valentin L,Bosch T Van Den,Epstein E Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology OBJECTIVES:To compare the performance of ultrasound measurements and subjective ultrasound assessment (SA) in detecting deep myometrial invasion (MI) and cervical stromal invasion (CSI) in women with endometrial cancer, overall and according to whether they had low- or high-grade disease separately, and to validate published measurement cut-offs and prediction models to identify MI, CSI and high-risk disease (Grade-3 endometrioid or non-endometrioid cancer and/or deep MI and/or CSI). METHODS:The study comprised 1538 patients with endometrial cancer from the International Endometrial Tumor Analysis (IETA)-4 prospective multicenter study, who underwent standardized expert transvaginal ultrasound examination. SA and ultrasound measurements were used to predict deep MI and CSI. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the tumor/uterine anteroposterior (AP) diameter ratio for detecting deep MI and that of the distance from the lower margin of the tumor to the outer cervical os (Dist-OCO) for detecting CSI. We also validated two two-step strategies for the prediction of high-risk cancer; in the first step, biopsy-confirmed Grade-3 endometrioid or mucinous or non-endometrioid cancers were classified as high-risk cancer, while the second step encompassed the application of a mathematical model to classify the remaining tumors. The 'subjective prediction model' included biopsy grade (Grade 1 vs Grade 2) and subjective assessment of deep MI or CSI (presence or absence) as variables, while the 'objective prediction model' included biopsy grade (Grade 1 vs Grade 2) and minimal tumor-free margin. The predictive performance of the two two-step strategies was compared with that of simply classifying patients as high risk if either deep MI or CSI was suspected based on SA or if biopsy showed Grade-3 endometrioid or mucinous or non-endometrioid histotype (i.e. combining SA with biopsy grade). Histological assessment from hysterectomy was considered the reference standard. RESULTS:In 1275 patients with measurable lesions, the sensitivity and specificity of SA for detecting deep MI was 70% and 80%, respectively, in patients with a Grade-1 or -2 endometrioid or mucinous tumor vs 76% and 64% in patients with a Grade-3 endometrioid or mucinous or a non-endometrioid tumor. The corresponding values for the detection of CSI were 51% and 94% vs 50% and 91%. Tumor AP diameter and tumor/uterine AP diameter ratio showed the best performance for predicting deep MI (area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC) of 0.76 and 0.77, respectively), and Dist-OCO had the best performance for predicting CSI (AUC, 0.72). The proportion of patients classified correctly as having high-risk cancer was 80% when simply combining SA with biopsy grade vs 80% and 74% when using the subjective and objective two-step strategies, respectively. The subjective and objective models had an AUC of 0.76 and 0.75, respectively, when applied to Grade-1 and -2 endometrioid tumors. CONCLUSIONS:In the hands of experienced ultrasound examiners, SA was superior to ultrasound measurements for the prediction of deep MI and CSI of endometrial cancer, especially in patients with a Grade-1 or -2 tumor. The mathematical models for the prediction of high-risk cancer performed as expected. The best strategies for predicting high-risk endometrial cancer were combining SA with biopsy grade and the subjective two-step strategy, both having an accuracy of 80%. Copyright © 2019 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 10.1002/uog.20374
    Efficacy of transvaginal ultrasound versus magnetic resonance imaging for preoperative assessment of myometrial invasion in patients with endometrioid endometrial cancer: a prospective comparative study. Cerovac Anis,Ljuca Dzenita,Arnautalic Lejla,Habek Dubravko,Bogdanovic Gordana,Mustedanagic-Mujanovic Jasminka,Grgic Gordana Radiology and oncology BACKGROUND:We compared the accuracy of preoperative transvaginal ultrasound (TVUS) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of myometrial invasion (MI) in patients with endometrial cancer (EC), while definitive histopathological diagnosis served as a reference method. PATIENTS AND METHODS:Study performed at a single tertiary centre from 2019 to 2021, included women with a histopathological proven EC, hospitalized for scheduled surgery. TVUS and MRI were performed prior to surgical staging for assessment MI, which was estimated using two objective TVUS methods (Gordon's and Karlsson's) and MRI. Patients were divided into two groups, after surgery and histopathological assessment of MI: superficial (≤ 50%) and deep (> 50%). RESULTS:Sixty patients were eligible for the study. According to the reference method, there were 34 (56.7%) cases in the study with MI < 50%, and 26 (43.3%) with MI > 50%. Both objective TVUS methods and MRI showed no statistical significant differences in overall diagnostic performance for the preoperative assessment of MI. The concordance coefficient between both TVUS methods, MRI and histopathology was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Gordon's method calculating MI reached a positive predictive value (PPV) of 83%, negative predictive value (NPV) of 83%, 77% sensitivity, 88% specificity, and 83% overall accuracy. Karlsson's method reached PPV of 82%, NPV of 79%, 69% sensitivity, 88% specificity, and 80% overall accuracy. Accordingly, MRI calculating MI reached PPV of 83%, NPV of 97%, 97% sensitivity, 85% specificity, and 90% overall accuracy. CONCLUSIONS:We found that objective TVUS assessment of myometrial invasion was performed with a diagnostic accuracy comparable to that of MRI in women with endometrial cancer. 10.2478/raon-2022-0005
    Agreement between preoperative transvaginal ultrasound and intraoperative macroscopic examination for assessing myometrial infiltration in low-risk endometrioid carcinoma. Pineda L,Alcázar J L,Caparrós M,Mínguez J A,Idoate M A,Quiceno H,Solórzano J L,Jurado M Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology OBJECTIVE:To compare diagnostic performance of preoperative transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) and intraoperative macroscopic examination for determining myometrial infiltration in women with low-risk endometrial cancer, and to estimate the agreement between the two methods. METHODS:This was a single-center observational study comprising women with preoperative diagnosis of well- or moderately differentiated endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium. All women underwent preoperative TVS by a single examiner. According to the examiner's subjective impression, myometrial infiltration was stated as ≥ 50% or < 50%. Surgical staging was performed in all cases. Intraoperative macroscopic examination of the removed uterus was performed by pathologists who were unaware of the ultrasound findings, and myometrial infiltration was stated as ≥ 50% or < 50%. Definitive histological diagnosis of myometrial infiltration was made by frozen section analysis and was used as the gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity with 95% CIs were calculated for TVS and intraoperative macroscopic inspection and compared using McNemar's test. Agreement between TVS and intraoperative macroscopic inspection was estimated using Cohen's kappa index (κ) and percentage of agreement. RESULTS:Of 209 eligible women, 152 were ultimately included. Mean (± SD) age was 60.9 ± 10.2 years, with a range of 32-91 years. Definitive histological diagnosis revealed that myometrial infiltration was < 50% in 114 women and ≥ 50% in 38 women. Sensitivity and specificity of TVS for detecting deep myometrial infiltration were 81.6% and 89.5%, respectively, whereas the respective values for intraoperative macroscopic examination were 78.9% and 90.4% (McNemar's test, P > 0.05 when comparing TVS and intraoperative macroscopic examination). Agreement between methods was moderate with κ = 0.54 (95% CI, 0.39-0.69) and percentage of agreement of 82%. CONCLUSIONS:Although the agreement between preoperative TVS and intraoperative macroscopic examination for detecting deep myometrial infiltration was only moderate, both methods had similar accuracy when compared with frozen section histology. Preoperative TVS might reasonably be proposed as a method for assessing myometrial infiltration as an alternative to intraoperative macroscopic examination, especially when performed by an experienced examiner and image quality is not poor. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 10.1002/uog.14909
    Transvaginal/transrectal ultrasound for assessing myometrial invasion in endometrial cancer: a comparison of six different approaches. Alcazar Juan Luis,Pineda Laura,Martinez-Astorquiza Corral Txanton,Orozco Rodrigo,Utrilla-Layna Jesús,Juez Leire,Jurado Matías Journal of gynecologic oncology OBJECTIVE:To compare the diagnostic performance of six different approaches for assessing myometrial infiltration using ultrasound in women with carcinoma of the corpus uteri. METHODS:Myometrial infiltration was assessed by two-dimensional (2D) transvaginal or transrectal ultrasound in 169 consecutive women with well (G1) or moderately (G2) differentiated endometrioid type endometrial carcinoma. In 74 of these women three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound was also performed. Six different techniques for myometrial infiltration assessment were evaluated. The impression of examiner and Karlsson's criteria were assessed prospectively. Endometrial thickness, tumor/uterine 3D volume ratio, tumor distance to myometrial serosa (TDS), and van Holsbeke's subjective model were assessed retrospectively. All subjects underwent surgical staging within 1 week after ultrasound evaluation. Definitive histopathological data regarding myometrial infiltration was used as gold standard. Sensitivity and specificity for all approaches were calculated and compared using McNemar test. RESULTS:The impression of examiner and subjective model performed similarly (sensitivity 79.5% and 80.5%, respectively; specificity 89.6% and 90.3%, respectively). Both methods had significantly better sensitivity than Karlsson's criteria (sensitivity 31.8%, p<0.05) and endometrial thickness (sensitivity 47.7%, p<0.05), and better specificity than tumor/uterine volume ratio (specificity 28.3%, p<0.05) and TDS (specificity 41.5%, p<0.05). CONCLUSION:Subjective impression seems to be the best approach for assessing myometrial infiltration in G1 or G2 endometrioid type endometrial cancer by transvaginal or transrectal ultrasound. The use of mathematical models and other objective 2D and 3D measurement techniques do not improve diagnostic performance. 10.3802/jgo.2015.26.3.201
    Transvaginal/transrectal ultrasound for preoperative identification of high-risk cases in well- or moderately differentiated endometrioid carcinoma. Alcázar J L,Pineda L,Caparrós M,Utrilla-Layna J,Juez L,Mínguez J A,Jurado M Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the role of transvaginal/transrectal ultrasound for preoperative identification of high-risk cases among women with well-differentiated (G1) or moderately differentiated (G2) endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium. METHODS:This was a single-center prospective observational cohort study comprising a consecutive series of women with a preoperative diagnosis of G1/G2 endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium. All women underwent transvaginal or transrectal ultrasound examination by a single examiner. According to the examiner's subjective impression, patients were considered high risk if myometrial infiltration was ≥ 50% and/or involvement of the cervix and/or adnexa was suspected. FIGO surgical staging was performed in all cases. According to definitive histological data regarding myometrial infiltration, cervical involvement and adnexal involvement, women were classified as low risk (no myometrial infiltration, no cervical involvement and no adnexal involvement) or high risk (myometrial infiltration ≥ 50% and/or cervical involvement and/or adnexal involvement). Sensitivity, specificity and positive (LR+) and negative (LR-) likelihood ratios, with 95% CIs, of transvaginal/transrectal ultrasound for detecting stage ≥ IB were calculated. Agreement between risk determined by transvaginal/transrectal ultrasound and postoperative definitive histology was calculated. RESULTS:Of 209 eligible women, 169 were included in the study. Mean (± SD) age of the study cohort was 60.7 ± 10.3 years, with a range of 32-91 years. Sensitivity, specificity, LR+ and LR- of transvaginal/transrectal ultrasound identifying high-risk cases according to myometrial infiltration, cervical involvement and adnexal involvement were 78.0% (95% CI, 63.7-88.0%), 89.1% (95% CI, 81.7-93.8%), 7.14 (95% CI, 4.19-12.18) and 0.25 (95% CI, 0.15-0.42), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Preoperative transvaginal/transrectal ultrasound may play a significant role in identifying high-risk cases among those with G1/G2 endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium according to preoperative biopsy, and could be a useful test in this clinical setting. Copyright © 2015 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. 10.1002/uog.14912
    Transvaginal Ultrasound Versus Magnetic Resonance Imaging for Assessing Myometrial Infiltration in Endometrioid Low Grade Endometrial Cancer: A Prospective Study. Gastón Begoña,Muruzábal Juan C,Lapeña Sonia,Modroño Ana,Guarch Rosa,García de Eulate Inés,Alcázar Juan L Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine OBJECTIVE:To compare the diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing myometrial infiltration (MI) in patients with low grade endometrioid endometrial cancer. METHODS:Observational prospective study performed at a single tertiary care center from 2016 to 2020, comprising 156 consecutive patients diagnosed by endometrial sampling as having an endometrioid grade 1/grade 2 endometrial cancer. TVS and MRI were performed prior to surgical staging for assessing MI, which was estimated using subjective examiner's impression and Karlsson's method for both TVS and MRI. During surgery, intraoperative assessment of MI was also performed. Definitive pathological study considered as reference standard. Diagnostic accuracy for ultrasound, MRI, and intraoperative biopsy was estimated and compared. RESULTS:Sensitivity and specificity of TVS for detecting deep MI were 75 and 73.5% for subjective impression and 65 and 70% for Karlsson method, respectively (P = .54). Sensitivity and specificity of MRI for detecting deep MI were 80 and 87% for subjective impression and 70 and 71.3% for Karlsson method. MRI subjective impression showed a significant better specificity than MRI Karlsson method (P = .03). MRI showed better specificity than TVS when subjective impression was considered (P <.05), but not for Karlsson method. Sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative were 75 and 97%, respectively. Intraoperative biopsy showed better specificity than ultrasound and MRI either using examiner's impression or Karlsson method (P <.05). CONCLUSIONS:MRI revealed a significant higher specificity than TVS when assessing deep myometrial infiltration. However, the intraoperative biopsy offers a significant better diagnostic accuracy than preoperative imaging techniques. 10.1002/jum.15708
    Diagnostic performance of transvaginal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging for preoperative evaluation of low-grade endometrioid endometrial carcinoma: prospective comparative study. Cubo-Abert M,Díaz-Feijoo B,Bradbury M,Rodríguez-Mías N-L,Vera M,Pérez-Hoyos S,Gómez-Cabeza J-J,Gil-Moreno A Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology OBJECTIVE:To compare the diagnostic performance of transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the prediction of deep myometrial invasion (DMI) and cervical stromal invasion (CSI) in patients with low-grade (Grade 1 or 2) endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC). METHODS:This was a prospective study including all patients with low-grade EEC diagnosed between October 2013 and July 2018 at the Vall d'Hebron Hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Preoperative staging was performed using TVS and MRI, followed by surgical staging. Final histology was considered as the reference standard. Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and diagnostic accuracy were calculated for both imaging techniques in the prediction of DMI and CSI, and the agreement index was calculated for both techniques. The STARD 2015 guidelines were followed. RESULTS:A total of 131 patients with low-grade EEC were included consecutively. Sensitivity was higher for TVS than for MRI both for the prediction of DMI (69% (95% CI, 53-82%) vs 51% (95% CI, 36-66%), respectively) and CSI (43% (95% CI, 27-61%) vs 24% (95% CI, 12-41%), respectively). Specificity was similar for TVS and MRI in the prediction of DMI (87% (95% CI, 78-93%) vs 91% (95% CI, 82-96%)) and equal in the prediction of CSI (97% (95% CI, 91-99%) for both). The agreement index between TVS and MRI was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.76-0.90) for DMI and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.85-0.96) for CSI. CONCLUSIONS:The diagnostic performance of TVS is similar to that of MRI for the prediction of DMI and CSI in low-grade EEC, and TVS can play a role as a first-line imaging technique in the preoperative evaluation of low-grade EEC. © 2021 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 10.1002/uog.23607