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    Inactivation of a redox-sensitive protein phosphatase during the early events of tumor necrosis factor/interleukin-1 signal transduction. Guy G R,Cairns J,Ng S B,Tan Y H The Journal of biological chemistry Isoforms of heat shock protein (Hsp) 27 were used as intracellular markers to study tumor necrosis factor/interleukin-1 (TNF/IL-1) regulation of protein phosphatases in primary human fibroblasts. These isoforms were rapidly phosphorylated to varying degrees when fibroblasts were treated with either TNF, IL-1, okadaic acid, calyculin A, ARS, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, H2O2, buthionine sulfoximine, N-ethylmaleimide, diethylmaleimide, or iodoacetate. However, inhibitors of protein kinases A and C, tyrosyl protein kinases, and general protein kinases had no effect on the enhanced phosphorylation of these isoforms in TNF, IL-1, okadaic acid, or calyculin A-stimulated cells, suggesting that the activation of protein kinases by itself is insufficient to produce these changes. Isoforms of 32P-labeled Hsp27 were dephosphorylated during cold-chases with excess phosphate in the absence but not in the presence of TNF/IL-1 or inhibitors of protein phosphatases suggesting that inactivation of protein phosphatase(s) plays a role in TNF/IL-1 signal transduction. Assays of phosphatase activity of cytosolic fractions from TNF or okadaic acid treated human fibroblasts showed an inactivation of protein phosphatase activity against the 32P-labeled Hsp27 protein substrates. In vitro assays of partially purified phosphatase activity from primary human fibroblasts with Hsp27 substrate also showed the protein phosphatase activity to be inhibited by ARS. Like okadaic acid, ARS mimics TNF in inducing specific patterns of cellular protein phosphorylation. Taken together these findings are consistent with the hypothesis that a SH-dependent protein phosphatase is inactivated during the early events of TNF/IL-1 signal transduction, hence inhibitors of protein phosphatases and SH modifying compounds can mimic the early effects of TNF/IL-1 on cells.
    TRIB3 increases cell resistance to arsenite toxicity by limiting the expression of the glutathione-degrading enzyme CHAC1. Örd Daima,Örd Tiit,Biene Tuuliki,Örd Tõnis Biochimica et biophysica acta Arsenic, a metalloid with cytotoxic and carcinogenic effects related to the disruption of glutathione homeostasis, induces the expression of ATF4, a central transcription factor in the cellular stress response. However, the interplay between factors downstream of ATF4 is incompletely understood. In this article, we investigate the role of Tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3), a regulatory member of the ATF4 pathway, in determining cell sensitivity to arsenite. Our results show that arsenite potently upregulates Trib3 mRNA and protein in an ATF4-dependent manner in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Trib3-deficient cells display increased susceptibility to arsenite-induced cell death, which is rescued by re-expressing TRIB3. In cells lacking TRIB3, arsenite stress leads to markedly elevated mRNA and protein levels of Chac1, a gene that encodes a glutathione-degrading enzyme and is not previously known to be repressed by TRIB3. Analysis of the Chac1 promoter identified two regulatory elements that additively mediate the induction of Chac1 by arsenite and ATF4, as well as the robust suppression of Chac1 by TRIB3. Crucially, Chac1 silencing enhances glutathione levels and eliminates the increased susceptibility of Trib3-deficient cells to arsenite stress. Moreover, Trib3-deficient cells demonstrate an increased rate of glutathione consumption, which is abolished by Chac1 knockdown. Taken together, these data indicate that excessive Chac1 expression is detrimental to arsenite-treated cell survival and that TRIB3 is critical for restraining the pro-death potential of Chac1 during arsenite stress, representing a novel mechanism of cell viability regulation that occurs within the ATF4 pathway. 10.1016/j.bbamcr.2016.08.003
    The PRKAR1A gene is fused to RARA in a new variant acute promyelocytic leukemia. Catalano Alberto,Dawson Mark A,Somana Karthiga,Opat Stephen,Schwarer Anthony,Campbell Lynda J,Iland Harry Blood We report the molecular and cytogenetic characterization of a novel variant of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). The bone marrow showed 88% hypergranular promyelocytes, and the karyotype was 47,XY,+22 [5]/46,XY[30]. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) indicated disruption and deletion of the 5'-end of the RARA gene. Treatment with all-trans retinoic acid, idarubicin, and arsenic trioxide induced cytogenetic complete remission without morphologic evidence of residual leukemia. The diagnostic marrow was negative for PML-RARA transcripts by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), but an atypical product was observed. Sequencing showed partial homology to the PRKAR1A gene, encoding the regulatory subunit type I-alpha of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. RT-PCR using specific primers for PRKAR1A and RARA amplified 2 transcript splice variants of a PRKAR1A-RARA fusion gene, and PRKAR1A and RARA FISH probes confirmed the fusion. This novel PRKAR1A-RARA gene rearrangement is the fifth variant APL in which the RARA partner gene has been identified and the second known rearrangement of PRKAR1A in a malignant disease. This trial was registered at www.actr.org.au with the Australian Clinical Trials Registry as number 12605000070639. 10.1182/blood-2007-06-095554
    Blockade of deubiquitinase YOD1 degrades oncogenic PML/RAR and eradicates acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Acta pharmaceutica Sinica. B In most acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells, promyelocytic leukemia (PML) fuses to retinoic acid receptor (RAR) due to chromosomal translocation, thus generating PML/RAR oncoprotein, which is a relatively stable oncoprotein for degradation in APL. Elucidating the mechanism regulating the stability of PML/RAR may help to degrade PML/RAR and eradicate APL cells. Here, we describe a deubiquitinase (DUB)-involved regulatory mechanism for the maintenance of PML/RAR stability and develop a novel pharmacological approach to degrading PML/RAR by inhibiting DUB. We utilized a DUB siRNA library to identify the ovarian tumor protease (OTU) family member deubiquitinase YOD1 as a critical DUB of PML/RAR. Suppression of YOD1 promoted the degradation of PML/RAR, thus inhibiting APL cells and prolonging the survival time of APL cell-bearing mice. Subsequent phenotypic screening of small molecules allowed us to identify ubiquitin isopeptidase inhibitor I (G5) as the first YOD1 pharmacological inhibitor. As expected, G5 notably degraded PML/RAR protein and eradicated APL, particularly drug-resistant APL cells. Importantly, G5 also showed a strong killing effect on primary patient-derived APL blasts. Overall, our study not only reveals the DUB-involved regulatory mechanism on PML/RAR stability and validates YOD1 as a potential therapeutic target for APL, but also identifies G5 as a YOD1 inhibitor and a promising candidate for APL, particularly drug-resistant APL treatment. 10.1016/j.apsb.2021.10.020
    MicroRNA-155 regulates arsenite-induced malignant transformation by targeting Nrf2-mediated oxidative damage in human bronchial epithelial cells. Chen Chengzhi,Jiang Xuejun,Gu Shiyan,Zhang Zunzhen Toxicology letters Arsenite is a well-documented human lung carcinogen but the detailed mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unclear. In this study, human bronchial epithelial (16-HBE) cells were continuously exposed to 2.5μM arsenite for about 13 weeks to induce the phenotypes of malignant transformation. Our results showed that Nrf2 expression was gradually decreased whereas no significant change was observed on NF-κB activation with increased time of arsenite exposure. To test the roles of Nrf2-meidtaed oxidative damage in the arsenite-induced malignant transformation, we compared the levels of cGMP, PKG and oxidative damage-related indicators between arsenic-transformed cells and control cells. Our data demonstrated there were no significantly differences on the contents of cGMP, PKG, MDA and the production of ROS, but the levels of GSH and NO, the activities of SOD, tNOS and iNOS were significantly enhanced in the arsenic-transformed cells. Importantly, Nrf2 inactivation could be modulated by miR-155, and inhibition of miR-155 remarkably attenuated the malignant phenotypes and promoted apoptotic cell death in the arsenic-transformed cells. Together, our findings provide the novel mechanism that miR-155 may regulate arsenite-induced cell malignant transformation by targeting Nrf2-mediated oxidative damage, indicating that inhibition of miR-155 may be a potential strategy against lung carcinogenesis of arsenite. 10.1016/j.toxlet.2017.07.215
    Arsenic induces telomerase expression and maintains telomere length in human cord blood cells. Ferrario Daniele,Collotta Angelo,Carfi Maria,Bowe Gerard,Vahter Marie,Hartung Thomas,Gribaldo Laura Toxicology Inorganic arsenic (iAs) is a human carcinogen, well known as a clastogenic compound. To evaluate the molecular mechanism of arsenite (iAs(III)) toxicity, we investigated the effects on cell growth and apoptosis, telomere length, telomerase expression, as well as the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in male and female human cord blood cells in vitro. Incubation with iAs(III) at the concentration of 0.0001 microM increased telomerase mRNA and protein expression maintained both telomere length and cellular growth, and induced mRNA over-expression of the two oncogenes ras and myc. Our results suggest that female cord blood cells are more sensitive than male ones to iAs(III) induced telomerase stimulation at low concentrations, possibly related to the increased expression of ras and myc oncogenes. On the contrary, at the concentration of 1 microM, iAs(III) decreased telomerase expression and telomere length, and induced apoptosis, necrosis and production of reactive oxygen species. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an inhibitor of glutathione (GSH) synthesis, markedly increased the percentage of apoptotic cells, suggesting that GSH is fundamental for detoxification of iAs(III) in cord blood cells. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO), protected cord blood cells from iAs(III) toxicity, and prevented telomere shortening and telomerase down-modulation. It can be concluded that telomerase expression and telomere length are associated with iAs(III) induced cell death, via production of reactive oxygen species, as well as with iAs(III) induced effects on cell differentiation processes and rate of cell growth. 10.1016/j.tox.2009.03.019
    Arsenic induced progesterone production in a caspase-3-dependent manner and changed redox status in preovulatory granulosa cells. Yuan Xiao-Hua,Lu Cai-Ling,Yao Nan,An Li-Sha,Yang Bai-Qing,Zhang Chuan-Ling,Ma Xu Journal of cellular physiology Arsenic contamination is a principal environmental health threat throughout the world. However, little is known about the effect of arsenic on steroidogenesis in granulosa cells (GCs). We found that the treatment of preovulatory GCs with arsenite stimulated progesterone production. A significant increase in serum level of progesterone was observed in female Sprague-Dawley rats following arsenite treatment at a dose of 10 mg/L/rat/day for 7 days. Further experiments demonstrated that arsenite treatment did not change the level of intracellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) or phosphorylated ERK1/2 in preovulatory GCs; however, progesterone production was significantly decreased when cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) or ERK1/2 pathway was inhibited. This implied that the effect of arsenite on progesterone production may require cAMP/PKA and ERK1/2 signaling but not depend on them. Furthermore, we found that arsenite decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) but increased the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) levels and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) in parallel to the changes in progesterone production. Progesterone antagonist blocked the arsenic-stimulated increase of GSH levels. Arsenite treatment induced caspase-3 activation, although no apoptosis was observed. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity significantly decreased progesterone production stimulated by arsenite or follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). GSH depletion with buthionine sulfoximine led to cell apoptosis in response to arsenite treatment. Collectively, this study demonstrated for the first time that arsenite stimulates progesterone production through cleaved/active caspase-3-dependent pathway, and the increase of GSH level promoted by progesterone production may protect GCs against apoptosis and maintain the steroidogenesis of GCs in response to arsenite treatment. 10.1002/jcp.22717
    Inhibition of liver x receptor/retinoid X receptor-mediated transcription contributes to the proatherogenic effects of arsenic in macrophages in vitro. Padovani Alessandra M S,Molina Manuel Flores,Mann Koren K Arteriosclerosis, thrombosis, and vascular biology OBJECTIVE:To determine whether arsenic inhibits transcriptional activation of the liver X receptor (LXR)/retinoid X receptor (RXR) heterodimers, thereby impairing cholesterol efflux from macrophages and potentially contributing to a proatherogenic phenotype. METHODS AND RESULTS:Arsenic is an important environmental contaminant and has been linked to an increased incidence of atherosclerosis. Previous findings showed that arsenic inhibits transcriptional activation of type 2 nuclear receptors, known to heterodimerize with RXR. Environmentally relevant arsenic doses decrease the LXR/RXR ligand-induced expression of the LXR target genes (ABCA1 and SREBP-1c). Arsenic failed to decrease cAMP-induced ABCA1 expression, suggesting a selective LXR/RXR effect. This selectivity correlated with the ability of arsenic to decrease LXR/RXR ligand-induced, but not cAMP-induced, cholesterol efflux. By using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we found that arsenic inhibits the ability of LXR/RXR ligands to induce activation markers on the ABCA1 and SREBP-1c promoters and blocks ligand-induced release of the nuclear receptor coexpressor (NCoR) from the promoter. Arsenic did not alter the ability of LXR to transrepress inflammatory gene transcription, further supporting our hypothesis that RXR is the target for arsenic inhibition. CONCLUSIONS:Exposure to arsenic enhances the risk of atherosclerosis. We present data that arsenic inhibits the transcriptional activity of the liver X receptor, resulting in decreased cholesterol-induced gene expression and efflux from macrophages. Therefore, arsenic may promote an athersclerotic environment by decreasing the ability of macrophages to efflux excess cholesterol, thereby favoring increased plaque formation. 10.1161/ATVBAHA.110.205500
    Regulation of cyclin D1 by arsenic and microRNA inhibits adipogenesis. Beezhold Kevin,Klei Linda R,Barchowsky Aaron Toxicology letters Low-dose chronic exposure to arsenic in drinking water represents a global public health concern with established risks for metabolic and cardiovascular disease, as well as cancer. While the linkage between arsenic and disease is strong, further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of its pathogenicity is required. Previous reports demonstrated the ability of arsenic to interfere with adipogenesis, which may mediate its effects in promoting metabolic disease. We hypothesized that microRNA are important regulators of most if not all mesenchymal stem cell processes that are dysregulated by arsenic exposure to impair lipogenesis. Arsenic increased the expression of miR-29b in white adipose tissue, as well as human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) isolated from adipose tissue. Exposing hMSCs to arsenic increased abundance of miR-29b and cyclin D1 to promote proliferation over differentiation. Paradoxically, inhibition of miR-29b enhanced the inhibitory effect of arsenic on differentiation. This paradox was attributed to a requirement for miR-29 in regulating cyclin D1 expression as stable inhibition of miR-29b eliminated the cyclic pattern of cyclin D1 expression. Temporal regulation of cyclin D1 is critical for adipogenic differentiation, and the data suggest a paradigm where arsenic disruption of miR-29b regulatory pathways impairs adipogenic differentiation and ultimately adipose metabolic homeostasis. 10.1016/j.toxlet.2016.12.002
    p38α MAPK is required for arsenic-induced cell transformation. Kim Hong-Gyum,Shi Chengcheng,Bode Ann M,Dong Zigang Molecular carcinogenesis Arsenic exposure has been reported to cause neoplastic transformation through the activation of PcG proteins. In the present study, we show that activation of p38α mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is required for arsenic-induced neoplastic transformation. Exposure of cells to 0.5 μM arsenic increased CRE and c-Fos promoter activities that were accompanied by increases in p38α MAPK and CREB phosphorylation and expression levels concurrently with AP-1 activation. Introduction of short hairpin (sh) RNA-p38α into BALB/c 3T3 cells markedly suppressed arsenic-induced colony formation compared with wildtype cells. CREB phosphorylation and AP-1 activation were decreased in p38α knockdown cells after arsenic treatment. Arsenic-induced AP-1 activation, measured as c-Fos and CRE promoter activities, and CREB phosphorylation were attenuated by p38 inhibition in BALB/c 3T3 cells. Thus, p38α MAPK activation is required for arsenic-induced neoplastic transformation mediated through CREB phosphorylation and AP-1 activation. 10.1002/mc.22331
    Arsenic modifies serotonin metabolism through glucuronidation in pancreatic β-cells Carmean Christopher M,Yokoi Norihide,Takahashi Harumi,Oduori Okechi S,Kang Christie,Kanagawa Akiko,Kirkley Andrew G,Han Guirong,Landeche Michael,Hidaka Shihomi,Katoh Miki,Sargis Robert M,Seino Susumu American journal of physiology. Endocrinology and metabolism In arsenic-endemic regions of the world, arsenic exposure correlates with diabetes mellitus. Multiple animal models of inorganic arsenic (iAs, as As) exposure have revealed that iAs-induced glucose intolerance manifests as a result of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction. To define the mechanisms responsible for this β-cell defect, the MIN6-K8 mouse β-cell line was exposed to environmentally relevant doses of iAs. Exposure to 0.1-1 µM iAs for 3 days significantly decreased glucose-induced insulin secretion (GIIS). Serotonin and its precursor, 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), were both decreased. Supplementation with 5-HTP, which loads the system with bioavailable 5-HTP and serotonin, rescued GIIS, suggesting that recovery of this pathway was sufficient to restore function. Exposure to iAs was accompanied by an increase in mRNA expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide a6a (Ugt1a6a), a phase-II detoxification enzyme that facilitates the disposal of cyclic amines, including serotonin, via glucuronidation. Elevated Ugt1a6a and UGT1A6 expression levels were observed in mouse and human islets, respectively, following 3 days of iAs exposure. Consistent with this finding, the enzymatic rate of serotonin glucuronidation was increased in iAs-exposed cells. Knockdown by siRNA of Ugt1a6a during iAs exposure restored GIIS in MIN6-K8 cells. This effect was prevented by blockade of serotonin biosynthesis, suggesting that the observed iAs-induced increase in Ugt1a6a affects GIIS by targeting serotonin or serotonin-related metabolites. Although it is not yet clear exactly which element(s) of the serotonin pathway is/are most responsible for iAs-induced GIIS dysfunction, this study provides evidence that UGT1A6A, acting on the serotonin pathway, regulates GIIS under both normal and pathological conditions. 10.1152/ajpendo.00302.2018