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    A reliable RT-PCR-ELISA method for the detection of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) in farmed rainbow trout. Milne S A,Gallacher S,Cash P,Porter A J R Journal of virological methods A new method, termed RT-PCR-ELISA, was evaluated for ease of use, reliability and sensitivity when detecting infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) present in trout kidney tissue. The method had comparable sensitivity to existing PCR assays and could successfully detect 1.5 x 10(4) pfu IPNV in artificially contaminated trout kidney samples. The technique was easily established in a new laboratory and required no specialised equipment. The method had a high sample throughput capable of screening 96 samples per run, making the technique extremely time efficient. The RT-PCR-ELISA is a safe, quick, reliable technique, which has the potential for use as a standard virus detection method. 10.1016/j.jviromet.2005.09.003
    Comparison of glutathione S-transferase-Pi expression at mRNA levels in oesophageal mucosa using RT-PCR-ELISA in individuals with reflux diseases, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Rasmi Y,Allameh A,Nasseri-Moghaddam S,Gill P,Moghaddam M Forouzandeh,Hedayati M Clinical biochemistry OBJECTIVES:To develop a RT-PCR technique coupled with Enzyme Linked Immunosobant Assay (ELISA) i.e. RT-PCR-ELISA for measurement of class-Pi glutathione S-transferase (GST-P)-specific mRNA in esophageal diseases. METHODS:In this study, 66 esophageal tissue biopsies diagnosed as non-erosive reflux disease (NERD), gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), adenocarcinoma (ADC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) were used. Standardization of the RT-PCR-ELISA was carried out using specific GST-Pi and beta-actin primers, biotin labeled probe, DIG-labeling RT-PCR and anti-DIG-HRP conjugate. RESULTS:The results of RT-PCR-ELISA based on OD ratio of GST-Pi mRNA/beta-actin showed that there was no significant difference in GST-Pi expression in normal, NERD and GERD samples. Overexpression of GST-Pi in malignant tissues (ADC and SCC) was distinguishable. The OD ratio of GST-Pi mRNA expression to beta-actin mRNA was 1.17+/-0.13 and 1.3+/-0.13 in ADC and SCC samples, respectively, which is significantly higher (P<0.05) than matching control (0.78+/-0.06 and 0.85+/-0.07). CONCLUSIONS:RT-PCR-ELISA showed that GST-Pi expression was not altered in GERD and NERD esophagus, whereas, in ADC and SCC samples, it was significantly higher (P<0.05) as compared to inflamed and normal tissues. 10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2006.06.010
    Diagnostic evaluation of RT-PCR-ELISA for the detection of rabies virus. Aravindhbabu R P,Manoharan S,Ramadass P Virusdisease Rabies is primarily a disease of terrestrial and airborne mammals. In most cases, rabies is diagnosed primarily on the basis of clinical symptoms and signs, and a corroborative history of or evidence of an animal bite, death of an animal and incomplete or no vaccination following exposure. The facility for laboratory diagnosis and confirmation of rabies is available in only a few institutions in India. Diagnostic tests using conventional assays like fluorescent antibody test (FAT) are unreliable at times, despite the clinical diagnosis. Currently, there are a number of molecular tests that can be used to complement conventional tests in rabies diagnosis. We have developed and evaluated an RT-PCR-ELISA using a panel of brain tissue samples from rabies suspected animals of various species. This assay was able to detect rabies virus genome in all the 43 samples that were previously tested positive for rabies. Moreover this assay was shown to be 100 % sensitive and specific in detecting the rabies virus genome in post-mortem brain tissue samples from different species of animals. Our pilot study shows the potential of this assay as an alternative diagnostic test when the samples are unsuitable for use in FAT and also a supplementary test to FAT. In addition, the region of nucleoprotein gene amplified using this assay can be used for the molecular investigation of geographical origin of the field strains. 10.1007/s13337-013-0184-6
    Development of a multiplex RT-PCR-ELISA to identify four distinct species of tospovirus. Charoenvilaisiri Saengsoon,Seepiban Channarong,Bhunchoth Anjana,Warin Nuchnard,Luxananil Plearnpis,Gajanandana Oraprapai Journal of virological methods In this study, a multiplex RT-PCR-ELISA was developed to detect and differentiate four tospovirus species found in Thailand, namely Capsicum chlorosis virus (CaCV), Melon yellow spot virus (MYSV), Tomato necrotic ringspot virus (TNRV), and Watermelon silver mottle virus (WSMoV). In this system, nucleocapsid (N) gene fragments of four tospoviruses were simultaneously amplified and labeled with digoxigenin (DIG) in a single RT-PCR reaction using a pair of degenerate primers binding to the same conserved regions in all four tospovirus N genes. The DIG-labeled amplicons were distinguished into species by four parallel hybridizations to species-specific biotinylated probes in streptavidin-coated microtiter wells followed by ELISA detection using a peroxidase-conjugated anti-DIG antibody. Results indicated that the multiplex RT-PCR-ELISA assay could specifically identify each of these four tospoviruses without cross-reactivity between species or reactivity to healthy plant negative controls. Assay sensitivity was 10- to 1000-fold higher than conventional RT-PCR. When applied to naturally infected plants, all samples yielded concordant results between RT-PCR-ELISA and the reference RT-PCR. In conclusion, the multiplex RT-PCR-ELISA developed in this study has superior specificity, sensitivity, and high-throughput capacity compared to conventional RT-PCR and is an attractive alternative for the identification of different tospovirus species. 10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.03.003
    Development of duplex PCR-ELISA for simultaneous detection of Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli O157: H7 in food. Hu Jinqiang,Huang Runna,Wang Yi,Wei Xiangke,Wang Zhangcun,Geng Yao,Jing Jianzhou,Gao Hui,Sun Xincheng,Dong Caiwen,Jiang Chunpeng Journal of microbiological methods In the current study, a duplex PCR-ELISA method was developed targeting the specific genes, invA of Salmonella spp. and rfbE of Escherichia coli O157: H7, to detect one or both bacteria in food. In brief, PCR product amplified by PCR primer labeled with digoxin at the 5'-end and a probe labeled with biotin at the 3'-end can form dimer by nucleic acid hybridization which can be captured by binding of biotin to streptomycin coated in ELISA plate before using enzyme-labeled anti-digoxin antibody and substrate to develop color. Also, evaluation of the duplex PCR-ELISA method was conducted in different food samples including milk, juice, cabbage, shrimp, chicken, pork and beef. Results indicated that the duplex PCR-ELISA developed here was specific when using 25 non-target bacteria strains as controls and was sensitive with a limit of detection (LOD) of 1 CFU/mL, 1, 000 times higher than that of the duplex PCR method and was repeatable regardless of inter- and intra-batch variations. The duplex PCR-ELISA method established in the present study has proven to be highly specific, sensitive and repeatable. It has the potential to be applied in such fields as clinical diagnosis of food-borne diseases, food hygiene monitoring and pathogen detection in food. 10.1016/j.mimet.2018.10.017
    Application of PCR-ELISA in molecular diagnosis. Sue Mei Jean,Yeap Swee Keong,Omar Abdul Rahman,Tan Sheau Wei BioMed research international Polymerase chain reaction-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (PCR-ELISA) is an immunodetection method that can quantify PCR product directly after immobilization of biotinylated DNA on a microplate. This method, which detects nucleic acid instead of protein, is a much more sensitive method compared to conventional PCR method, with shorter analytical time and lower detection limit. Its high specificity and sensitivity, together with its semiquantitative ability, give it a huge potential to serve as a powerful detection tool in various industries such as medical, veterinary, and agricultural industries. With the recent advances in PCR-ELISA, it is envisaged that the assay is more widely recognized for its fast and sensitive detection limit which could improve overall diagnostic time and quality. 10.1155/2014/653014
    Development of duplex RT-PCR-ELISA for the simultaneous detection of hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus. Tahk Hongmin,Lee Min Hwa,Lee Kang Bum,Cheon Doo-Sung,Choi Changsun Journal of virological methods This study aimed to develop a specific and sensitive duplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (duplex RT-PCR-ELISA) for hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV). Duplex RT-PCR-ELISA could detect and differentiate HAV and HEV with specific probes. When ELISA technique was used to detect probe-bound RT-PCR products, duplex RT-PCR-ELISA could detect as little as 0.1 ng/μL HAV and HEV from clinical samples. Human norovirus, enterovirus, poliovirus, murine norovirus and feline calicivirus were used for the specificity test; all were negative. Therefore duplex RT-PCR-ELISA can be used for the simultaneous detection of HAV and HEV in contaminated fecal samples. 10.1016/j.jviromet.2011.04.030
    Multiplex-RT-PCR-ELISA panel for detecting mosquito-borne pathogens: Plasmodium sp. preserved and eluted from dried blood spots on sample cards. Koliopoulos Philip,Kayange Neema Mathias,Daniel Tim,Huth Florian,Gröndahl Britta,Medina-Montaño Grey Carolina,Pretsch Leah,Klüber Julia,Schmidt Christian,Züchner Antke,Ulbert Sebastian,Mshana Steven E,Addo Marylyn,Gehring Stephan Malaria journal BACKGROUND:Children are the most vulnerable group affected by malaria and other tropical, vector-borne diseases in low-resource countries. Infants presenting with acute onset fever represent a major sector of outpatient care in the Lake Victoria region. Misclassification and overuse of antibiotics and anti-malarial medications are consistent problems. Identifying the prevalent mosquito-borne pathogens in the region will reduce the prescription of non-indicated medicines. METHODS:The literature was reviewed focusing on the mosquito-borne pathogens most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Accordingly, an assay comprised of a multiplex-reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (multiplex-RT-PCR-ELISA) was designed and validated in its ability to identify and differentiate nine human mosquito-borne pathogens including eight arboviruses and Plasmodium sp., the aetiologic agents of malaria. Blood samples obtained from 132 children suspected of having malaria were spotted and preserved on Whatman 903 protein sample cards. Multiplex-RT-PCR-ELISA analysis was assessed and compared to results obtained by blood smear microscopy and the malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT). RESULTS:Nine out of nine pathogens were amplified specifically by the multiplex-RT-PCR-ELISA panel. Twenty-seven out of 132 paediatric patients presenting with acute fever were infected with Plasmodium sp., confirmed by multiplex-RT-PCR. The results of blood smear microscopy were only 40% sensitive and 92.8% specific. The malaria RDT, on the other hand, detected acute Plasmodium infections with 96.3% sensitivity and 98.1% specificity. The preservation of Plasmodium sp. in clinical sera and whole blood samples spotted on sample cards was evaluated. The duration of successful, sample card storage was 186 to 312 days. CONCLUSIONS:Reliable, easy-to-use point of care diagnostic tests are a powerful alternative to laboratory-dependent gold standard tests. The multiplex-RT-PCR-ELISA amplified and identified nine vector-borne pathogens including Plasmodium sp. with great accuracy. Translation of improved diagnostic approaches, i.e., multiplex-RT-PCR-ELISA, into effective treatment options promises to reduce childhood mortality and non-indicated prescriptions. 10.1186/s12936-021-03595-4
    Detecting hepatitis E virus with a reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Seo Dong Joo,Tahk Hongmin,Lee Kang Bum,Lee Min Hwa,Son Na Ry,Seo Sheungwoo,Cheon Doo-Sung,Lee Bog-Hieu,Choi Changsun Food and environmental virology This study aimed to develop a specific and sensitive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RT-PCR-ELISA) for detecting hepatitis E virus (HEV). Eight sets of primers and biotinylated probes designed in the ORF2-ORF3 overlapping region of HEV were tested for sensitivity. The ability of nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RT-PCR-ELISA to detect HEV was compared. RT-PCR-ELISA was 10-100 times more sensitive than nested RT-PCR and could detect 0.01 ng/μl HEV in swine stool samples. In terms of specificity, RT-PCR-ELISA did not falsely detect HEV when other viruses such as hepatitis A virus, rotavirus, norovirus genotype I, norovirus genotype II, and Feline calicivirus were present. Therefore, RT-PCR-ELISA appears to be a sensitive and specific method for detecting HEV. 10.1007/s12560-011-9073-6
    RT-PCR-ELISA as a tool for diagnosis of low-pathogenicity avian influenza. Dybkaer Karen,Munch Mette,Handberg Kurt J,Jørgensen Poul H Avian diseases A one-tube reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction coupled with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (RT-PCR-ELISA) was developed for the rapid detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) in clinical specimens. A total of 419 swab pools were analyzed from chickens experimentally infected with low-pathogenicity AIV, from wild aquatic birds, and from domestic ducks. The AIV was detected in 32 swab pools by RT-PCR-ELISA compared to 23 by virus isolation (VI) in embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) chicken eggs. Thus, 39% more specimens were positive by RT-PCR-ELISA than by VI. Two of the twenty-three VI-positive specimens were negative when tested by RT-PCR-ELISA. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the RT-PCR-ELISA was 91% and 97%, respectively, using VI in SPF eggs as the gold reference standard. 10.1637/0005-2086-47.s3.1075
    Application and evaluation of RT-PCR-ELISA for the nucleoprotein and RT-PCR for detection of low-pathogenic H5 and H7 subtypes of avian influenza virus. Dybkaer Karen,Munch Mette,Handberg Kurt J,Jørgensen Poul H Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc Three 1-tube Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reactions (RT-PCR) directed against the genes encoding the nucleoprotein (NP) and the H5 and H7 hemagglutinin (HA) gene, respectively, were used for detection of avian influenza virus (AIV) in various specimens. A total of 1,040 samples originating from chickens experimentally infected with 2 different low pathogenic avian influenza viruses, from domestic ducks and from wild aquatic birds were examined. The outcome of 1) the universal AIV RT-PCR including a PCR-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedure directed against NP (NP RT-PCR-ELISA) and 2) the subtype specific RT-PCR for H5 and H7 were compared to the results obtained by inoculation of the same specimens into the allantoic cavity of embryonated specific pathogen free (SPF) hen's eggs. Using inoculation in SPF fowl eggs as standard the sensitivity of the NP RT-PCR-ELISA and the RT-PCR for H5 or H7 was 91% and 94%, and the corresponding specificity 98% and 96%. In comparison with inoculation into eggs an additional of 9 samples were positive by NP RT-PCR-ELISA and 13 samples were positive by RT-PCR for one of the HA subtypes. Hence, the 3 RT-PCR procedures described are fast, sensitive and specific for detecting AIV and subtyping H5 and H7 and they are obvious alternatives when testing large numbers of samples. 10.1177/104063870401600109