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    Cerebrospinal fluid findings in COVID-19: a multicenter study of 150 lumbar punctures in 127 patients. Jarius Sven,Pache Florence,Körtvelyessy Peter,Jelčić Ilijas,Stettner Mark,Franciotta Diego,Keller Emanuela,Neumann Bernhard,Ringelstein Marius,Senel Makbule,Regeniter Axel,Kalantzis Rea,Willms Jan F,Berthele Achim,Busch Markus,Capobianco Marco,Eisele Amanda,Reichen Ina,Dersch Rick,Rauer Sebastian,Sandner Katharina,Ayzenberg Ilya,Gross Catharina C,Hegen Harald,Khalil Michael,Kleiter Ingo,Lenhard Thorsten,Haas Jürgen,Aktas Orhan,Angstwurm Klemens,Kleinschnitz Christoph,Lewerenz Jan,Tumani Hayrettin,Paul Friedemann,Stangel Martin,Ruprecht Klemens,Wildemann Brigitte, Journal of neuroinflammation BACKGROUND:Comprehensive data on the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile in patients with COVID-19 and neurological involvement from large-scale multicenter studies are missing so far. OBJECTIVE:To analyze systematically the CSF profile in COVID-19. METHODS:Retrospective analysis of 150 lumbar punctures in 127 patients with PCR-proven COVID-19 and neurological symptoms seen at 17 European university centers RESULTS: The most frequent pathological finding was blood-CSF barrier (BCB) dysfunction (median QAlb 11.4 [6.72-50.8]), which was present in 58/116 (50%) samples from patients without pre-/coexisting CNS diseases (group I). QAlb remained elevated > 14d (47.6%) and even > 30d (55.6%) after neurological onset. CSF total protein was elevated in 54/118 (45.8%) samples (median 65.35 mg/dl [45.3-240.4]) and strongly correlated with QAlb. The CSF white cell count (WCC) was increased in 14/128 (11%) samples (mostly lympho-monocytic; median 10 cells/µl, > 100 in only 4). An albuminocytological dissociation (ACD) was found in 43/115 (37.4%) samples. CSF L-lactate was increased in 26/109 (24%; median 3.04 mmol/l [2.2-4]). CSF-IgG was elevated in 50/100 (50%), but was of peripheral origin, since QIgG was normal in almost all cases, as were QIgA and QIgM. In 58/103 samples (56%) pattern 4 oligoclonal bands (OCB) compatible with systemic inflammation were present, while CSF-restricted OCB were found in only 2/103 (1.9%). SARS-CoV-2-CSF-PCR was negative in 76/76 samples. Routine CSF findings were normal in 35%. Cytokine levels were frequently elevated in the CSF (often associated with BCB dysfunction) and serum, partly remaining positive at high levels for weeks/months (939 tests). Of note, a positive SARS-CoV-2-IgG-antibody index (AI) was found in 2/19 (10.5%) patients which was associated with unusually high WCC in both of them and a strongly increased interleukin-6 (IL-6) index in one (not tested in the other). Anti-neuronal/anti-glial autoantibodies were mostly absent in the CSF and serum (1509 tests). In samples from patients with pre-/coexisting CNS disorders (group II [N = 19]; including multiple sclerosis, JC-virus-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, HSV/VZV encephalitis/meningitis, CNS lymphoma, anti-Yo syndrome, subarachnoid hemorrhage), CSF findings were mostly representative of the respective disease. CONCLUSIONS:The CSF profile in COVID-19 with neurological symptoms is mainly characterized by BCB disruption in the absence of intrathecal inflammation, compatible with cerebrospinal endotheliopathy. Persistent BCB dysfunction and elevated cytokine levels may contribute to both acute symptoms and 'long COVID'. Direct infection of the CNS with SARS-CoV-2, if occurring at all, seems to be rare. Broad differential diagnostic considerations are recommended to avoid misinterpretation of treatable coexisting neurological disorders as complications of COVID-19. 10.1186/s12974-021-02339-0
    Etiology is the key determinant of neuroinflammation in epilepsy: Elevation of cerebrospinal fluid cytokines and chemokines in febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome and febrile status epilepticus. Kothur Kavitha,Bandodkar Sushil,Wienholt Louise,Chu Stephanie,Pope Alun,Gill Deepak,Dale Russell C Epilepsia OBJECTIVE:To investigate intrathecal inflammation using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines and chemokines in a subgroup of pediatric epilepsy patients with frequent daily seizures. METHODS:We measured 32 cytokines/chemokines using multiplex immunoassay in CSF collected from pediatric patients with febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES)/FIRES-related disorders (FRD; n = 6), febrile status epilepticus (FSE; n = 8), afebrile status epilepticus (ASE; n = 8), and chronic epilepsy with frequent daily seizures (n = 21) and compared the results with noninflammatory neurological disorders (NIND; n = 20) and encephalitis (n = 43). We also performed longitudinal CSF cytokine/chemokine studies in three cases with FIRES/FRD. RESULTS:The median age of onset of seizures was 2.4 years (range = 0.08-12.5). Median CSF timing from the onset of seizures was longer in chronic epilepsy (540 days), whereas FIRES, FSE, and ASE had CSF tested within 1-2 days of onset of seizures (P < .001). The elevation of cytokines/chemokines was higher in FIRES followed by FSE, when compared to chronic epilepsy and NIND controls. Th1-associated cytokines/chemokines (TNF-α, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11), IL-6, CCL2, CCL19, and CXCL1 (P < .05) were elevated in FIRES, in contrast to the elevation of a broader network of cytokines/chemokines in encephalitis. The cytokines/chemokines (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, and CCL19) were elevated in FSE when compared to ASE despite the similar median seizure duration and timing of CSF testing in relation to seizures. Chronic epilepsy generally lacked significant elevation of cytokines/chemokines despite frequent daily seizures. The median concentrations of the cytokines/chemokines rapidly declined on serial testing during the course of illness in all three FIRES/FRD cases. SIGNIFICANCE:We identify significant differences in CSF cytokine/chemokine profile between FIRES/FRD and encephalitis. The prominent elevation of CSF cytokines and chemokines in FIRES/FRD and to a lesser extent FSE highlights that the cytokine/chemokine elevation is significantly associated with the etiology of the underlying process rather than purely reactive. However, it is unclear whether the immune activation contributes to the disease process. 10.1111/epi.16275
    Serum and cerebrospinal fluid cytokines in children with acute encephalopathy. Kawahara Yuta,Morimoto Akira,Oh Yukiko,Furukawa Rieko,Wakabayashi Kei,Monden Yukifumi,Osaka Hitoshi,Yamagata Takanori Brain & development BACKGROUND:The pathogenesis of acute encephalopathy (AE) remains unclear, and a biomarker has not been identified. METHODS:Levels of 49 cytokines and chemokines, including osteopontin (OPN), were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of children with AE (n = 17) or febrile convulsion (FC; n = 8; control group). The AE group included acute necrotizing encephalopathy (n = 1), acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD; n = 3), clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion (MERS; n = 4), and unclassified acute encephalopathy (UCAE; n = 9) that does not meet the criteria of syndrome classification. Five individuals with AE had neurological sequelae or death (poor prognosis), whereas 12 were alive without neurological sequelae (good prognosis). RESULTS:The CSF:serum ratios of OPN, CC chemokine ligand (CCL)4, and interleukin (IL)-10 were significantly higher in AE than in FC. The CSF levels of macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) were significantly higher in the poor-prognosis group than in the good-prognosis group. The CSF:serum ratios of OPN were significantly higher in AESD and in MERS than in FC. The CSF:serum ratios of MIF and OPN were higher in MERS than in UCAE or FC. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that microglia-related cytokines and chemokines such as OPN, MIF, and LIF could be novel biomarkers of AE, in addition to the previously reported IL-10 and CCL4, and that MIF and LIF may be markers of poor prognosis. 10.1016/j.braindev.2019.11.002
    Association between pro-inflammatory cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid and headache in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Journal of neuroimmunology OBJECTIVE:To investigate the relationship between the dynamic changes of pro-inflammatory cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and headache in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH)at hospital admission. METHODS:CSF was collected from patients with aSAH at four time points (days 1, 3, 5, and 7; n = 216) from January 2017 to August 2017 at the Department of Neurosurgery of the First Affiliated Hospital of Wannan Medical College. We measured CSF levels ofinterleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results were statistically analyzed to determine the relationship between the dynamic changes of pro-inflammatory cytokines in CSF and headache after aSAH. RESULTS:The concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α in CSF showed dynamic changes after aSAH. Spearman correlation coefficient analysis revealed that high Hunt-hess grade and modified Fisher scale were associated with a worse headache after aSAH on days 1 and 7 (all P < 0.05). High values of intracranial pressure (ICP) and high levels of CSF pro-inflammatory cytokines were associated with a worse headache after aSAH at four time points (all P < 0.05). However, no significant associations were found between headache and sex, and age. After multiple regression analysis, the Hunt-hess grade, the levels of IL-6 and the levels of TNF-α were associated with headache severity at day 1 (all P < 0.05). The ICP, the levels of IL-1β and the levels of TNF-α were associated with headache severity on day 3, 5 and 7 (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Pro-inflammatory cytokines in CSF are closely associated with a headache after aSAH, and therefore may be a therapeutic target in the future. 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2022.577841
    Plasma and cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory cytokines in perinatal depression. Miller Emily S,Sakowicz Allie,Roy Archana,Yang Amy,Sullivan John T,Grobman William A,Wisner Katherine L American journal of obstetrics and gynecology BACKGROUND:While perinatal depression is one of the most common complications of pregnancy, there is an insufficient understanding of the mechanistic underpinnings of disease. While an association between peripheral inflammatory cytokines and major depressive disorder has been demonstrated, cytokines cannot freely cross the blood-brain barrier, and thus, they give little insight into alternations in brain function. Because the brain is in direct communication with the cerebrospinal fluid, assessment of inflammation in the cerebrospinal fluid may be more directly related to the biologic markers of affective change. OBJECTIVE:Our objectives were to examine the association between perinatal depression and inflammatory cytokines in plasma, the association between perinatal depression and inflammatory cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid, and the correlations between plasma and cerebrospinal fluid inflammatory cytokines. STUDY DESIGN:This was a prospective, observational study of women with a singleton gestation at term undergoing a scheduled cesarean delivery. Women were screened for depression and those with depressive symptomatology preferentially enrolled. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview was administered to confirm the clinical diagnosis of depression. Maternal plasma and cerebrospinal fluid were collected preoperatively and cytokines measured via flow cytometry. Bivariable and multivariable analyses were used to determine the association between each cytokine and perinatal depression. Correlations were measured between the cytokines in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. RESULTS:Of the 117 women who met inclusion criteria, 76 (65%) screened positive for depression, 15 (20%) of whom met the clinical diagnostic criteria for depression. There were no significant associations between any of the plasma cytokines and perinatal depression in our sample. Conversely, in multivariable analyses, higher cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-1β (adjusted odds ratio, 232.7, 95% confidence interval, 5.9-9148.5), interleukin-23 (adjusted odds ratio, 22.1, 95% confidence interval, 1.7-294.5), and interleukin-33 (adjusted odds ratio, 1.7, 95% confidence interval, 1.1-2.6) concentrations were significantly associated with increased odds of perinatal depression. The plasma and cerebrospinal fluid cytokine concentrations were not strongly correlated. CONCLUSION:Higher concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid cytokines were associated with perinatal depression. These cerebrospinal fluid cytokines were not strongly correlated with plasma cytokines, and accordingly, plasma cytokines were not significantly associated with perinatal depression. Central neuroinflammation, as opposed to peripheral inflammation, may represent a mechanistic pathway that contributes to perinatal depression. 10.1016/j.ajog.2018.12.015
    Investigating the role of T helper related cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid for the differential diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in pre-treated paediatric patients. Jafari Maedeh,Mohammadzadeh Jahani Peyman,Choopanizadeh Maral,Jamalidoost Marzieh,Pourabbas Bahman,Pouladfar Gholamreza,Kalani Mehdi Biomarkers : biochemical indicators of exposure, response, and susceptibility to chemicals Given the challenge in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis (BM), we assessed different cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of antibiotics pre-treated patients. Laboratory tests and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed for 480 CSF samples from children (2 m to 14 y), suspicious to meningitis and pre-treated with antibiotics, to detect bacterial and viral aetiologies. Sixty-one CSF were included and the levels of 13 cytokines such as IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-21, IL-22, IFN-γ and TNF-α were measured using flow-cytometry. All bacterial cultures were negative, but 29 and eight CSF were positive for bacterial and viral agents by PCR. IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ were significantly up-regulated in BM. T helper (Th) subset cytokines showed significant upregulation of Th1, Th2, Th17, Th22 and Tfh cytokines in BM. Common Th subsets cytokines (IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α) were significantly different between the study groups. ROC curve analysis revealed good AUC for common Th related cytokines in discriminating BM. In pre-treated BM patients with negative bacterial cultures, cytokines IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ can predict BM which could be beneficial for rapid diagnosis and treatment to decrease the sequela of the disease. 10.1080/1354750X.2020.1714737
    Associations of cerebrospinal fluid amyloidogenic nanoplaques with cytokines in Alzheimer's disease. Aksnes Mari,Aass Hans Christian D,Tiiman Ann,Edwin Trine Holt,Terenius Lars,Bogdanović Nenad,Vukojević Vladana,Knapskog Anne-Brita Translational neurodegeneration BACKGROUND:The aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) is central in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently it has been shown that specifically, larger, Thioflavin T-binding Aβ aggregates are associated with increased neuroinflammation and cytokine release. This study was aimed to quantify fibrillary amyloid aggregates, so-called nanoplaques, and investigate their relationship with cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). METHODS:CSF was collected from 111 patients assessed for cognitive complaints at the Oslo University Hospital Memory Clinic. The patients were grouped based on their amyloid status. The CSF nanoplaque concentration was quantified with the Thioflavin T-fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (ThT-FCS) assay. The levels of nine cytokines (eotaxin-1, granulocyte stimulating factor, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-7, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, gamma-induced protein 10, macrophage inflammatory protein [MIP]-1α, and MIP-1β) were quantified with a magnetic bead-based multiplex assay and read on a Luminex IS 200 instrument. RESULTS:There were 49 amyloid-negative and 62 amyloid-positive patients in the cohort; none of the cytokines differed significantly between the amyloid groups. The increased nanoplaque levels were associated with levels of MIP-1β below the lower limit of quantification, and with decreased levels of MIP-1α and IL-8. The associations remained significant when adjusted for age, sex, cognitive function, apolipoprotein ε4 status and CSF core biomarker levels. CONCLUSION:The cytokine levels were not associated with amyloid status in this cohort. The nanoplaque levels were negatively associated with MIP-1β, MIP-1α and IL-8, which is in line with recent findings suggesting that the upregulation of some cytokine markers has a protective role and is negatively associated with AD progression. 10.1186/s40035-021-00244-3