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    Interventions for Glaucoma Medication Adherence Improvement: A Network Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Ophthalmology TOPIC:Comparative effectiveness of interventions to improve glaucoma medication adherence. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:High adherence to ocular hypotensive therapy is essential for prevention of visual impairment in glaucoma patients. Various types of intervention for adherence enhancement have been proposed, although there is still no firm evidence of their relative efficacies. METHODS:We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and ClinicalTrials.gov on November 30, 2021. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) entailing interventions for improved adherence to ocular hypotensive therapy were identified. A network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed, and the following 11 interventions (single category or combinations of categories) were compared: (1) standard of care ([SOC] control), (2) short message service, (3) telephone call, (4) device reminder, (5) motivational interview, (6) multimedia education, (7) physician education, (8) provision of own medical records, (9) incentives, (10) tailored care, and (11) enhanced SOC. The primary outcome was the postintervention mean adherence score. The standardized mean differences (SMDs) were analyzed, and the effectiveness was ranked by P-score (probability of being best treatment). We appraised trials using the Cochrane risk-of-bias tool for RCTs. Confidence of results was assessed by Confidence in Network Meta-analysis. RESULTS:We obtained data for 19 RCTs (4981 participants). Tailored care, as inclusive of face-to-face needs assessment and a personalized care plan, was superior to SOC in improving adherence (SMD, 1.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.08-2.48; P-score, 0.810). Multifaceted interventions that included tailored care showed further adherence improvement: tailored care + multimedia education (SMD, 1.44; 95% CI, 0.20-2.67; 0.850) and tailored care + multimedia education + device reminder (SMD, 1.61; 95% CI, 0.75-2.47; 0.914). The ranking of the remaining interventions by P-scores was as follows: incentives (0.606), short message service (0.535), enhanced SOC (0.458), multimedia education (0.430), device reminder (0.429), telephone call (0.401), provision of own medical records (0.391), physician education (0.281), SOC (0.230), and motivational interview (0.165). CONCLUSIONS:The NMA indicated that tailored care can improve adherence to glaucoma medication compared with SOC. A multifaceted approach might yield additional improvements. 10.1016/j.ophtha.2022.06.025