Predisposing factors in occupational lung cancer: inorganic minerals and chromium.
Ding M,Shi X,Castranova V,Vallyathan V
Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology : official organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cancer. Inhalation of inorganic minerals such as asbestos and crystalline silica, and metals such as arsenic, beryllium, chromium, nickel, and vanadium, may promote directly and indirectly enhanced generation of ROS at a persistent level in concert with chronic inflammation. Perpetual ROS generation can cause specific molecular changes resulting in the activation or inactivation of transcription factors that may alter gene expression leading to cell proliferation, differentiation, and carcinogenesis. The mechanisms involved in the signal transduction leading to these processes are the subject of intense investigation. In this review, some of the recent findings from our laboratories concerning key molecular events elicited by asbestos, crystalline silica, and chromium are presented. These include genotoxicity, DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, activation of transcription factors activator protein-1 (AP-1) or nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), and p53 or k-ras gene alterations. From these studies, it is evident that ROS signaling is critical for the responses of cytokines, growth factors, and activation or inactivation of transcription factors that promote carcinogenesis.
Possible roles of nitric oxide and redox cell signaling in metal-induced toxicity and carcinogenesis: a review.
Buzard G S,Kasprzak K S
Journal of environmental pathology, toxicology and oncology : official organ of the International Society for Environmental Toxicology and Cancer
Toxic doses of transition metals are capable of disturbing the natural oxidation/reduction balance in cells through various mechanisms stemming from their own complex redox reactions with endogenous oxidants and effects on cellular antioxidant systems. The resulting oxidative stress may damage redox-sensitive signaling molecules, such as NO, S-nitrosothiols, AP-1, NF-kappaB, IkappaB, p53, p21ras, and others, and thus derange the cell signaling and gene expression systems. This, in turn, may produce a variety of toxic effects, including carcinogenesis. Experimental support for the relevance of oxidative damage to the mechanisms of metal toxicity and carcinogenicity is particularly strong for two essential (but toxic when overdosed) metals--iron and copper-- and three well-established human metal carcinogens--nickel, chromium, and cadmium. However, along with more specific effects of toxic metals associated with their selective binding to particular cell constituents and affecting calcium signaling, oxidative damage seems to become important as well in explaining mechanisms of pathogenicity of other metals, such as lead, mercury, and arsenic.
Metals, toxicity and oxidative stress.
Valko M,Morris H,Cronin M T D
Current medicinal chemistry
Metal-induced toxicity and carcinogenicity, with an emphasis on the generation and role of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, is reviewed. Metal-mediated formation of free radicals causes various modifications to DNA bases, enhanced lipid peroxidation, and altered calcium and sulfhydryl homeostasis. Lipid peroxides, formed by the attack of radicals on polyunsaturated fatty acid residues of phospholipids, can further react with redox metals finally producing mutagenic and carcinogenic malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal and other exocyclic DNA adducts (etheno and/or propano adducts). Whilst iron (Fe), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), vanadium (V) and cobalt (Co) undergo redox-cycling reactions, for a second group of metals, mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni), the primary route for their toxicity is depletion of glutathione and bonding to sulfhydryl groups of proteins. Arsenic (As) is thought to bind directly to critical thiols, however, other mechanisms, involving formation of hydrogen peroxide under physiological conditions, have been proposed. The unifying factor in determining toxicity and carcinogenicity for all these metals is the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Common mechanisms involving the Fenton reaction, generation of the superoxide radical and the hydroxyl radical appear to be involved for iron, copper, chromium, vanadium and cobalt primarily associated with mitochondria, microsomes and peroxisomes. However, a recent discovery that the upper limit of "free pools" of copper is far less than a single atom per cell casts serious doubt on the in vivo role of copper in Fenton-like generation of free radicals. Nitric oxide (NO) seems to be involved in arsenite-induced DNA damage and pyrimidine excision inhibition. Various studies have confirmed that metals activate signalling pathways and the carcinogenic effect of metals has been related to activation of mainly redox-sensitive transcription factors, involving NF-kappaB, AP-1 and p53. Antioxidants (both enzymatic and non-enzymatic) provide protection against deleterious metal-mediated free radical attacks. Vitamin E and melatonin can prevent the majority of metal-mediated (iron, copper, cadmium) damage both in vitro systems and in metal-loaded animals. Toxicity studies involving chromium have shown that the protective effect of vitamin E against lipid peroxidation may be associated rather with the level of non-enzymatic antioxidants than the activity of enzymatic antioxidants. However, a very recent epidemiological study has shown that a daily intake of vitamin E of more than 400 IU increases the risk of death and should be avoided. While previous studies have proposed a deleterious pro-oxidant effect of vitamin C (ascorbate) in the presence of iron (or copper), recent results have shown that even in the presence of redox-active iron (or copper) and hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate acts as an antioxidant that prevents lipid peroxidation and does not promote protein oxidation in humans in vitro. Experimental results have also shown a link between vanadium and oxidative stress in the etiology of diabetes. The impact of zinc (Zn) on the immune system, the ability of zinc to act as an antioxidant in order to reduce oxidative stress and the neuroprotective and neurodegenerative role of zinc (and copper) in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease is also discussed. This review summarizes recent findings in the metal-induced formation of free radicals and the role of oxidative stress in the carcinogenicity and toxicity of metals.
Advances in carcinogenic metal toxicity and potential molecular markers.
International journal of molecular sciences
Metal compounds such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, mercury, and nickel are classified as carcinogens affecting human health through occupational and environmental exposure. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in tumor formation are not well clarified. Interference of metal homeostasis may result in oxidative stress which represents an imbalance between production of free radicals and the system's ability to readily detoxify reactive intermediates. This event consequently causes DNA damage, lipid peroxidation, protein modification, and possibly symptomatic effects for various diseases including cancer. This review discusses predominant modes of action and numerous molecular markers. Attention is paid to metal-induced generation of free radicals, the phenomenon of oxidative stress, damage to DNA, lipid, and proteins, responsive signal transduction pathways with major roles in cell growth and development, and roles of antioxidant enzymatic and DNA repair systems. Interaction of non-enzymatic antioxidants (carotenoids, flavonoids, glutathione, selenium, vitamin C, vitamin E, and others) with cellular oxidative stress markers (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase) as well as certain regulatory factors, including AP-1, NF-κB, Ref-1, and p53 is also reviewed. Dysregulation of protective pathways, including cellular antioxidant network against free radicals as well as DNA repair deficiency is related to oncogenic stimulation. These observations provide evidence that emerging oxidative stress-responsive regulatory factors and DNA repair proteins are putative predictive factors for tumor initiation and progression.
Free radicals, metals and antioxidants in oxidative stress-induced cancer.
Valko M,Rhodes C J,Moncol J,Izakovic M,Mazur M
Oxygen-free radicals, more generally known as reactive oxygen species (ROS) along with reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are well recognised for playing a dual role as both deleterious and beneficial species. The "two-faced" character of ROS is substantiated by growing body of evidence that ROS within cells act as secondary messengers in intracellular signalling cascades, which induce and maintain the oncogenic phenotype of cancer cells, however, ROS can also induce cellular senescence and apoptosis and can therefore function as anti-tumourigenic species. The cumulative production of ROS/RNS through either endogenous or exogenous insults is termed oxidative stress and is common for many types of cancer cell that are linked with altered redox regulation of cellular signalling pathways. Oxidative stress induces a cellular redox imbalance which has been found to be present in various cancer cells compared with normal cells; the redox imbalance thus may be related to oncogenic stimulation. DNA mutation is a critical step in carcinogenesis and elevated levels of oxidative DNA lesions (8-OH-G) have been noted in various tumours, strongly implicating such damage in the etiology of cancer. It appears that the DNA damage is predominantly linked with the initiation process. This review examines the evidence for involvement of the oxidative stress in the carcinogenesis process. Attention is focused on structural, chemical and biochemical aspects of free radicals, the endogenous and exogenous sources of their generation, the metal (iron, copper, chromium, cobalt, vanadium, cadmium, arsenic, nickel)-mediated formation of free radicals (e.g. Fenton chemistry), the DNA damage (both mitochondrial and nuclear), the damage to lipids and proteins by free radicals, the phenomenon of oxidative stress, cancer and the redox environment of a cell, the mechanisms of carcinogenesis and the role of signalling cascades by ROS; in particular, ROS activation of AP-1 (activator protein) and NF-kappaB (nuclear factor kappa B) signal transduction pathways, which in turn lead to the transcription of genes involved in cell growth regulatory pathways. The role of enzymatic (superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD), catalase, glutathione peroxidase) and non-enzymatic antioxidants (Vitamin C, Vitamin E, carotenoids, thiol antioxidants (glutathione, thioredoxin and lipoic acid), flavonoids, selenium and others) in the process of carcinogenesis as well as the antioxidant interactions with various regulatory factors, including Ref-1, NF-kappaB, AP-1 are also reviewed.
Signal transduction pathways: targets for green and black tea polyphenols.
Park Ann M,Dong Zigang
Journal of biochemistry and molecular biology
Tea is one of the most popular beverages consumed in the world and has been demonstrated to have anti-cancer activity in animal models. Research findings suggest that the polyphenolic compounds, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate found primarily in green tea, and theaflavin-3,3'-digallate, a major component of black tea, are the two most effective anti-cancer factors found in tea. Several mechanisms to explain the chemopreventive effects of tea have been presented but others and we suggest that tea components target specific cell-signaling pathways responsible for regulating cellular proliferation or apoptosis. These pathways include signal transduction pathways leading to activator protein-1 (AP-1) and/or nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). AP-1 and NF-kappaB are transcription factors that are known to be extremely important in tumor promoterinduced cell transformation and tumor promotion, and both are influenced differentially by the MAP kinase pathways. The purpose of this brief review is to present recent research data from other and our laboratory focusing on the tea-induced cellular signal transduction events associated with the MAP kinase, AP-1, and NF-kappaB pathways.
Arsenic and urinary bladder cell proliferation.
Luster Michael I,Simeonova Petia P
Toxicology and applied pharmacology
Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that a close association exists between the elevated levels of arsenic in drinking water and the incidence of certain cancers, including transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. We have employed in vitro and in vivo models to examine the effects of sodium arsenite on the urinary bladder epithelium. Mice exposed to 0.01% sodium arsenite in drinking water demonstrated hyperproliferation of the bladder uroepithelium within 4 weeks after initiating treatment. This occurred in the absence of amorphous precipitates and was accompanied by the accumulation of trivalent arsenite (iAs(3+)), and to a lesser extent dimethylarsenic (DMA), arsenate (iAs(5+)), and monomethylarsenic (MMA) in bladder tissue. In contrast to the bladder, urinary secretion was primarily in the form of DMA and MMA. Arsenic-induced cell proliferation in the bladder epithelium was correlated with activation of the MAP kinase pathway, leading to extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase activity, AP-1 activation, and expression of AP-1-associated genes involved in cell proliferation. Activation of the MAP kinase pathway involved both epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor-dependent and -independent events, the latter involving Src activation. Studies summarized in this review suggest that arsenic accumulates in urinary bladder epithelium causing activation of specific signaling pathways that lead to chronic increased cell proliferation. This may play a non-epigenetic role in carcinogenesis by increasing the proliferation of initiated cells or increasing the mutational rate.
Effect of arsenic on transcription factor AP-1 and NF-kappaB DNA binding activity and related gene expression.
Hu Yu,Jin Ximei,Snow Elizabeth T
Both acute (24 h) and chronic (10-20 week) exposure of human fibroblast cells to low dose sodium arsenite (As(III)) significantly affects activating protein-1 (AP-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B) DNA binding activity. Short-term treatment with 0.1-5 microM As(III) up-regulates expression of c-Fos and c-Jun and the redox regulators, thioredoxin (Trx) and Redox factor-1 (Ref-1) and activates both AP-1 and NF-kappa B binding. Chronic exposure to 0.1 or 0.5 microM As(III) decreased c-Jun, c-Fos and Ref-1 protein levels and AP-1 and NF-kappa B binding activity, but increased Trx expression. Short term exposure to phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (TPA), a phorbol ester tumour promoter, or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) also activates AP-1 and NF-kappa B binding. However, pre-treatment with As(III) prevents this increase. These results suggest that As(III) may alter AP-1 and NF-kappa B activity, in part, by up-regulating Trx and Ref-1. The different effects of short- versus long-term As(III) treatment on acute-phase response to oxidative stress reflect changes in the expression of Ref-1, c-Fos and c-Jun, but not Trx.
Yeast AP-1 like transcription factors (Yap) and stress response: a current overview.
Rodrigues-Pousada Claudina,Devaux Frédéric,Caetano Soraia M,Pimentel Catarina,da Silva Sofia,Cordeiro Ana Carolina,Amaral Catarina
Microbial cell (Graz, Austria)
Yeast adaptation to stress has been extensively studied. It involves large reprogramming of genome expression operated by many, more or less specific, transcription factors. Here, we review our current knowledge on the function of the eight Yap transcription factors (Yap1 to Yap8) in , which were shown to be involved in various stress responses. More precisely, Yap1 is activated under oxidative stress, Yap2/Cad1 under cadmium, Yap4/Cin5 and Yap6 under osmotic shock, Yap5 under iron overload and Yap8/Arr1 by arsenic compounds. Yap3 and Yap7 seem to be involved in hydroquinone and nitrosative stresses, respectively. The data presented in this article illustrate how much knowledge on the function of these Yap transcription factors is advanced. The evolution of the Yap family and its roles in various pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungal species is discussed in the last section.
Role of oxidative stress in arsenic-induced toxicity.
Lantz R Clark,Hays Allison M
Drug metabolism reviews
Arsenic is recognized as a carcinogen for human skin, bladder, and lung, following either ingestion or inhalation; however the exact mode of action of environmentally relevant exposure has not been determined. Because arsenic in the environment exists in several oxidative states and can interact with thiols, it is thought that arsenic toxicity is mediated through oxidative stress. Production of oxygen radicals following acute in vitro exposures has been demonstrated. However, our research has chosen to focus on the role of oxidative stress following whole animal exposure to environmentally relevant doses of arsenic. Following a 28-d inhalation of arsenic or cigarette smoke or both, there was a significant decrease in both the reduced and total glutathione levels in the combined arsenic and smoke group compared to groups exposed to arsenic or smoke alone. This correlated with a 5-fold increase in DNA oxidation. Lungs processed for immunohistochemistry localization of 8-oxo-dG showed increased staining in nuclei of airway epithelium and subadjacent interstitial cells. Increases in DNA oxidation were not due to increased inflammation. Although inhalation of arsenic is an important occupational exposure, the majority of human exposures occurs through ingestion of arsenic. Our recent work has been devoted to the identification of altered pulmonary gene and protein expression following ingestion of environmentally relevant levels of arsenic in drinking water. We have found that, following chronic exposure, arsenic leads to misregulation of a number of genes and proteins in the lung. A large percentage of the altered genes and proteins are known to be regulated by redox-sensitive transcription factors, (SP1, NF kappaB, AP-1), suggesting that, at environmentally relevant levels of chronic exposure, arsenic may be acting through alteration of cellular redox status. Validation of the alterations seen in animal models of exposure is being carried out in humans.
Role of arsenic exposure in adipose tissue dysfunction and its possible implication in diabetes pathophysiology.
Renu Kaviyarasi,Madhyastha Harishkumar,Madhyastha Radha,Maruyama Masugi,Arunachlam Sankarganesh,V G Abilash
Exposure to arsenic in drinking water can stimulate a diverse number of diseases that originate from impaired lipid metabolism in adipose and glucose metabolism, leading to insulin resistance. Arsenic inhibits differentiation of adipocyte and mediates insulin resistance with diminutive information on arsenicosis on lipid storage and lipolysis. This review focused on different mechanisms and pathways involved in adipogenesis and lipolysis in adipose tissue during arsenic-induced diabetes. Though arsenic is known to cause type2 diabetes through different mechanisms, the role of adipose tissue in causing type2 diabetes is still unclear. With the existing literature, this review exhibits the effect of arsenic on adipose tissue and its signalling events such as SIRT3- FOXO3a signalling pathway, Ras -MAP -AP-1 cascade, PI(3)-K-Akt pathway, endoplasmic reticulum stress protein, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP10) and GPCR pathway with role of adipokines. There is a need to elucidate the different types of adipokines which are involved in arsenic-induced diabetes. The exhibited information brings to light that arsenic has negative effects on a white adipose tissue (WAT) by decreasing adipogenesis and enhancing lipolysis. Some of the epidemiological studies show that arsenic would causes obesity. Few studies indicate that arsenic might induces lipodystrophy condition. Further research is needed to evaluate the mechanistic link between arsenic and adipose tissue dysfunction which leads to insulin resistance.
The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Arsenic Toxicity.
Hu Yuxin,Li Jin,Lou Bin,Wu Ruirui,Wang Gang,Lu Chunwei,Wang Huihui,Pi Jingbo,Xu Yuanyuan
Arsenic poisoning is a global health problem. Chronic exposure to arsenic has been associated with the development of a wide range of diseases and health problems in humans. Arsenic exposure induces the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), which mediate multiple changes to cell behavior by altering signaling pathways and epigenetic modifications, or cause direct oxidative damage to molecules. Antioxidants with the potential to reduce ROS levels have been shown to ameliorate arsenic-induced lesions. However, emerging evidence suggests that constructive activation of antioxidative pathways and decreased ROS levels contribute to chronic arsenic toxicity in some cases. This review details the pathways involved in arsenic-induced redox imbalance, as well as current studies on prophylaxis and treatment strategies using antioxidants.