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    Single-cell protein activity analysis identifies recurrence-associated renal tumor macrophages. Cell Clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC) is a heterogeneous disease with a variable post-surgical course. To assemble a comprehensive ccRCC tumor microenvironment (TME) atlas, we performed single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) of hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic subpopulations from tumor and tumor-adjacent tissue of treatment-naive ccRCC resections. We leveraged the VIPER algorithm to quantitate single-cell protein activity and validated this approach by comparison to flow cytometry. The analysis identified key TME subpopulations, as well as their master regulators and candidate cell-cell interactions, revealing clinically relevant populations, undetectable by gene-expression analysis. Specifically, we uncovered a tumor-specific macrophage subpopulation characterized by upregulation of TREM2/APOE/C1Q, validated by spatially resolved, quantitative multispectral immunofluorescence. In a large clinical validation cohort, these markers were significantly enriched in tumors from patients who recurred following surgery. The study thus identifies TREM2/APOE/C1Q-positive macrophage infiltration as a potential prognostic biomarker for ccRCC recurrence, as well as a candidate therapeutic target. 10.1016/j.cell.2021.04.038
    Characterization of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in paired primary and metastatic renal cell carcinoma specimens. Baine Marina K,Turcu Gabriela,Zito Christopher R,Adeniran Adebowale J,Camp Robert L,Chen Lieping,Kluger Harriet M,Jilaveanu Lucia B Oncotarget Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the most chemo- and radio-resistant malignancies, with poor associated patient survival if the disease metastasizes. With recent advances in immunotherapy, particularly with PD-1/PD-L1 blockade, outcomes are improving, but a substantial subset of patients does not respond to the new agents. Identifying such patients and improving the therapeutic ratio has been a challenge, although much effort has been made to study PD-1/PD-L1 status in pre-treatment tumor. However, tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) content might also be predictive of response, and our goal was to characterize TIL content and PD-L1 expression in RCC tumors from various anatomic sites. Utilizing a quantitative immunofluorescence technique, TIL subsets were examined in matched primary and metastatic specimens. In metastatic specimens, we found an association between low CD8+ to Foxp3+ T-cell ratios and high levels of PD-L1. High PD-L1-expressing metastases were also found to be associated with tumors that were high in both CD4+ and Foxp3+ T-cell content. Taken together these results provide the basis for combining agents that target the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway with agonist of immune activation, particularly in treating RCC metastases with unfavorable tumor characteristics and microenvironment. In addition, CD8+ TIL density and CD8:Foxp3 T-cell ratio were higher in primary than metastatic specimens, supporting the need to assess distant sites for predictive biomarkers when treating disseminated disease. 10.18632/oncotarget.4572
    A single-cell map of dynamic chromatin landscapes of immune cells in renal cell carcinoma. Nature cancer A complete chart of the chromatin regulatory elements of immune cells in patients with cancer and their dynamic behavior is necessary to understand the developmental fates and guide therapeutic strategies. Here, we map the single-cell chromatin landscape of immune cells from blood, normal tumor-adjacent kidney tissue and malignant tissue from patients with early-stage clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). We catalog the T cell states dictated by tissue-specific and developmental-stage-specific chromatin accessibility patterns, infer key chromatin regulators and observe rewiring of regulatory networks in the progression to dysfunction in CD8 T cells. Unexpectedly, among the transcription factors orchestrating the path to dysfunction, NF-κB is associated with a pro-apoptotic program in late stages of dysfunction in tumor-infiltrating CD8 T cells. Importantly, this epigenomic profiling stratified ccRCC patients based on a NF-κB-driven pro-apoptotic signature. This study provides a rich resource for understanding the functional states and regulatory dynamics of immune cells in ccRCC. 10.1038/s43018-022-00391-0
    Single-cell sequencing links multiregional immune landscapes and tissue-resident T cells in ccRCC to tumor topology and therapy efficacy. Cancer cell Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) are highly immune infiltrated, but the effect of immune heterogeneity on clinical outcome in ccRCC has not been fully characterized. Here we perform paired single-cell RNA (scRNA) and T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing of 167,283 cells from multiple tumor regions, lymph node, normal kidney, and peripheral blood of two immune checkpoint blockade (ICB)-naïve and four ICB-treated patients to map the ccRCC immune landscape. We detect extensive heterogeneity within and between patients, with enrichment of CD8A tissue-resident T cells in a patient responsive to ICB and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in a resistant patient. A TCR trajectory framework suggests distinct T cell differentiation pathways between patients responding and resistant to ICB. Finally, scRNA-derived signatures of tissue-resident T cells and TAMs are associated with response to ICB and targeted therapies across multiple independent cohorts. Our study establishes a multimodal interrogation of the cellular programs underlying therapeutic efficacy in ccRCC. 10.1016/j.ccell.2021.03.007
    Pan-Cancer Immunogenomic Perspective on the Tumor Microenvironment Based on PD-L1 and CD8 T-Cell Infiltration. Ock Chan-Young,Keam Bhumsuk,Kim Sehui,Lee Ju-Seog,Kim Miso,Kim Tae Min,Jeon Yoon Kyung,Kim Dong-Wan,Chung Doo Hyun,Heo Dae Seog Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:There is currently no reliable biomarker to predict who would benefit from anti-PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. We comprehensively analyzed the immunogenomic properties in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) according to the classification of tumor into four groups based on PD-L1 status and tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte recruitment (TIL), a combination that has been suggested to be a theoretically reliable biomarker of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:The RNA expression levels of PD-L1 and CD8A in the samples in the pan-cancer database of TCGA (N = 9,677) were analyzed. Based on their median values, the samples were classified into four tumor microenvironment immune types (TMIT). The mutational profiles, PD-L1 amplification, and viral association of the samples were compared according to the four TMITs. RESULTS:The proportions of TMIT I, defined by high PD-L1 and CD8A expression, were high in lung adenocarcinoma (67.1%) and kidney clear cell carcinoma (64.8%) among solid cancers. The number of somatic mutations and the proportion of microsatellite instable-high tumor in TMIT I were significantly higher than those in other TMITs, respectively (P < 0.001). PD-L1 amplification and oncogenic virus infection were significantly associated with TMIT I, respectively (P < 0.001). A multivariate analysis confirmed that the number of somatic mutations, PD-L1 amplification, and Epstein-Barr virus/human papillomavirus infection were independently associated with TMIT I. CONCLUSIONS:TMIT I is associated with a high mutational burden, PD-L1 amplification, and oncogenic viral infection. This integrative analysis highlights the importance of the assessment of both PD-L1 expression and TIL recruitment to predict responders to immune checkpoint inhibitors. Clin Cancer Res; 22(9); 2261-70. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Schalper et al., p. 2102. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-15-2834
    Patients Selection for Immunotherapy in Solid Tumors: Overcome the Naïve Vision of a Single Biomarker. Signorelli Diego,Giannatempo Patrizia,Grazia Giulia,Aiello Marco Maria,Bertolini Federica,Mirabile Aurora,Buti Sebastiano,Vasile Enrico,Scotti Vieri,Pisapia Pasquale,Cona Maria Silvia,Rolfo Christian,Malapelle Umberto, BioMed research international Immunotherapy, and in particular immune-checkpoints blockade therapy (ICB), represents a new pillar in cancer therapy. Antibodies targeting Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and Programmed Death 1 (PD-1)/Programmed Death Ligand-1 (PD-L1) demonstrated a relevant clinical value in a large number of solid tumors, leading to an improvement of progression free survival and overall survival in comparison to standard chemotherapy. However, across different solid malignancies, the immune-checkpoints inhibitors efficacy is limited to a relative small number of patients and, for this reason, the identification of positive or negative predictive biomarkers represents an urgent need. Despite the expression of PD-L1 was largely investigated in various malignancies, (i.e., melanoma, head and neck malignancies, urothelial and renal carcinoma, metastatic colorectal cancer, and pancreatic cancer) as a biomarker for ICB treatment-patients selection, it showed an important, but still imperfect, role as positive predictor of response only in nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Importantly, other tumor and/or microenvironments related characteristics are currently under clinical evaluation, in combination or in substitution of PD-L1 expression. In particular, tumor-infiltrating immune cells, gene expression analysis, mismatch- repair deficiency, and tumor mutational landscape may play a central role in predicting clinical benefits of CTLA-4 and/or PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors. In this review, we will focus on the clinical evaluation of emerging biomarkers and how these may improve the naïve vision of a single- feature patients-based selection. 10.1155/2019/9056417
    Targeted literature review on use of tumor mutational burden status and programmed cell death ligand 1 expression to predict outcomes of checkpoint inhibitor treatment. Krieger Tina,Pearson Isobel,Bell Judith,Doherty Jim,Robbins Paul Diagnostic pathology BACKGROUND:To achieve optimal outcomes, an individual approach is needed in the treatment and care of patients. The potential value of tumor mutational burden (TMB) status and/or programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression as biomarkers to predict which patients are most likely to respond to checkpoint inhibitors has been explored in many studies. The goal of this targeted literature review is to identify data available for TMB status and/or PD-L1 expression that predict response to checkpoint inhibitors and/or anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) antibodies. METHODS:Targeted literature searches were performed using electronic medical databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and BIOSIS) and internet searches of specified sites. Bibliographies of key systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses also were reviewed for studies of interest. RESULTS:The review identified 27 studies of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), 40 studies of melanoma, 10 studies of urothelial cancer, and 5 studies of renal cell cancer indications. Studies also were identified in other cancer types, e.g., colorectal, breast, gastric, and Merkel cell cancer and squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Twelve trials, including six in NSCLC and four in melanoma, evaluated TMB as a predictor of outcomes. A TMB of ≥10 mutations per megabase was shown to be an effective biomarker in the CheckMate 227 study. PD-L1 expression was included in the majority of identified studies and was found to predict response in in melanoma and in all types of NSCLC. Prediction of response was not a prespecified analysis in some studies; others had small sample sizes and wide confidence intervals. A clear predictive trend for PD-L1 expression was not identified in renal, breast, gastric, or Merkel cell cancer. CONCLUSION:Based on data contained in this review, assessment of TMB status and PD-L1 expression may help enhance the prediction of response to checkpoint inhibition in some tumors, such as NSCLC and melanoma. In this rapidly growing area of research, further exploratory biomarkers are being investigated including tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, immune profiling (e.g., effector T cells or regulatory T cells), epigenetic signatures, T-cell receptor repertoire, proteomics, microbiome, and metabolomics. 10.1186/s13000-020-0927-9
    Prognostic and Predictive Value of Tumor-infiltrating Leukocytes and of Immune Checkpoint Molecules PD1 and PDL1 in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma. Stenzel Philipp J,Schindeldecker Mario,Tagscherer Katrin E,Foersch Sebastian,Herpel Esther,Hohenfellner Markus,Hatiboglu Gencay,Alt Juergen,Thomas Christian,Haferkamp Axel,Roth Wilfried,Macher-Goeppinger Stephan Translational oncology INTRODUCTION:Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) have been approved for patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), but not all patients benefit from ICI. One reason is the tumor microenvironment (TME) that has substantial influence on patient's prognosis and therapy response. Thus, we comprehensively analyzed the TME of ccRCC regarding prognostic and predictive properties. METHODS:Tumor-infiltrating CD3-positive T-cells, CD8-positive cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTLs), regulatory T-cells, B-cells, plasma cells, macrophages, granulocytes, programmed cell death receptor 1 (PD-1), and its ligand PD-L1 were examined in a large hospital-based series of ccRCC with long-term follow-up information (n = 756) and in another patient collective with information on response to nivolumab therapy (n = 8). Tissue microarray technique and digital image analysis were used. Relationship between immune cell infiltration and tumor characteristics, cancer-specific survival (CSS), or response to ICI was examined. RESULTS:Univariate survival analysis revealed that increased tumor-infiltrating B-cells, T-cells, and PD-1-positive cells were significantly associated with favorable CSS and high levels of intratumoral granulocytes, macrophages, cytotoxic T-cells, and PD-L1 significantly with poor CSS. High CTL or B-cell infiltration and high PD-L1 expression of ccRCC tumor cells qualified as independent prognostic biomarkers for patients' CSS. Significantly higher densities of intratumoral T-cells, CTLs, and PD-1-positive immune cells were observed in ccRCC with response to ICI compared with patients with mixed or no response (CD3: p = 0.003; CD8: p = 0.006; PD-1: p = 0.01). DISCUSSION:This study shows that subsets of tumor-infiltrating leukocytes in the TME and also PD-1/PD-L1 provide prognostic and predictive information for patients with ccRCC. 10.1016/j.tranon.2019.11.002
    PD-L1 Expression is Associated With Poor Prognosis in Renal Cell Carcinoma. Carlsson Jessica,Sundqvist Pernilla,Kosuta Vezira,Fält Anna,Giunchi Francesca,Fiorentino Michelangelo,Davidsson Sabina Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a protein which, when interacting with its receptor programmed death 1, acts as a negative regulator of the antitumor T-cell-mediated immune response. The prognostic value of PD-L1 expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has been controversial. In this study, the prognostic value of PD-L1 expression in RCC was evaluated by analyzing PD-L1 immunoreactivity in tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating immune cells (TIICs) in 346 RCC patients with long-term follow-up. PD-L1 positivity in tumor cells was associated with higher World Health Organization nucleolar grade (P<0.001), recurrence (P=0.011), and death due to RCC (P=0.031). PD-L1 positivity in TIICs was associated with higher nucleolar grade (P<0.001), higher T-stage (P=0.031), higher N-stage (P=0.01), recurrence (P=0.007), and death due to RCC (P=0.001). A significant positive association of time to cancer-specific death with both PD-L1-positive tumor cells and TIICs were also found. The data indicate that RCC patients with PD-L1-positive tumor cells and TIICs are at significant risk for cancer progression and the expression may be used as a complementary prognostic factor in the management of RCC patients. 10.1097/PAI.0000000000000766
    Prognostic Value of Vimentin Is Associated With Immunosuppression in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma. Yao Jia Xi,Chen Xiang,Zhu Yan Jun,Wang Hang,Hu Xiao Yi,Guo Jian Ming Frontiers in oncology Vimentin, a classical marker of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, reflects the invasiveness of cancer cells. Its role in the genesis and progression of tumor has been reported in various cancers, including renal cell carcinoma. However, the impact of vimentin on tumor microenvironment, particularly its implication with tumor-infiltrating immune cells, is unknown. We conducted this study in 231 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) to determine the potential relationship between vimentin and immune status. Using immunohistochemical staining, expression of vimentin, CD8, FOXP3, programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), and programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) were evaluated in resected tumor tissue. Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox regression models were used for survival analysis. Chi-square test, Fisher exact test, and Mann-Whitney -test were used for comparison between vimentin high and low groups. High expression of vimentin, stroma PD-L1, and PD-1 indicated poor overall survival, whereas low regulatory T cell or high CD8+ T cell infiltration indicated long overall survival. Stroma PD-L1 ( = 0.030), vimentin ( = 0.026) expression, and CD8 T cell infiltration ( < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors in mRCC. High vimentin expression was accompanied by high PD-1, PD-L1 expression, and increased regulatory T cell infiltration (all < 0.001), indicating immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment. We revealed that vimentin expression was associated with immunosuppression in mRCC, and the immune-suppressive status might be possibly posed by PD-1/PD-L1. Patients with high vimentin expression may acquire potential benefit from the recently approved PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors. However, further clinical trials are needed to validate our findings. 10.3389/fonc.2020.01181
    Multicentric Analytical and Inter-observer Comparability of Four Clinically Developed Programmed Death-ligand 1 Immunohistochemistry Assays in Advanced Clear-cell Renal Cell Carcinoma. Sommer Ulrich,Eckstein Markus,Ammann Johannes,Braunschweig Till,Macher-Göppinger Stephan,Schwamborn Kristina,Hieke-Schulz Stefanie,Harlow Greg,Flores Mike,Wullich Bernd,Wirth Manfred,Roth Wilfried,Knüchel Ruth,Weichert Wilko,Baretton Gustavo,Hartmann Arndt Clinical genitourinary cancer BACKGROUND:Previous studies have suggested increased clinical benefit with inhibition of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)/programmed death-1 in patients with PD-L1-positive locally advanced/metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We examined the analytical and inter-observer comparability of PD-L1-positivity across 4 clinically developed immunohistochemistry assays in clear-cell RCC (CCRCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Randomly selected archived, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded nephrectomy specimens from 201 patients with locally advanced CCRCC were screened using VENTANA SP142. From these, 30 cases were selected based on their tumor-infiltrating immune cell (IC) PD-L1 status (PD-L1-IC-positivity of < 1%, 1%-5%, or > 5%; 10 cases each). These cases were stained for PD-L1 using VENTANA SP142 and SP263, and DAKO 22C3 and 28-8, and scored for PD-L1 expression on IC and tumor cells (TC) by trained readers at 5 sites. RESULTS:Adjusted mean percentages of PD-L1-IC-positivity and PD-L1-TC-positivity varied from 4.0% to 4.9% and from 1.3% to 10.7%, respectively, between assays. Inter-assay differences in PD-L1-IC-positivity were small and non-significant (P = .1938 to .9963); for PD-L1-TC-positivity, significant differences were observed between VENTANA SP142 and the other assays (P ≤ .0001) and between VENTANA SP263 and DAKO 28-8 (P = .0248). Intra-class correlation values showed moderate-to-high inter-reader agreement for each assay for PD-L1-IC-positivity and for 3 assays for PD-L1-TC-positivity. CONCLUSIONS:In this first multicenter analytical comparison study of PD-L1 assays in CCRCC, PD-L1-positivity could be assessed reproducibly using all 4 assays for IC and for 3 of the 4 assays for TC. 10.1016/j.clgc.2020.02.009
    Expression of T-Cell Exhaustion Molecules and Human Endogenous Retroviruses as Predictive Biomarkers for Response to Nivolumab in Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma. Ficial Miriam,Jegede Opeyemi A,Sant'Angelo Miriam,Hou Yue,Flaifel Abdallah,Pignon Jean-Christophe,Braun David A,Wind-Rotolo Megan,Sticco-Ivins Maura A,Catalano Paul J,Freeman Gordon J,Sharpe Arlene H,Hodi F Stephen,Motzer Robert J,Wu Catherine J,Atkins Michael B,McDermott David F,Shukla Sachet A,Choueiri Toni K,Signoretti Sabina Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:We sought to validate levels of CD8 tumor-infiltrating cells (TIC) expressing PD-1 but not TIM-3 and LAG-3 (IF biomarker; Pignon and colleagues, 2019) and to investigate human endogenous retroviruses (hERV) as predictors of response to anti-PD-1 in a randomized trial of nivolumab (nivo) versus everolimus (evero) in patients with metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (mccRCC; CheckMate-025). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Tumor tissues (nivo: = 116, evero: = 107) were analyzed by multiparametric immunofluorescence (IF) and qRT-PCR. Genomic/transcriptomic analyses were performed in a subset of samples. Clinical endpoints included objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and durable response rate (DRR, defined as complete response or partial response with a PFS ≥ 12 months). RESULTS:In the nivo (but not evero) arm, patients with high-IF biomarker density (24/116, 20.7%) had higher ORR (45.8% vs. 19.6%, = 0.01) and DRR (33.3% vs. 14.1%, = 0.03) and longer median PFS (9.6 vs. 3.7 months, = 0.03) than patients with low-IF biomarker. By RNA sequencing, several inflammatory pathways ( < 0.1) and immune-related gene signature scores ( < 0.05) were enriched in the high-IF biomarker group. When combined with the IF biomarker, tumor cell (TC) PD-L1 expression (≥1%) further separated clinical outcomes in the nivo arm. expression was associated with increased DRR and longer PFS in nivo-treated patients. CONCLUSIONS:High levels of CD8 TIC expressing PD-1 but not TIM-3 and LAG-3 and expression predicted response to nivo (but not to evero) in patients with mccRCC. Combination of the IF biomarker with TC PD-L1 improved its predictive value, confirming our previous findings. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-3084
    Noninvasive evaluation of tumor immune microenvironment in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma using metabolic parameter from preoperative 2-[F]FDG PET/CT. Wu Caixia,Cui Yonggang,Liu Jumei,Ma Linlin,Xiong Yan,Gong Yanqing,Zhao Yanyan,Zhang Xi,Chen Silu,He Qun,Zhang Jianhua,Liu Meng,Fan Yan European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging PURPOSE:Nowadays, it is necessary to explore effective biomarkers associated with tumor immune microenvironment (TIME) noninvasively. Here, we investigated whether the metabolic parameter from preoperative 2-[F]FDG PET/CT could provide information related to TIME in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). METHODS:Ninety patients with newly diagnosed ccRCC who underwent 2-[F]FDG PET/CT prior to surgery were retrospectively reviewed. The immunological features included tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) density, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, and tumor immune microenvironment types (TIMTs). TIMTs were classified as TIMT I (positive PD-L1 and high TILs), TIMT II (negative PD-L1 and low TILs), TIMT III (positive PD-L1 and low TILs), and TIMT IV (negative PD-L1 and high TILs). The relationship between maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the primary lesion from 2-[F]FDG PET/CT and immunological features was analyzed. Cox proportional hazards analyses were performed to identify the prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS) after nephrectomy. RESULTS:Tumors with high TILs infiltration showed remarkable correlation with elevated SUVmax and aggressive clinicopathological characteristics, such as high World Health Organization/International Society of Urological Pathology (WHO/ISUP) grade. PD-L1 expression on tumor cells was positively associated with WHO/ISUP grade and negatively correlated with body mass index (BMI). However, no correlation was observed between SUVmax and PD-L1 expression, regardless of its spatial tissue distribution. SUVmax of TIMT I and IV was higher than that of TIMT II, but there was remarkable difference merely between TIMT II and IV. In multivariate analysis, SUVmax (P = 0.022, HR 3.120, 95% CI 1.175-8.284) and WHO/ISUP grade (P = 0.046, HR 2.613, 95% CI 1.017-6.710) were the significant prognostic factors for DFS. Six cases (16.2%) with normal SUVmax showed disease progression, while 25 cases (71.4%) with elevated SUVmax experienced disease progression. Conversely, the immunological features held no prognostic value. CONCLUSIONS:Our findings demonstrated that 2-[F]FDG PET/CT could provide metabolic information of TIME for ccRCC patients and develop image-guided therapeutic strategies accordingly. Patients with elevated preoperative SUVmax should be seriously considered, and perioperative immunotherapy might be beneficial for them. 10.1007/s00259-021-05399-9
    Coexpression of lymphocyte-activation gene 3 and programmed death ligand-1 in tumor infiltrating immune cells predicts worse outcome in renal cell carcinoma. International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology OBJECTIVES:Lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3) represents a potential immune checkpoint target for cancer treatment. We investigated LAG-3 expression and its prognostic value in patients with surgically treated clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and correlated LAG-3 expression with programmed cell death ligand 1(PD-L1). METHODS:We evaluated LAG-3 and PD-L1 expression using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays incorporating 134 primary excision specimens of clear cell RCC (ccRCC). The patients were analyzed as two groups: the whole cohort and those with metastatic RCC (mRCC). The cancer genome atlas (TCGA) data analysis of LAG-3 was done through UALCAN web servers. RESULTS:Using the UALCAN cancer transcriptional data analysis, we found that LAG-3 was overexpressed in ccRCC. LAG-3 expression was significantly correlated with PD-L1 expression in the whole cohort and in the mRCC group (all, < 0.05). Both LAG-3⁺ RCC and PD-L1⁺ RCC presented with a higher TNM stage and higher Fuhrman nuclear grade (all, 0.05). PD-L1⁺/LAG-3⁺ RCC and PD-L1⁻/LAG-3⁺ RCC showed poorer cancer-specific survival (CSS) than PD-L1⁻/LAG-3⁻ RCC (all, = 0.01). Similarly, PD-L1⁺/LAG-3⁺ mRCC and PD-L1⁻/LAG-3⁺ mRCC showed poorer CSS than PD-L1⁻/LAG-3⁻ mRCC (all, 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that PD-L1⁺/LAG-3⁺ mRCC (hazard ratio: 3.19; 95% CI: 0.77-13.67; = 0.033) was a predictor of poor CSS. CONCLUSION:Both LAG-3⁺ and PD-L1⁺ RCC have adverse pathological features, and their coexpression predicts worse clinical outcomes. Our findings suggest LAG-3 blockade in combination with programmed cell death 1/PD-L1 blockade as a potential therapeutic approach for RCC. 10.1177/03946320221125588
    Evaluation of PD-L1 (E1L3N, 22C3) expression in venous tumor thrombus is superior to its assessment in renal tumor in predicting overall survival in renal cell carcinoma. Urologic oncology BACKROUND:Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) frequently invades renal vein forming neoplastic thrombus. The expression of immune checkpoint receptors in RCC was addressed in multiple studies, but little is known about the expression and prognostic significance of programmed death ligand-1 in tumor thrombus. MATERIAL AND METHODS:The study aimed to evaluate the expression of PD-L1 within venous tumor thrombus and primary tumor using 2 independent antibody clones (22c3 and E1L3N) and to assess its value in predicting overall survival (OS) in the subgroup of patients with RCC and renal vein thrombus. RESULTS:Eighty-two patients with RCC and venous tumor thrombus that underwent nephrectomy were enrolled. The expression of PD-L1 was assessed utilizing tissue microarrays separately on tumor cells (TCs) and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). The frequency of PD-L1 expression on TCs and TILs varied between tumor and thrombus compartments and was dependent on the antibody clone used. The expression of PD-L1 on TCs and/or TILs was associated with worse OS irrespectively of the antibody and the analyzed compartment. Nevertheless, the best prognostic performance was noted for the combined assessment of PD-L1 expression on TCs and TILs in venous tumor thrombus with the use of 22c3 antibody. The multivariable Cox regression model predicting OS incorporated PD-L1 22c3 in venous tumor thrombus (hazards ratio [HR] = 3.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.63-8.14, P = 0.002) and nodal status (HR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.18-7.03, P = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS:PD-L1 may become a valuable tool for prognostic purposes in this specific subgroup of patients and be incorporated into the respective models qualifying for adjuvant treatment. 10.1016/j.urolonc.2022.02.001