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    Improved efficacy of Panax notoginseng saponin loaded into BSP/alginate microspheres for the treatment of alcoholic gastric ulcers. Zhou Bingqian,Zhang Wen,Wu Yujia,Yang Ying,Wang Na,Li Junsong,Fu Tingming,Wang Lingchong,Di Liuqing International journal of pharmaceutics Previously, we have reported the evaluations of alginate and Bletilla striata polysaccharide (BSP) in formulation of microsphere, which is a muco-adhesive carrier and can achieve a long duration of gastric retention. The combination of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) and B. striata is a traditional Chinese herbal formula that is used to treat gastric ulcers. BSP, an effective ingredient of B. striata, possesses both medicinal and excipient functions. Panax notoginseng saponin (PNS), which can easily dissolve in water, is the main effective ingredient in P. notoginseng (Burk.) for the treatment of gastric ulcers. However, microspheres containing PNS could directly cause drug leakage, ultimately reducing the encapsulation rate. In this study, PNS was fabricated into a hydrophobic dispersion with slow-release characteristics. Subsequently, PNS was packaged into BSP/alginate microspheres to improve the encapsulation rate. The prepared PNS-loaded microspheres were round, the release characteristics aligned with the Weibull equation, and the active ingredients were released by diffusion and erosion. The developed microspheres improved the effects of PNS and synergistically exerted the pharmaceutical effects of BSP on acute gastric ulcers. 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2021.120218
    Panax notoginseng for Inflammation-Related Chronic Diseases: A Review on the Modulations of Multiple Pathways. Xu Yu,Tan Hor-Yue,Li Sha,Wang Ning,Feng Yibin The American journal of Chinese medicine Panax notoginseng (P. notoginseng) is a well-known and commonly used Chinese herbal medicine in Asian countries. As one of the major species in the Panax genus, it has a distinct chemical composition and medical application compared with other species. P. notoginseng attracts attention and interest due to its potential therapeutic effects not only on blood diseases, but also other kinds of human chronic disorders. This paper critically reviewed the latest advance of knowledge on the pharmacological effects of P. notoginseng on a variety of chronic diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, arthritis, ischemia, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer disease and trauma, as well as hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and so on. As inflammation is considered the fundamental factor involved in the pathogenesis of chronic diseases, our review therefore focuses on understanding the involvement of classical inflammatory pathways underlying the mechanism of action of P. notoginseng. Potential clinical application was also discussed. Furthermore, by combining with network pharmacology, we introduced the major bioactive components of P. notoginseng, analyzed their cellular targets and associated signaling pathways. In conclusion, this review identified inflammatory pathway as the key signaling for determining the efficacy of P. notoginseng on chronic diseases. It is speculated that P. notoginseng is a multi-targeted agent with an anti-inflammatory property in the adjuvant and alternative treatment of human chronic diseases. 10.1142/S0192415X18500519
    Panax notoginseng Saponins Attenuate Neuroinflammation through TXNIP-Mediated NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Aging Rats. Zhou Zhiyong,He Menghan,Zhao Qingqing,Wang Dongfan,Zhang Changcheng,Liu Chaoqi,Zhao Haixia,Dun Yaoyan,He Yumin,Yuan Chengfu,Yuan Ding,Wang Ting Current pharmaceutical biotechnology INTRODUCTION:Microglia-mediated inflammatory responses play a crucial role in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. The TXNIP/NLRP3 pathway is a key pathway leading to microglial activation. Panax notoginseng Saponins (PNS) have been widely used for the treatment of stroke in China. OBJECTIVE:This study evaluates the anti-neuroinflammatory effect of PNS and investigates the mechanism via TXNIP-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in aging rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Eighteen-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the aging control group and PNS treated groups (n=15 each group). For PNS-treated groups, rats were administrated food with PNS at the doses of 10 mg/kg and 30 mg/kg for consecutive 6 months until they were 24-month old. Rats from the aging control group were given the same food without PNS. Twomonth- old rats were purchased and given the same food until they were 6-months old as the adult control group (n = 15). Then, the cortex and hippocampus were rapidly harvested and deposited. H&E staining was used to assess histo-morphological changes. Western blotting was carried out to detect the protein expression. Immunofluorescence was employed to measure the co-localization of NLRP3, TXNIP and Iba-1. In vitro model was established by LPS+ATP co-incubation in the BV2 microglia cell line. RESULTS:Aging rats exhibited increased activation of microglia, accompanied by a high level of IL-1β expression. Meanwhile, aging rats showed enhanced protein expression of TXNIP and NLRP3 related molecules, which co-localized with microglia. PNS treatment effectively reduced the number of degenerated neurons and reversed the activation of the TXNIP/NLRP3 inflammatory pathway. In vitro results showed that PNS up to 100 μg/ml had no significant toxicity on BV2 microglia. PNS (25, 50 μg/ml) effectively reduced the inflammatory response induced by LPS and ATP co-stimulation, thus inhibiting the expression of TXNIP/NLRP3 pathway-related proteins. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION:PNS treatment improved aging-related neuronal damage through inhibiting TXNIP mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation, which provided a potential target for the treatment of inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases. 10.2174/1389201021999201110204735
    Panax notoginseng saponins promote endothelial progenitor cell angiogenesis via the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Zhu Peiqi,Jiang Weidong,He Shixi,Zhang Tao,Liao Fengchun,Liu Di,An Xiaoning,Huang Xuanping,Zhou Nuo BMC complementary medicine and therapies BACKGROUND:Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is an effective treatment in craniomaxillofacial surgery. However, the issue of sufficient blood supply at the regeneration tissue has limited its wide application. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) is a Traditional Chinese Medicine that is commonly used to treat a range of angiogenic diseases. However, the mechanisms whereby PNS alters angiogenesis in endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have yet to be clarified. METHODS:EPCs were identified by immunofluorescence, confirmed by their uptake of fluorescently labeled Dil-ac-LDL and FITC-UEA-1. EPCs were treated with different concentrations of PNS, and the effects of PNS on cell proliferation were measured on the optimal concentration of PNS determined. The effects of PNS on angiogenesis and migration, angiogenic cytokines mRNA expression and the proteins of the Wnt pathway were investigated. Then knocked down β-catenin in EPCs and treated with the optimum concentrational PNS, their angiogenic potential was evaluated in tube formation and migration assays. In addition, the expression of cytokines associated with angiogenesis and Wnt/β-catenin was then assessed via WB and RT-qPCR. RESULTS:We were able to determine the optimal concentration of PNS in the promotion of cell proliferation, tube formation, and migration to be 6.25 mg/L. PNS treatment increased the mRNA levels of VEGF, bFGF, VE-Cadherin, WNT3a, LRP5, β-catenin, and TCF4. After knocked down β-catenin expression, we found that PNS could sufficient to partially reverse the suppression of EPC angiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS:Overall, 6.25 mg/L PNS can promote EPC angiogenesis via Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway activation. 10.1186/s12906-021-03219-z
    Panax notoginseng saponins promote liver regeneration through activation of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR cell proliferation pathway and upregulation of the AKT/Bad cell survival pathway in mice. BMC complementary and alternative medicine BACKGROUD:The regenerative capacity of the liver is crucial for the host to survive after serious hepatic injuries, tumor resection, or living donor liver transplantation. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) have been reported to exert protective effects during organ injuries. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of PNS on liver regeneration(LR) and on injuries induced by partial hepatectomy (PH). METHODS:We performed 70% partial PH on C57BL/6 J mice treated with or without PNS. LR was estimated by liver weight/body weight, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and cell proliferation, and the related cellular signals were analyzed by Western blot. RESULTS:Different concentrations of PNS promoted hepatocyte proliferation in vitro. Mice in the PNS group showed higher liver/body weight ratios at 2 d and 7 d (P < 0.05) after PH and lower levels of serum ALT and AST (P < 0.05) compared to those of mice in the normal control (NC) group. Histological analysis showed that the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA) at 2 d and 7 d after PH was significantly higher in the PNS group than in the NC group (P < 0.05). Mechanistically, the AKT/mTOR cell proliferation pathway and AKT/Bad cell survival pathway were activated by PNS, which accelerated hepatocyte proliferation and inhibited apoptosis (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:PNS promoted liver regeneration through activation of PI3K/AKT/mTOR and upregulated the AKT/Bad cell pathways in mice. 10.1186/s12906-019-2536-2
    Panax Notoginseng Saponins suppresses TRPM7 via the PI3K/AKT pathway to inhibit hypertrophic scar formation in vitro. Zhi Yan,Wang Hong,Huang Bin,Yan Gang,Yan Long-Zong,Zhang Wei,Zhang Jia Burns : journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries BACKGROUND:Hypertrophic scar (HS) formation, a type of dermal fibroproliferative condition, is a frequent complication in wound healing resulting from burns, severe trauma, and surgical procedures. The effects of Panax Notoginseng Saponins (PNS) on the HS formation remain relatively under-explored. Hence, this study was intended to interrogate anti-apoptosis and anti-fibrosis effects of PNS on the hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSFs) during HS formation and assess the involvement of TRPM7 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. METHODS:Using MTT and CCK-8 assays, we evaluated cell cytotoxicity and cell viability. Collagen I/III (col 1/3) and α-SMA expression levels were assessed through immunofluorescence and western blot, and cell migration, cell apoptosis and cell cycle were examined with applications of wound healing, TUNEL staining and flow cytometry. TRPM7, PI3K/AKT, TGF-β1 and related-proteins were quantified using RT-qPCR and western blot. RESULTS:PNS administration could suppress TRPM7 expression and the viability of HSFs in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, PNS could restrain the HS formation and ECM deposition by decreasing col 1/3 and α-SMA synthesis, suppressing cell migration, and boosting apoptosis and G1 arrest. Notably, this study revealed that PNS inhibited PI3K/AKT activation in HSFs. Besides, knockdown of TRPM7 enhanced therapeutic effects of PNS on HSFs, but overexpression markedly reversed above mentioned effects of PNS on HSFs. CONCLUSION:This study suggested that PNS hampered scar formation might via inhibiting ECM and stimulating cell apoptosis by modulating the PI3K/AKT signaling. Overall, these findings in the present study could support the use of PNS for preventing HS formation, and TRPM7 may be a novel molecular target for treating HS. 10.1016/j.burns.2020.10.003
    Proteomics and transcriptome reveal the key transcription factors mediating the protection of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Zhang Jingjing,Guo Feifei,Zhou Rui,Xiang Changpei,Zhang Yi,Gao Jinhuan,Cao Guangzhao,Yang Hongjun Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Transcription factors (TFs) play a critical role in the cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI). Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are extensively used in the treatment of acute cerebral ischemia in China, but the mechanism of their effects, especially at the TF level, remains unclear. In this study, a combination of transcriptomics, proteomics and network pharmacology analysis was used to identify the key TFs involved in the protection of PNS against middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced IRI. METHODS AND RESULTS:Sprague-Dawley rats which were subjected to 1.5 hours of MCAO-induced occlusionand then followed by reperfusion, were treated with PNS at a concentration of 36 mg/kg or 72 mg/kg daily for 7 days. PNS significantly decreased neurological deficient scores and infarction rate; prevented cerebral tissue damage; and reduced CASP3 activity, levels of TNF, IL1B and CCL2 after IRI. Through a combination of transcriptomics and proteomics, 9 critical TFs were identified, including Excision repair cross-complementing group 2 (ERCC2), Nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3 (NR4A3) and 7 other TFs. The targets of ERCC2 and NR4A3, such as Ubxn11, Ush2a, Numr2, Oxt, Ubxn11, Scrt2, Ttc34 and Lrrc23, were verified by using real-time PCR analysis. RNA-seq analyses indicated that PNS regulated nerve system development and inflammation, and the majority of the identified TFs were also involved in these processes. By using network pharmacology analysis, 73 chemical components in PNS were predicted to affect ERCC2, NR4A3 and 3 other identified TFs. CONCLUSION:ERCC2, NR4A3 and 7 other TFs were of importance in the protection of PNS against IRI. This study promoted the understanding of protective mechanism of PNS against cerebral IRI and facilitated the identification of possible targets of PNS. 10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153613
    Panax notoginseng saponins reduces the cisplatin-induced acute renal injury by increasing HIF-1α/BNIP3 to inhibit mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Li Qingqing,Zhang Yansong,Yang Yufang,Huang Songqing,Zou Xiaoqin,Wei Congying,Liang Taolin,Zhong Xiaobin Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie Cisplatin (CDDP) may induce apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC) and cause CDDP-induced acute kidney injury (CAKI) during cancer treatment, but yet lack of preventive measures and effective treatment. As a new Chinese herbal preparation, Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) has been found to mitigate CDDP-induced CAKI through elevating the expression of HIF-1α in the rat model, according to the data from our previous works. However, the underlying link between HIF-1α and apoptosis has not been well elucidated. The current study as a follow-up work, was aimed to reveal if PNS improves CAKI through HIF-1α-dependent apoptosis. A stably HIF-1α-knockdown human proximal tubular epithelial cell (HK-2) line was established by transfecting a HIF-1α-siRNA into HK-2 cells. Cell viability, mitochondrial function, cell apoptosis ratio and the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins (Cyt C, Bcl2, Bax, caspases 3) were determined. In order to elucidate the underlying mechanism, the expression of HIF-1α and BNIP3 were assessed. Our results showed that treatment of PNS rescued the cell viability of CDDP-injured HK-2 or HIF-1α-knockdown HK-2 cells, and increased the expression levels of ATP and MMP in HK-2 or HIF-1α-knockdown HK-2 cells which were reduced by CDDP. Moreover, PNS treatment decreased the CDDP or CDDP plus HIF-1α-knockdown-induced elevation of apoptosis and apoptosis-associated protein expressions. These findings demonstrate that PNS reduces CAKI through increasing HIF-1α to inhibit mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Hence, we suggest PNS as a protective and therapeutic new drug for CDDP treatment of cancers, which might have significant meaning of further research and application potential. 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111965
    Novel pectin-like polysaccharide from Panax notoginseng attenuates renal tubular cells fibrogenesis induced by TGF-β. Huang Chunfan,Jing Xiaoqi,Wu Qianhu,Ding Kan Carbohydrate polymers Renal fibrosis is the final common result of a variety of progressive injuries leading to chronic renal failure. However, there are no effective clinical available drugs for the treatment. Notoginsenoside from Panax notoginseng could ameliorate renal fibrosis. We hypothesized that polysaccharide from this herb might have similar bioactivity. Here, we elucidated structure of a novel pectin-like polysaccharide designed SQD4S2 with a netty antenna backbone of glucogalacturonan substituted by glucoarabinan, glucurogalactan and galactose residues from this herb. Interestingly, SQD4S2 could reverse the morphological changes of human renal tubular HK-2 cells induced by TGF-β. Mechanism study suggested that this bioactivity might associate with N-cadherin (CDH2), Snail (SNAI1), Slug (SNAI2) depression and E-cadherin (CDH1) enhancement. In addition, SQD4S2 could impede critical fibrogenesis associated molecules such as α-SMA, fibronectin, vimentin, COL1A1, COL3A1, FN1 and ACTA2 expression induced by TGF-β in HK-2 cells. Current findings outline a novel leading polysaccharide for against renal fibrosis new drug development. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118772
    Analytical methods and biological activities of Panax notoginseng saponins: Recent trends. Xu Congcong,Wang Weiwei,Wang Bing,Zhang Tong,Cui Xiuming,Pu Yiqiong,Li Ning Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen, also called Sanqi, is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, which has long history used as herbal medicines. It is currently an important medicinal material in China, holding the first place in the sale volume of the whole patent medicines market in China, and the market size of the single species has exceeded 10 billion yuan. In addition, P. notoginseng is an important constituent part of many famous Chinese patent medicines, such as Compound Danshen Dripping Pills and Yunnan Baiyao. P. notoginseng saponins (PNSs), which are the major active components of P. notoginseng, are a kind of chemical mixture containing different dammarane-type saponins. Many studies show that PNSs have been extensively used in medical research or applications, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, acute lung injury, cancer, and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, various PNS preparations, such as injections and capsules, have been made commercially available and are widely applied in clinical practice. AIM OF THE REVIEW:Since the safety and efficacy of compounds are related to their qualitative and quantitative analyses, this review briefly summarizes the analytic approaches for PNSs and their biological effects developed in the last decade. METHODOLOGY:This review conducted a systematic search in electronic databases, such as Pubmed, Google Scholar, SciFinder, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI, since 2009. The information provided in this review is based on peer-reviewed papers and patents in either English or Chinese. RESULTS:At present, the chromatographic technique remains the most extensively used approach for the identification or quantitation of PNSs, coupled with different detectors, among which the difference mainly lies in their sensitivity and specificity for analyzing various compounds. It is well-known that PNSs have traditionally strong activity on cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis, intracerebral hemorrhage, or brain injury. The recent studies showed that PNSs also responded to osteoporosis, cancers, diabetes, and drug toxicity. However, some other studies also showed that some PNSs injections and special PNS components might lead to some biological toxicity under certain dosages. CONCLUSION:This review may be used as a basis for further research in the field of quantitative and qualitative analyses, and is expected to provide updated and valuable insights into the potential medicinal applications of PNSs. 10.1016/j.jep.2019.02.035
    Panax notoginseng saponins induce apoptosis in retinoblastoma Y79 cells via the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. Liu Jingchen,Zhang Chunli,Jia Baoyun,Dong Kaiye,Li Mingjun,Qiu Dong,Li Lei,Xu Bing,Sun Shuguang,Li Cairui Experimental eye research This study aimed to investigate the effects of Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) on the proliferation, apoptosis, and PI3K/AKT signalling pathways of retinoblastoma Y79 cells to explore the possible mechanism of action of PNS on retinoblastoma. The effects of PNS and carboplatin on the proliferation of Y79 cells were examined using cell counting kit-8 assay. And the apoptosis rate, the mRNA and protein levels of apoptosis-related genes and the expression of PI3K/AKT pathway protein were assessed. PNS effectively inhibited the proliferation (P < 0.05) and increased apoptosis of Y79 cells (P < 0.05). Compared with the negative control, the Y79 cells treated with PNS had significantly increased (P < 0.05) mRNA and protein expression of Bax, caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 and elevated levels of cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-9 proteins (P < 0.05). The mRNA and protein expression of the apoptosis suppressor gene Bcl-2 was inhibited (P < 0.05), while the Bax/Bcl-2 values of the cells in the drug group were significantly higher than those in the negative group (P < 0.01). After treatment with PNS, the total protein expression of PI3K and AKT1 in the Y79 cells did not show significant differences compared with the negative group (P > 0.05), although the expression of phosphorylated proteins p-PI3K, p-AKT (Thr308), p-AKT (Ser473), and p-mTOR were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the antagonist protein of the pathway phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expression was increased (P < 0.01). Cellular alterations following inhibition of the PI3K/AKT pathway using LY294002 were similar to those of PNS, the proliferation of Y79 cells was also inhibited, and cell apoptosis increased (P < 0.001). The expression of Bax, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and activation proteins cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8, and cleaved caspase-9 was also significantly higher than that in the negative control (P < 0.05). Bcl-2 protein expression was decreased (P < 0.01), and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio was higher than that in the negative control (P < 0.001). Overall, we demonstrated that PNS effectively inhibited the proliferation and promoted the apoptosis of retinoblastoma Y79 cells. The apoptosis-promoting effect of PNS may involve the inhibition of the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway, which subsequently regulates the expression of apoptosis-related genes. 10.1016/j.exer.2022.108954
    Total Saponins of Panax notoginseng Activate Akt/mTOR Pathway and Exhibit Neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo against Ischemic Damage. Chinese journal of integrative medicine OBJECTIVE:To reveal the neuroprotective effect and the underlying mechanisms of a mixture of the main components of Panax notoginseng saponins (TSPN) on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury and oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) of cultured cortical neurons. METHODS:The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays. The morphology of dendrites was detected by immunofluorescence. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was developed in rats as a model of cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. The neuroprotective effect of TSPN was evaluated by neurological scoring, tail suspension test, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) and Nissl stainings. Western blot analysis, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence were used to measure the changes in the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway. RESULTS:MTT showed that TSPN (50, 25 and 12.5 µ g/mL) protected cortical neurons after OGD/R treatment (P<0.01 or P<0.05). Flow cytometry and live/dead cell assays indicated that 25 µ g/mL TSPN decreased neuronal apoptosis (P<0.05), and immunofluorescence showed that 25 µ g/mL TSPN restored the dendritic morphology of damaged neurons (P<0.05). Moreover, 12.5 µ g/mL TSPN downregulated the expression of Beclin-1, Cleaved-caspase 3 and LC3B-II/LC3B-I, and upregulated the levels of phosphorylated (p)-Akt and p-mTOR (P<0.01 or P<0.05). In the MCAO model, 50 µ g/mL TSPN improved defective neurological behavior and reduced infarct volume (P<0.05). Moreover, the expression of Beclin-1 and LC3B in cerebral ischemic penumbra was downregulated after 50 µ g/mL TSPN treatment, whereas the p-mTOR level was upregulated (P<0.05 or P<0.01). CONCLUSION:TSPN promoted neuronal survival and protected dendrite integrity after OGD/R and had a potential therapeutic effect by alleviating neurological deficits and reversing neuronal loss. TSPN promoted p-mTOR and inhibited Beclin-1 to alleviate ischemic damage, which may be the mechanism that underlies the neuroprotective activity of TSPN. 10.1007/s11655-021-3454-y
    A novel acidic polysaccharide from the residue of Panax notoginseng and its hepatoprotective effect on alcoholic liver damage in mice. Wang Chengxiao,Zheng Luoyao,Liu Shengnan,Guo Xiaoxi,Qu Yuan,Gao Mingju,Cui Xiuming,Yang Ye International journal of biological macromolecules This study presented the first purification and characterization of a hepatoprotective polysaccharide (PNPS-0.5 M) from the residue of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen. This polysaccharide included a backbone of (4 → 1)-linked GalA and branches of (1→)-linked Araf, (1→)-linked Rhap, and (5 → 1)-linked Araf and had an extremely high molecular weight (2600 kDa). We investigated the hepatoprotective effects of PNPS-0.5 M on mice with alcoholic liver damage (ALD). After administration of PNPS-0.5 M, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), triglyceride (TG), and hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) were reduced to normal. In contrast, hepatic levels of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) were elevated to normal. Further investigations indicated that PNPS-0.5 M activated Nrf2 signaling as a protective mechanism against Cyp2e1 toxicity in ALD mice. Meanwhile, it strengthened the ADH pathway and suppressed the CAT pathway of alcohol metabolism to prevent peroxide accumulation, thereby ameliorating ALD. In the present study, we describe a novel acidic polysaccharide from P. notoginseng with hepatoprotective activity that facilitates the development and utilization of P. notoginseng resources. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.02.034
    Structural characterization of a novel polysaccharide from Panax notoginseng residue and its immunomodulatory activity on bone marrow dendritic cells. Liu Shengnan,Yang Ye,Qu Yuan,Guo Xiaoxi,Yang Xiaoyan,Cui Xiuming,Wang Chengxiao International journal of biological macromolecules This study isolated and characterized a novel polysaccharide (PNPS-0.3) from the residue of Panax notoginseng by gradient elution. PNPS-0.3 mainly consisted of a backbone of →4)- α-D-GalAp-(1 → 4-β-L-Rhap-1 → 4)-β-D-Galp-(1 → residues, with an α-L-Araf-1 → 5)-α-L-Araf-(1 → branch connecting to the backbone at O-3 of →4-β-L-Rhap-1 → and a molecular weight of 76,655 Da. Furthermore, the adjuvant potential of PNPS-0.3 with bone marrow dendritic cells (BMDCs) was investigated. The results suggested that PNPS-0.3 could induce maturation of BMDCs by reshaping the morphology, upregulating the CD40, CD80, CD86 and MHC II membrane phenotypic markers, and by promoting the secretion of TNF-α and IL-12 proinflammatory cytokines. Moreover, PNPS-0.3 can trigger the DC-induced T-cell immune response, as indicated by the higher expressions of CD4, CD8, CD69, and MHC II in T cells with increased secretion of INF-β. Furthermore, PNPS-0.3 can bind to the pattern recognition receptors (PRR) of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR 4), Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR 2), and mannose receptor (MR) on BMDCs. PNPS-0.3 also upregulated the expressions of Myd88, IKKβ, PP65, T-P65, and NF-κB, suggesting that the TLR4/TLR2-NF-κB signaling pathway was involved in the immunomodulatory mechanism. In conclusion, the immunoadjuvant potential of novel PNPS-0.3 was characterized, which is beneficial for the future utilization and development of P. notoginseng. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.06.117
    Panax notoginseng saponins reverse P-gp-mediated steroid resistance in lupus: involvement in the suppression of the SIRT1/FoxO1/MDR1 signalling pathway in lymphocytes. Pan Feng,Li Yue-Jin,Lu Ying BMC complementary medicine and therapies BACKGROUND:P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated steroid resistance (SR) has been suggested to play a significant role in lupus nephritis (LN) treatment failure. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS), the main effective components of the traditional Chinese medicine notoginseng, exhibited potent reversal capability of P-gp-mediated SR, but its mechanism remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of PNS on reversing SR in lupus and its underlying mechanism in vivo and in vitro. METHODS:In this study, an SR animal and splenic lymphocyte model were established using low-dose methylprednisolone (MP). Flow cytometry was used to detect the effect of PNS on reversing P-gp-mediated SR and the expression of P-gp in different T-cells phenotypes. Serum levels of ANA and dsDNA in lupus mice were measured by ELISA. Apoptosis was identified by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the protein and mRNA expression levels of SIRT1, FoxO1, and MDR1 in SR splenic lymphocytes from lupus mice (SLCs/MPs). RESULTS:PNS could reverse the SR in lupus mice. Simultaneously, PNS increased the apoptotic effect of MP on SLCs/MP cells. The increased accumulation of rhodamine-123 (Rh-123) indicated that intracellular steroid accumulation could be increased by the action of PNS. Moreover, PNS decreased the expression of P-gp levels. Further experiments elucidated that the SIRT1/FoxO1/MDR1 signalling pathway existed in SLCs/MP cells, and PNS suppressed its expression level to reverse SR. The expression of P-gp in Th17 from SLCs/MP cells was increased, while PNS could reduce its level in a more obvious trend. CONCLUSION:The present study suggested that PNS reversed P-gp-mediated SR via the SIRT1/FoxO1/MDR1 signalling pathway, which might become a valuable drug for the treatment of SR in lupus. Th17 might be the main effector cell of PNS reversing SR. 10.1186/s12906-021-03499-5
    Panax notoginseng saponin R1 modulates TNF-α/NF-κB signaling and attenuates allergic airway inflammation in asthma. Xue Kunjiao,Ruan Lingying,Hu Jie,Fu Zhou,Tian Daiyin,Zou Wenjing International immunopharmacology BACKGROUD:Panax notoginseng saponin R1 (PNS-R1) is one of the most important chemical monomers derived from the panax notoginseng, and our previous study found that PNS-R1 reduced glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis in asthmatic airway epithelial cells. Thus, in this study, we explored the effects of the PNS-R1 on inflammation of allergic asthma. METHODS:The asthmatic mice were administered 15 mg/kg PNS-R1 by intraperitoneal injection three days before sensitized to OVA. The effects of PNS-R1 on asthmatic mice were detected by airway hyperresponsiveness, inflammation, mucus hypersecretion and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-13, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were studied. We also treated human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) with house dust mites (HDM) and then detected the secretion of cellular inflammatory factors (IL-13 and TNF-α). Western blot and immunofluorescence were used to examine the effect of PNS-R1 on TNF-α/NF-κB pathway. TNF-α/NF-κB/IKK signal pathway activator was used in PNS-R1-treated asthmatic mice. RESULTS:PNS-R1 significantly reduced the airway inflammatory, mucus secretion and hyperresponsiveness in asthma model. It also reduced the levels of IL-13, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-8 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and IgE and OVA-specific IgE in serum for asthma mice. PNS-R1 reduced IL-13 and TNF-α secretion in HDM-treated 16HBE cells. In addition, PNS-R1 suppressed TNF-α/NF-κB pathway in both asthmatic mice and 16HBE. Activation of NF-kB pathway reversed the therapeutic effect of PNS-R1 on asthmatic mice. CONCLUSION:The results indicated that PNS-R1 effectively suppresses allergic airway inflammation of asthma partly through TNF-α/NF-κB pathway. PNS-R1 may play a potential role in allergic asthma treatment in the future. 10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106860
    Inhibiting adhesion events by Panax notoginseng saponins and Ginsenoside Rb1 protecting arteries via activation of Nrf2 and suppression of p38 - VCAM-1 signal pathway. Fan Jishan,Liu Danning,He Cuiyao,Li Xiaohui,He Fengtian Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Asian countries, such as China, Japan, and Korea, have witnessed a history of more than 1000 years of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen's application as a famous traditional medicine for cardiovascular diseases (Zhou et al., 2004). The use of Panax notoginseng (Sanqi) was first recorded in "Bencao Gangmu", which was written by Li Shizhen, a Chinese pharmacologist of the MING dynasty, in 1578. It is included in "The Plant List" as one species of genus Panax (family Araliaceae). Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are the major active ingredients extracted from Panax notoginseng. AIM OF THE STUDY:This study investigated whether PNS and the active constituent Ginsenoside Rb1 inhibits adhesion events by regulating the NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) - p38 - vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The AS model rats were treated once daily with PNS (100mg/kg, i.p.) or Rb1 (40mg/kg, i.p.), and pathological changes in the aortas were observed by electron microscopy and Sudan IV staining. The serum levels of NO, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and TNF-α were measured. Upon treatment with HO to induce oxidative stress cell viability and LDH levels were measured after cells were cultured with PNS or Rb1. oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-induced VCAM-1 and p38 protein expression and THP1 cell adhesion to ECs were assessed after treatment with PNS or Rb1. Nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and expression of its target protein heme oxygenase (HO)-1 were observed in the respective presence of PNS or Rb1. RESULTS:Upon treatment with PNS or Rb1, pathological changes observed in the aortas of AS model rats were alleviated, and an increase in serum levels of NO and SOD and a decrease in TNF-α levels were observed. In vitro treatment with PNS or Rb1 protected endothelial cells (ECs) from HO-mediated cytotoxicity, suppressed oxLDL-induced p38 and VCAM-1 protein expression and inhibited THP1 cell adhesion to ECs. Finally, PNS and Rb1 treatment functionally activated Nrf2 in ECs. CONCLUSIONS:Nrf2, an EC protective system, suppresses monocyte adhesion events via the inhibition of the ROS - TNF-α - p38 - VCAM-1 pathway following treatment with PNS, with Rb1 specifically playing an important role among PNS active components. 10.1016/j.jep.2016.09.022
    [Research progress on saponins in Panax notoginseng and their molecular mechanism of anti-cerebral ischemia]. Xiang Chang-Pei,Zhou Rui,Zhang Yi,Zhang Jing-Jing,Yang Hong-Jun Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica Ischemic stroke is the most common form of stroke and one of the main diseases leading to death and disability in the world. Its pathological process is complex and changeable as a result of the interaction of multiple pathological links, such as oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation. Traditional Chinese medicine Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma is the dried roots and rhizomes of Panax notoginseng. In clinic, it is mainly used for the treatment of diseases of cardio-cerebral system and vascular system. Recent studies have shown that total saponins of P. notoginseng, the main active ingredients of P. notoginseng against cerebral ischemia, are complex, and can interfere with the enzyme-promoted cascade reaction through multiple pathways, multiple links and multiple targets, so as to exert its physiological effect. Therefore, it has become a hotspot in studies for prevention and treatment of cerebral ischemia. At present, a great advance has been made in studies on the mechanism of anti-cerebral ischemia of P. notoginseng saponins, but more in-depth studies are needed because of its complex mechanism. Therefore, in this paper, a total of 165 kinds of P. notoginseng saponins were summarized, and simply divided into protopanaxadiol saponins(55 species), protopanaxadiol saponins(37 species) and special structural type saponins(73 species) according to their structural types, so as to provide reference for further studies of P. notoginseng saponins. In addition, the effect of P. notoginseng on cerebral ischemia is clear, but its mechanism remains to be further explored. This paper summarizes the mechanism of P. notoginseng saponins against cerebral ischemia in five aspects: antioxidant stress, reduction of apoptosis, reduction of inflammatory reaction, inhibition of calcium overload and protection of blood-brain barrier. Four kinds of drugs commonly used in the treatment of cerebral ischemia were summarized, in order to provide a theoretical basis for further development and utilization of P. notoginseng saponins in the treatment of cerebral ischemia. 10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20200302.403
    Cardioprotection of Panax Notoginseng saponins against acute myocardial infarction and heart failure through inducing autophagy. Wang Dandan,Lv Linyan,Xu Yue,Jiang Kai,Chen Feng,Qian Jie,Chen Ming,Liu Guanping,Xiang Yaozu Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie Morbidity and mortality from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) remains substantial although interventional coronary reperfusion strategies are widely use and successful. MI remains the most common cause of heart failure (HF) worldwide. Here we demonstrated that Panax Notoginseng saponins (PNS), the extract of Panax notoginseng, exerts cardioprotective effect in AMI and the underlying mechanism refers to inducing cardiomyocyte autophagy, antiplatelet aggregation, enhancing endothelial migration and angiogenesis. PNS was initially tested to rescue the myocardial infarct size and cardiac function in left anterior descending (LAD) ligation-operated mice to mimic AMI. RNA-seq to profile transcriptome changes in the heart by treatment with PNS were then conducted. PNS and its main constituents Rg1 and Rd directly inhibited platelet aggregation of healthy subjects with VerifyNow Aspirin and P2Y12 assays but less affecting on coagulation compared with dual-antiplatelet (DAPT). In addition, wound healing scratch assay and heart staining demonstrated that PNS and its main constituents Rg1 and R1 significant enhanced the migration of endothelial cells and angiogenesis in response to MI injury. Interestingly, PNS rather than its constituents enhanced glucose deprivation (GD)-induced autophagy through phosphorylation of AMPK Thr172 and CaMKII Thr287 in cardiomyocytes. These findings provide new insights for drug development from natural products like PNS against ischemia heart diseases and HF post MI. 10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111287
    Borneol enhances the protective effect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury by promoting the access of astragaloside IV and the components of Panax notoginseng saponins into the brain. Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology BACKGROUND:Astragalus and Panax notoginseng are significant traditional Chinese medicines for treating ischemic stroke, with astragaloside IV (AST IV) and Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) being the major effective compounds, respectively. These compounds can also be used in combination. We have previously shown that AST IV and PNS have an antagonistic effect on cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and the combination of these two drugs can elevate this effect; unfortunately, AST IV and PNS cannot easily enter the brain tissues through the blood brain barrier (BBB). Previous studies have confirmed that the combination of borneol with other agents could promote the penetration of the drug components through the BBB. However, it remains unclear whether borneol can promote entry of the active components of AST IV and PNS into the brain tissues and enhance their effect against cerebral ischemia. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to investigate the effects of a combination of borneol with AST IV and PNS against I/R injury and explore the mechanisms of borneol-promoting penetration of drug components into the BBB based on the drug transport of brain tissues. METHODS:A rat model of focal cerebral I/R injury was established, and drugs, including borneol, AST IV, and PNS, as well as their combinations were intragastrically administered. Subsequently, drug efficacy was assessed, and the condition of AST IV and PNS active components (Rg1, Rb1, R1) delivered into the brain was analyzed. Moreover, BBB permeability was determined, and the expression of related drug transporters and their genes were evaluated. RESULTS:After treatment with borneol, AST IV, PNS, AST Ⅳ+PNS, and borneol+AST Ⅳ+PNS after cerebral I/R, the neurological function deficit scores, cerebral infarct rate, and brain water content markedly decreased. The effects of the three-drug-combination were better than those of the drugs used alone and those of AST Ⅳ+PNS. Moreover, after I/R in rats, AST IV and the components of PNS (Rg1, Rb1, R1) were mainly found in the cerebral cortex and in the cerebellum, respectively, when used alone. Borneol combined with AST IV and PNS increased the contents of AST IV, Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the cerebral cortex and in the cerebellum, thus, promoting the enrichment of active components to the cerebral cortex, especially to the affected side. In addition, following I/R, diffuse distribution of lanthanum particles in the basement membrane, intercellular and intracellular locations of rat brain tissues indicated BBB destruction and increase in permeability, which were alleviated in each drug group. The effects of borneol combined with AST IV and PNS were stronger than those of the drug single-used and those of the AST IV+PNS group. Finally, the expression of effluent transporters (ET) and their genes, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance protein (MRP)-1, MRP-2, MRP-4, and MRP-5 in brain tissues, strikingly increased after I/R. Borneol remarkedly down-regulated the protein expression of P-gp, MRP-2, and MRP-4 in the brain, whereas PNS down-regulated MRP-4 and MRP-5 protein expression. AST IV, AST IV+PNS, and bornoel+AST IV+PNS effectively decreased the expression of P-gp, MRP-2, MRP-4, and MRP-5 proteins. The effects of the three-drug combination were significantly greater than those of the drug single-used and AST IV+PNS groups. The expression of each ET gene manifested corresponding results. Meanwhile, PNS, AST IV+PNS, and bornoel+AST IV+PNS significantly inhibited the down-regulation of the uptake transporter organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP)-2 expression, and the effect of bornoel+AST IV+PNS was stronger than that of other groups. CONCLUSION:After I/R, the brain tissues were injured, BBB permeability increased, expression of critical ET and their genes were markedly up-regulated, and the main uptake transporters were down-regulated. We propose that the combination of borneol, AST IV and PNS could enhance the effect against cerebral I/R injury and protect BBB integrity. The potential mechanism might be the delivery of AST IV and active components of PNS to the brain tissues after treatment in combination with borneol, which could be effectively promoted by down-regulating the expression of ETs and up-regulating the expression of uptake transporters in the brain tissues. This study was the first to demonstrate that borneol combined with AST IV+PNS enhanced the effect against cerebral I/R injury through promoting the entry of AST and PNS active components to the brain tissues. Thus, this study proposes an instructive role in developing effective active ingredients combination of Chinese medicine with clear ingredients and synergistic effects in terms of the characteristic of borneol. 10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153822
    Anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenetic and antiviral activities of dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins from the roots of . Zheng Yuan-Ru,Fan Chun-Lin,Chen Ye,Quan Jing-Yu,Shi Ling-Zhu,Tian Chun-Yang,Shang Xiao,Xu Ni-Shan,Ye Wen-Cai,Yu Lin-Zhong,Liu Jun-Shan Food & function has been used both as a traditional medicine and as a functional food for hundreds of years in Asia. However, the active constituents from and their pharmacologic properties still need to be further explored. In this study, one new dammarane-type triterpenoid saponin (1), along with fourteen known analogs (2-15) were isolated and identified from the roots of . The anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenetic and anti-dengue virus effects of these isolated compounds were further evaluated. Compounds 1, 3, 5-7 and 10-12 exerted anti-inflammatory effects in two different zebrafish inflammatory models. Among them, 11, with the most significant activities, alleviated the inflammatory response by blocking the MyD88/NF-κB and STAT3 pathways. Moreover, compound 15 showed anti-angiogenetic activities in Tg() and Tg() zebrafish, while 3 and 5 only inhibited angiogenesis in Tg() zebrafish. Additionally, compounds 1, 3, 6, 8, 9 and 12 suppressed the replication of dengue virus either at the viral adsorption and entry stages or at the intracellular replication step. In conclusion, these findings enrich knowledge of the diversity of saponins in and suggest that the dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins from may be developed as potential functional foods to treat inflammation, angiogenesis or dengue-related diseases. 10.1039/d1fo04089h
    Using Network Pharmacology to Explore the Mechanism of Panax notoginseng in the Treatment of Myocardial Fibrosis. Han Jingxue,Hou Jingyi,Liu Yu,Liu Peng,Zhao Tingting,Wang Xinwei Journal of diabetes research Objective:The mechanism of Panax notoginseng in treating myocardial fibrosis (MF) was investigated using network pharmacology. Methods:Effective ingredients and potential targets of Panax notoginseng were screened in relevant databases to construct a compound-target network. Targets of MF were then screened to select common targets and construct a protein-protein interaction network. This was followed by Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses. Molecular docking then verified the results of network analysis. Results:A total of 14 effective ingredients and 119 potential targets for MF were predicted. Quercetin, beta-sitosterol, and gossypetin were speculated to be the main active ingredients. The mechanism of action may be related to AGE-RAGE, proteoglycans, and IL-17 signaling pathways. Five key targets (IL6, ALB, AKT1, TNF, and VEGFA) may be involved in the treatment of MF using Panax notoginseng. Conclusions:This study embodies the complex network relationship of multicomponents, multitargets, and multipathways of Panax notoginseng in treating MF and provides a novel method for further research on this herb's mechanism. 10.1155/2022/8895950
    Effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on severe acute pancreatitis through the regulation of mTOR/Akt and caspase-3 signaling pathway by upregulating miR-181b expression in rats. Liu Ming-Wei,Wei Rui,Su Mei-Xian,Li Hui,Fang Tian-Wen,Zhang Wei BMC complementary and alternative medicine BACKGROUND:In China, Panax notoginseng has been used to treat oxidative stress-related diseases for a long time. Panax notoginseng saponins is an extract from Panax notoginseng Ledeb. Its therapeutic potential is related to antioxidant activity, but related mechanisms are still unclear. The study aims to assess the protection effects of Panax notoginseng saponins in the taurocholate-induced rat model of acute pancreatitis (AP) and explore underlying mechanisms. METHODS:A rat model of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) was established in rats induced with taurocholate. Panax notoginseng saponins was firstly administered in the treatment group via intravenous injection. After 2 h, taurocholate administration was performed. After 24 h, the expression levels of miR-181b, Beclin1, LC3-II, Akt and mTOR from pancreas tissues were measured by Western Blotting and RT-PCR. Then the expression levels of Caspase-3 and Blc-2 were determined by immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis was assessed by the TUNEL assay. Amylase and lipase in serum were determined by ELISA and pancreatic water contents in pancreatic tissue were measured. After eosin and hematoxylin staining, the histologic analysis was performed. RESULTS:After SAP induction by taurocholate and the treatment with Panax notoginseng saponins for 24 h, we detected the up-regulated miR-181b, the reduced Bcl-2 expression, the increased activity of mTOR/Akt, the blocked Beclin1 and LC3-II expressions, and the enhanced Caspase-3 expression. Serum lipase and amylase levels were significantly decreased in the treatment group of Panax notoginseng saponins compared to the control group. Histological analysis results verified the attenuation effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on taurocholate-induced pancreas injury, apoptosis, and autophagy. CONCLUSION:By up-regulating the miR-181b expression level, Panax notoginseng saponins significantly reduced taurocholate-induced pancreas injury and autophagy and increased apoptosis. The significant protection effects of Panax notoginseng saponins suggested its potential in treating taurocholate induced-acute pancreatitis. 10.1186/s12906-018-2118-8
    Protective Effect of Panax Notoginseng Saponins on Apolipoprotein-E-deficient Atherosclerosis-prone Mice. Current pharmaceutical design BACKGROUND:It is widely recognized that atherosclerosis (AS) is related to vascular inflammation. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) extracted from the roots of Panax notoginseng have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory activity. It is widely used in the clinical treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, but the protective effect of PNS on atherosclerosis is not fully understood. This study was designed to test the effects of PNS administration in apolipoprotein (apo)-E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice on the activation of NF-κB p65, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and Calpain1 proteins. METHODS:24 ApoE-/- mice fed with high-fat diet for 8 weeks to create the AS model. PNS, dissolved in three distilled water, was administered orally to two treatment groups at dosages of 60 mg/kg/d/mice and 180 mg/kg/d/mice. After 8 weeks, peripheral blood was collected for assessing the levels of TG, TC, LDL-C and HDL-C in serum by Biochemical Analyzer. HE staining was used to observe pathomorphological changes in the aortic root. Oil Red O staining was used to observe the lipid deposition in the aortic root. ELISA kits were used to assess the levels of IL-1β and TNF-α in serum. The expression levels of NF-κB p65, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and Calpain1 proteins in the aortic root were identified by Western blot. RESULTS:After PNS administration for 8 weeks, the levels of TG, TC, LDL-C, IL-1β and TNF-α were decreased, the level of HDL-C was increased in apoE-/- mice. The arrangement of the tissue of aortic root tended to be normal, the cell morphology was restored, and the lipid depositions were reduced in apoE-/- mice treated with PNS. Moreover, PNS inhibited the expression levels of NF-κB p65, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and Calpain1 proteins of aortic root tissues in apoE-/- mice. CONCLUSION:PNS may inhibit the progression of atherosclerotic lesions via their anti-inflammatory biological property. PNS suppress the NF-κB signaling pathway and inhibits the expression of pro-inflammatory factors such as NF-κB p65, IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α and Calpain1 proteins in aortic root tissues of apoE-/- mice. 10.2174/1381612828666220128104636
    Panax notoginseng saponins protect PC12 cells against Aβ induced injury via promoting parkin-mediated mitophagy. Jiang Yixuan,Li Hemei,Huang Panling,Li Shanliang,Li Bocun,Huo Lini,Zhong Jing,Pan Ziyu,Li Yuqing,Xia Xing Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Panax notoginseng (Burk) F. H. Chen is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine with a long history and is widely used in the treatment of cerebrovascular disease. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are the main active ingredients in Panax notoginseng (Burk) F. H. Chen, and its injection is used to treat nerve damage caused by cerebral ischemia and other conditions. PNS is thought to alleviate cognitive impairment in patients with Alzheimer's disease; however, its mechanism of action is unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY:We elucidated the role of PNS in attenuating cellular mitochondrial damage caused by amyloid β (Aβ) protein and in protecting cell viability from the perspective of regulating autophagy. By investigating the effects of PNS on the targets regulating mitophagy, we wanted to reveal the autophagy related mechanism by which PNS attenuated Aβ damage in neuronal cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The effect of PNS on the mitochondrial membrane potential of Aβ-injured PC12 cells was detected using flow cytometry, which reflected the alleviating effect of PNS on mitochondrial damage. Using mRFP-GFP-LC3-transfected PC12 cells, the effect of PNS on cellular autophagy flux was observed using laser confocal microscopy. Formation of the intracellular autophagosome was observed using transmission electron microscopy, which reflected the activation of autophagy by PNS. The siPINK1 lentivirus was used to silence the PINK1 gene in PC12 cells to obtain siPINK1-PC12 cells. The effects of PNS on the expression of the PINK1 gene and on the autophagy-related proteins LC3II/Ⅰ, p62, PINK1, parkin, NDP52, and OPTN were observed to reveal the possible targets of PNS in regulating autophagy. RESULTS:After PNS treatment, the viability of Aβ-injured PC12 cells improved and the mitochondrial membrane potential was restored. PNS treatment significantly enhanced the autophagy flux of damaged cells and increased the levels of LC3II/Ⅰ protein and decreased p62 protein, while significantly improving the structure and mitochondrial morphology of PC12 cells injured by Aβ. These changes led to more autophagosomes wrapping around the damaged mitochondria and promoting the depletion of OPTN, a mitophagy receptor. After silencing the PINK1 gene, PNS could not alter the PINK1 gene and protein levels, but could still increase LC3II/Ⅰ, decrease p62 and OPTN, and significantly increase the amount of parkin. CONCLUSIONS:PNS could enhance the autophagic activity of cells, alleviate mitochondrial damage caused by Aβ injury, and protect the activity of PC12 cells. It is possible that enhanced autophagy was achieved by promoting the recruitment of parkin protein to the mitochondrial receptors in a non-PINK1-dependent manner. 10.1016/j.jep.2021.114859
    Neutral polysaccharide from Panax notoginseng enhanced cyclophosphamide antitumor efficacy in hepatoma H22-bearing mice. Liu Yan-Hong,Qin Hua-Yan,Zhong Yuan-Yuan,Li Shuang,Wang Hua-Jing,Wang Hong,Chen Li-Ling,Tang Xiang,Li Ya-Lin,Qian Zhong-Yi,Li Huai-Yu,Zhang Lei,Chen Tong BMC cancer BACKGROUND:Our previous studies demonstrated that the administration of crude Polysaccharide from Panax notoginseng (CPPN) can effectively prolong the lifespan of tumor-bearing mice via boosting the host immune system as well as weak cytotoxicity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, Neutral Polysaccharide (NPPN) were further purified from crude polysaccharide isolated from panax notoginseng. The effects of NPPN on the immune function and hematopoietic function of mice with low immunity and myelosuppression induced by cyclophosphamide (CTX) were investigated. The effect of NPPN combined with CTX on the tumor inhibition rate of the H22 tumor-bearing mice and the impact of NPPN on the proliferation of H22 liver cancer cells in vitro were investigated. METHODS:CPPN was obtained by water extraction and alcohol precipitation method, and further purified by DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow ion exchange resin column. NPPN was added to the immunosuppressed with myelosuppression mice induced by CTX. Thymus index, spleen index, lymphocyte proliferation stimulation index by adding of concanavalin A, determination of serum hemolysin, NK cell activity assay, mice carbon clearance experiment, blood count tests were detected. The tumor inhibition rate of the H22 tumor-bearing mice treated with NPPN combined with CTX was recorded. RESULTS:NPPN and 4 kinds of acid polysaccharide from Panax notoginseng (APPN) were successfully isolated from the CPPN by DEAE Sepharose Fast Flow ion exchange resin column. NPPN inhibited the growth of H22 cells and significantly increase the tumor inhibition rate of the H22 tumor-bearing mice combined with CTX. The elevation of the cellular and humoral immunity levels as well as a variety of blood count tests indicators of immunosuppressive with myelosuppression mice may contribute to the antitumor activity of NPPN. CONCLUSION:NPPN has a potential antitumor activity for the treatment of liver cancer combined with cyclophosphamide. 10.1186/s12885-020-07742-z
    Ginsenoside C-Mx Isolated from Notoginseng Stem-leaf Ginsenosides Attenuates Ultraviolet B-mediated Photoaging in Human Dermal Fibroblasts. Liu Xiao-Yi,Hwang Eunson,Park Bom,Ngo Hien T T,Xiao Yong-Kun,Yi Tae-Hoo Photochemistry and photobiology Notoginseng is a traditional herbal medicine widely used for medicinal therapy in Asia, as it contains numerous ginsenosides with pharmacological effects. In this study, we submitted Notoginseng stem-leaf (NGL) ginsenosides to an enzyme to create a reaction with the monomer products of ginsenoside C-Mx and then investigated the ability of ginsenoside C-Mx to protect the skin against ultraviolet B-induced injury in normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs). Ginsenoside C-Mx alleviated UVB-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), MMP-1 and IL-6 expression while accelerating TGF-β and procollagen type I secretion. In addition, ginsenoside C-Mx reversed UVB-induced procollagen type I reduction by regulating the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Moreover, ginsenoside C-Mx inhibited activation of AP-1 transcription factor, an inducer of MMPs. Ginsenoside C-Mx displayed an outstanding antioxidant capacity, increasing expression of cytoprotective antioxidants such as HO-1 and NQO-1 expression by enhancing the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. Interestingly, application of ginsenoside C-Mx treatment (1, 10, 20 μm) significantly diminished UVB-induced suppressed NF-κB expression, decreasing the over-released inflammatory cytokines. Taken together, our findings indicated that ginsenoside C-Mx may act as a promising natural cosmetic ingredient for prevention and treatment of UVB-induced skin damage. 10.1111/php.12940
    Solid-State Fermentation With Enhances the Protopanaxadiol- and Protopanaxatriol-Associated Skin Anti-aging Activity of . Lee Sunmin,Reddy Chagam Koteswara,Ryu Jeoung Jin,Kyung Seoyeon,Lim Yonghwan,Park Myeong Sam,Kang Seunghyun,Lee Choong Hwan Frontiers in microbiology A metabolomics approach was used to profile metabolites of fermented with in two ways, liquid-state fermentation (LF-P) and solid-state fermentation (SSF-P) and examine metabolite markers representing antioxidant activity and skin anti-aging. Protopanaxadiol (PPD) and protopanaxatriol (PPT) contents were higher in SSF-P than in LF-P and showed a multiplicative increase over the fermentation period of four days. PPD and PPT levels also correlated with antioxidant and anti-aging effects in skin, based on the mRNA expression of dermal extracellular matrix components. In the bioactivity validation assays, PPD and PPT significantly improved the expression of type-I collagen, fibrillin-1, and elastin in human dermal fibroblasts from both young and old subjects; these were comparable with the effects of the SSF-P extracts. Overall, our results suggest that changes in the metabolites of fermented with enhance the quality and availability of bioactive compounds associated with skin anti-aging. 10.3389/fmicb.2021.602135
    Optimization of Flavonoids Extraction Process in Stem Leaf and a Study of Antioxidant Activity and Its Effects on Mouse Melanoma B16 Cells. Dai Chun-Yan,Liu Peng-Fei,Liao Pei-Ran,Qu Yuan,Wang Cheng-Xiao,Yang Ye,Cui Xiu-Ming Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) The () stem leaf is rich in flavonoids. However, because of a lack of research on the flavonoid extraction process and functional development of stem leaf, these parts are discarded as agricultural wastes. Therefore, in this study, we intend to optimize the extraction process and develop the skin-whitening functions of stem leaf extracts. The extraction process of the stem and leaf of flavonoid (SLPF) is optimized based on the Box⁻Behnken design (BBD) and the response surface methodology (RSM). The optimum extraction conditions of the SLPF are as follows: the extraction time, the ethanol concentration, the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) content and the liquid material ratio (/, which are 52 min, 48.7%, 1.9%, and 20:1, respectively. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the average total SLPF content is 2.10%. The antioxidant activity and anti-deposition of melanin of mouse B16 cells of stem leaf extracts are studied. The results indicate that the EC values of reducing activity, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activities, the superoxide anion removal ability, and the 2,2-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) free radical removal ability are 7.212, 2.893, 2.949, and 0.855 mg/mL, respectively. The extracts IC values of the tyrosinase and melanin synthesis are 0.045 and 0.046 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, the optimal processing technology for the SLPF obtained in this study not only increases its utilization rate, but also decreases material costs. The extracts from the stem leaf may be developed as food or beauty products. 10.3390/molecules23092219
    Panax notoginseng saponins improves healing of high glucose-induced wound through the GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. Environmental toxicology Chronic non-healing wounds are one of the most common complications of diabetes mellitus and results in a huge physical and mental burden for patients. Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) have a wide range of applications in anti-apoptosis, anti-oxidation, and promoting blood circulation. Our study aimed to explore whether PNS could improve diabetic wound healing. High-glucose (HG, 30 Mm) were used to incubated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to simulate the hyperglycemia environment in vivo, and 200 μg/ml (optimum harmless concentration screened) PNS was added into HG-incubated HUVECs to investigate the protective effect of PNS on the cells. Compared with control, high glucose treatment significantly suppressed HUVEC proliferation, invasion, migration, angiogenesis, malondialdehyde (MDA) production and nitric oxide (NO) release, promoted cell apoptosis, and deactivated the GSK-3β/β-catenin/VEGF pathway. PNS treatment could largely rescue the effects of HG on cell dysfunction and improve the deactivation of GSK-3β/β-catenin/VEGF pathway. ICG-001, a small molecular β-catenin inhibitor that can selectively antagonize β-catenin mediated transcriptional activity, could eliminate the protective effects of PNS on cell dysfunction and activation of GSK-3β/β-catenin/VEGF pathway. Moreover, Furthermore, a diabetic model (50 mg/kg streptozotocin induced) with back skin wound was established in rats, and the wounds were administrated with petrolatum, gelatin/Bletilla striata gelatin (GT/BSGT), or GT/BSGT plus PNS. We found that PNS signally facilitated wound healing and matrix remodeling in vivo. In conclusion, our study verified that PNS improved wound healing in hyperglycemic rats via promoting endothelial cell proliferation, invasion, migration, angiogenesis, suppressing cell apoptosis and oxidative damage, and activating the GSK-3β/β-catenin pathway. 10.1002/tox.23533
    Fermentation of Panax notoginseng root extract polysaccharides attenuates oxidative stress and promotes type I procollagen synthesis in human dermal fibroblast cells. You Shiquan,Shi Xiuqin,Yu Dan,Zhao Dan,An Quan,Wang Dongdong,Zhang Jiachan,Li Meng,Wang Changtao BMC complementary medicine and therapies BACKGROUND:Panax notoginseng is one of the most valuable traditional Chinese medicines. Polysaccharides in P. notoginseng has been shown to significantly reduce the incidence of human diseases. However the application of fermentation technology in Panax notoginseng is not common, and the mechanism of action of P. notoginseng polysaccharides produced by fermentation is still unclear. The specific biological mechanisms of fermented P. notoginseng polysaccharides (FPNP) suppresses HO-induced apoptosis in human dermal fibroblast (HDF) and the underlying mechanism are not well understood. METHODS:In this study, the effects of water extracted and fermentation on concentration of polysaccharides in P. notoginseng extracts were analyzed. After the HO-induced HDF model of oxidative damage was established, and then discussed by the expression of cell markers, including ROS, MDA, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px and MMP-1, COL-I, ELN, which were detected by related ELISA kits. The expression of TGF-β/Smad pathway markers were tested by qRT-PCR to determine whether FPNP exerted antioxidant activity through TGF-β signaling in HDF cells. RESULTS:The polysaccharide content of Panax notoginseng increased after Saccharomyces cerevisiae CGMCC 17452 fermentation. In the FPNP treatment group, ROS and MDA contents were decreased, reversed the down-regulation of the antioxidant activity and expression of antioxidant enzyme (CAT, GSH-Px and SOD) induced by HO. Furthermore, the up-regulation in expression of TGF-β, Smad2/3 and the down-regulation in the expression of Smad7 in FPNP treated groups revealed that FPNP can inhibit HO-induced collagen and elastin injury by activating TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. CONCLUSION:It was shown that FPNP could inhibit the damage of collagen and elastin induced by HO by activating the TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway, thereby protecting against the oxidative damage induced by hydrogen peroxide. FPNP may be an effective attenuating healing agent that protects the skin from oxidative stress and wrinkles. 10.1186/s12906-020-03197-8
    Dissolvable microneedles based on Panax notoginseng polysaccharide for transdermal drug delivery and skin dendritic cell activation. Wang Chengxiao,Liu Shengnan,Xu Junwei,Gao Mingju,Qu Yuan,Liu Yuan,Yang Ye,Cui Xiuming Carbohydrate polymers This work explored the feasibility of using biological polysaccharide to fabricate dissolvable microneedles (MNs) for the purpose of transdermal drug delivery and skin dendritic cell (DC) activation. Panax notoginseng polysaccharide (PNPS), a naturally derived immunoactive macromolecule, was used to fabricate dissolvable MNs. The prepared PNPS MNs showed a satisfactory mechanical strength and a skin penetration depth. By Franz diffusion cell assay, the PNPS MNs demonstrated a high transdermal delivery amount of model drugs. Furthermore, with the assistance of MNs, PNPS easily penetrated across the stratum corneum and target ear skin DCs, activating the maturation and migration of immunocytes by increasing the expressions of CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC II of skin DCs. Consequently, the matured DCs migrated to the auricular draining lymph nodes and increased the proportions of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells. Thus, PNPS might be a promising biomaterial for transdermal drug delivery, with adjuvant potential. 10.1016/j.carbpol.2021.118211
    Panax notoginseng saponins promotes cutaneous wound healing and suppresses scar formation in mice. Men Si-Ye,Huo Qiao-Ling,Shi Lei,Yan Yan,Yang Cheng-Cheng,Yu Wen,Liu Bao-Qing Journal of cosmetic dermatology BACKGROUND & AIM:Panax notoginseng saponins are believed to promote wound healing due to its anti-proliferative effect on fibroblasts. The present work was therefore aimed to examine the beneficial effect of PNS on wound healing in vitro and in a murine model of cutaneous wound. METHODS:The in vitro effects of Panax notoginseng saponins on the proliferation of and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis in human fibroblast 3T3 cells were studied. The in vivo effects of Panax notoginseng saponins were examined in C57 mice with dorsal cutaneous wound. The healing rate and scar formation were followed after treatment with Panax notoginseng saponins. The histology and fibroblast accumulation in the wounds were studied using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. Expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) was examined by immunohistochemistry. RESULTS:Panax notoginseng saponins inhibited the proliferation of human fibroblast 3T3 with an EC of 1.825 mM Panax notoginseng saponins (0.1 mM) significantly promoted NO production (P < 0.01) and NO synthase activity (P < 0.01) of 3T3. In C57 mice with dorsal cutaneous wounds, 0.1 mM Panax notoginseng saponins significant expedited wound healing by reducing the size of lesions and suppressing the formation of scar. H&E staining revealed that treatment with Panax notoginseng saponins suppressed fibroblast accumulation in wound areas, while immunohistochemistry showed a significant reduction in α-SMA expression by 0.1 mM Panax notoginseng saponins. CONCLUSION:Panax notoginseng saponins are a promising drug candidate that can accelerate wound healing and reduce scar formation. 10.1111/jocd.13042