Inhibition of caspase-1-like activity by Ac-Tyr-Val-Ala-Asp-chloromethyl ketone induces long-lasting neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia through apoptosis reduction and decrease of proinflammatory cytokines.
Rabuffetti M,Sciorati C,Tarozzo G,Clementi E,Manfredi A A,Beltramo M
The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Broad spectrum caspase inhibitors have been found to reduce neurodegeneration caused by cerebral ischemia. We studied whether blockade of group I caspases, mainly caspase-1, using the inhibitor Ac-YVAD.cmk reduced infarct volume and produced prolonged neuroprotection. Ac-YVAD.cmk (300 ng/rat) was injected intracerebroventricularly 10 min after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat. Drug treatment induced a significant reduction of infarct volume not only 24 hr after ischemia (total damage, percentage of hemisphere volume: control, 41.1 +/- 2.3%; treated, 26.5 +/- 2.1%; p < 0.05) but also 6 d later (total damage: control, 30.6 +/- 2.2%; treated, 23.0 +/- 2.2%; p < 0.05). Ac-YVAD. cmk treatment resulted in a reduction not only of caspase-1 (control, 100 +/- 20.3%; treated, 3.4 +/- 10.4%; p < 0.01) but also of caspase-3 (control, 100 +/- 30.3%; treated, 13.2 +/- 9.5%; p < 0.05) activity at 24 hr and led to a parallel decrease of apoptosis as measured by nucleosome quantitation (control, 100 +/- 11.8%; treated, 47 +/- 5.9%; p < 0.05). Six days after treatment no differences in these parameters could be detected between control and treated animals. Likewise, brain levels of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were reduced at 24 hr (39.5 +/- 23.7 and 51.9 +/- 10.3% of control, respectively) but not at 6 d. Other cytokines, IL-10, MCP-1, MIP-2, and the gaseous mediator nitric oxide, were not modified by the treatment. These findings indicate that blockade of caspase-1-like activity induces a long-lasting neuroprotective effect that, in our experimental conditions, takes place in the early stages of damage progression. Finally, this effect is achieved by interfering with both apoptotic and inflammatory mechanisms.
The antioxidant enzyme Peroxiredoxin-1 controls stroke-associated microglia against acute ischemic stroke.
Ischemic stroke is the leading cause of immortal disability and death worldwide. For treatment in the acute phase, it is necessary to control excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage during ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Microglia are well known to be closely associated with excessive ROS response in the early stage of I/R. However, the precise roles of microglia associated with mitigating ROS damage, and molecular markers of heterogenetic microglia in the I/R damaged brain has not been clarified. Here, we identified a new type of microglia associated with stroke in the I/R injured brain. Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) was used to assess transcriptional changes of microglia and immune cells in the contralateral (CL) and ipsilateral (IL) hemispheres after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) surgery to mimic ischemic stroke. We classified a unique type of microglia with enhanced antioxidant function and markers similar to those of disease-associated microglia (DAM), designated them as stroke-associated microglia (SAM). The representative antioxidant enzyme, Peroxiredoxin-1 (Prdx1), was predominantly expressed in SAM and mediated ROS defense genes, including Txn1, Srx1, Mt1, and Mt2. In the Prdx1 I/R damaged brain, we observed significantly increased infarction, as assessed by TTC staining, and FACS analysis detected severe microglial cell death. Importantly, scRNA transcriptomics data showed that the SAM population was specifically decreased in Prdx1 mice and that these mice exhibited decreased ROS damage resistance. Inflammatory responses which were detected by ELISA and qPCR, were also increased in Prdx1 IL hemispheres. Finally, Prdx1-dependent antioxidative SAM were found to be essential for increasing the transcription levels of stroke-protective molecules, such as osteopontin and ferritin. A novel microglia type (SAM) is specifically activated in response to stroke I/R injury, and that Prdx1 expression is required for the activation and enhanced antioxidant function of SAM.