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    Rbx1, a component of the VHL tumor suppressor complex and SCF ubiquitin ligase. Kamura T,Koepp D M,Conrad M N,Skowyra D,Moreland R J,Iliopoulos O,Lane W S,Kaelin W G,Elledge S J,Conaway R C,Harper J W,Conaway J W Science (New York, N.Y.) The von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene is mutated in most human kidney cancers. The VHL protein is part of a complex that includes Elongin B, Elongin C, and Cullin-2, proteins associated with transcriptional elongation and ubiquitination. Here it is shown that the endogenous VHL complex in rat liver also includes Rbx1, an evolutionarily conserved protein that contains a RING-H2 fingerlike motif and that interacts with Cullins. The yeast homolog of Rbx1 is a subunit and potent activator of the Cdc53-containing SCFCdc4 ubiquitin ligase required for ubiquitination of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor Sic1 and for the G1 to S cell cycle transition. These findings provide a further link between VHL and the cellular ubiquitination machinery. 10.1126/science.284.5414.657
    A Destiny for Degradation: Interplay between Cullin-RING E3 Ligases and Autophagy. Lu Guang,Wang Liming,Zhou Jing,Liu Wei,Shen Han-Ming Trends in cell biology Autophagy and the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) are two major pathways for protein degradation. The cullin-RING E3 ligases (CRLs) are the largest E3 ligase family and have key biological functions in maintaining protein homeostasis. We provide an updated review of the interactions between CRLs and autophagy, focusing on the regulatory effects of CRLs on the core autophagy machinery that consists of several autophagy-related protein (ATG) complexes and their key upstream signaling pathways. The involvement of such functional interactions in health and disease is also discussed. Understanding the role of CRLs in autophagy is helpful for the development of therapeutic strategies for diseases in which CRLs and autophagy are dysregulated, such as cancer and neurodegenerative conditions. 10.1016/j.tcb.2021.01.005
    Structure of the Cul1-Rbx1-Skp1-F boxSkp2 SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. Zheng Ning,Schulman Brenda A,Song Langzhou,Miller Julie J,Jeffrey Philip D,Wang Ping,Chu Claire,Koepp Deanna M,Elledge Stephen J,Pagano Michele,Conaway Ronald C,Conaway Joan W,Harper J Wade,Pavletich Nikola P Nature SCF complexes are the largest family of E3 ubiquitin-protein ligases and mediate the ubiquitination of diverse regulatory and signalling proteins. Here we present the crystal structure of the Cul1-Rbx1-Skp1-F boxSkp2 SCF complex, which shows that Cul1 is an elongated protein that consists of a long stalk and a globular domain. The globular domain binds the RING finger protein Rbx1 through an intermolecular beta-sheet, forming a two-subunit catalytic core that recruits the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. The long stalk, which consists of three repeats of a novel five-helix motif, binds the Skp1-F boxSkp2 protein substrate-recognition complex at its tip. Cul1 serves as a rigid scaffold that organizes the Skp1-F boxSkp2 and Rbx1 subunits, holding them over 100 A apart. The structure suggests that Cul1 may contribute to catalysis through the positioning of the substrate and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, and this model is supported by Cul1 mutations designed to eliminate the rigidity of the scaffold. 10.1038/416703a
    Prognostic impact of RING box protein-1 (RBX1) expression in gastric cancer. Migita Kazuhiro,Takayama Tomoyoshi,Matsumoto Sohei,Wakatsuki Kohei,Tanaka Tetsuya,Ito Masahiro,Nishiwada Satoshi,Nakajima Yoshiyuki Gastric cancer : official journal of the International Gastric Cancer Association and the Japanese Gastric Cancer Association BACKGROUND:RING box protein-1 (RBX1) is an essential component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Skp1/Cullin/RBX1/F-box protein complex. Although an altered expression of RBX1 has been reported in several human cancers, the role of RBX1 in gastric cancer remains unknown. METHODS:We investigated the RBX1 expression in primary gastric cancer tissues from 145 patients by immunohistochemistry, and explored its clinical relevance and prognostic value. Furthermore, the effect of RBX1 expression on cancer cell proliferation was analyzed in vitro using a siRNA silencing technique. RESULTS:The RBX1 expression was abundant in gastric cancer tissues. There was a significant difference in the expression level of RBX1 in terms of the tumor depth (P = 0.008), presence of distant metastasis (P = 0.016) and venous invasion (P = 0.005). The postoperative overall (P < 0.001) and relapse-free survival (P < 0.001) rates were significantly poorer in patients with RBX1-high tumors than in patients with RBX1-low tumors. There was a significant correlation of the RBX1 status with postoperative hematogenous recurrence (P = 0.013). Importantly, the RBX1 status was identified as an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer (P = 0.002). Furthermore, RBX1 gene silencing significantly inhibited the proliferation of gastric cancer cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS:The RBX1 expression has a significant prognostic value in gastric cancer. RBX1 might play an important role in regulating the proliferation of gastric cancer cells and promoting the development of postoperative recurrence. Our data provide a rationale for developing a novel therapy targeting RBX1 for gastric cancer. 10.1007/s10120-013-0318-y
    Cullin-RING ubiquitin E3 ligase regulation by the COP9 signalosome. Cavadini Simone,Fischer Eric S,Bunker Richard D,Potenza Alessandro,Lingaraju Gondichatnahalli M,Goldie Kenneth N,Mohamed Weaam I,Faty Mahamadou,Petzold Georg,Beckwith Rohan E J,Tichkule Ritesh B,Hassiepen Ulrich,Abdulrahman Wassim,Pantelic Radosav S,Matsumoto Syota,Sugasawa Kaoru,Stahlberg Henning,Thomä Nicolas H Nature The cullin-RING ubiquitin E3 ligase (CRL) family comprises over 200 members in humans. The COP9 signalosome complex (CSN) regulates CRLs by removing their ubiquitin-like activator NEDD8. The CUL4A-RBX1-DDB1-DDB2 complex (CRL4A(DDB2)) monitors the genome for ultraviolet-light-induced DNA damage. CRL4A(DBB2) is inactive in the absence of damaged DNA and requires CSN to regulate the repair process. The structural basis of CSN binding to CRL4A(DDB2) and the principles of CSN activation are poorly understood. Here we present cryo-electron microscopy structures for CSN in complex with neddylated CRL4A ligases to 6.4 Å resolution. The CSN conformers defined by cryo-electron microscopy and a novel apo-CSN crystal structure indicate an induced-fit mechanism that drives CSN activation by neddylated CRLs. We find that CSN and a substrate cannot bind simultaneously to CRL4A, favouring a deneddylated, inactive state for substrate-free CRL4 complexes. These architectural and regulatory principles appear conserved across CRL families, allowing global regulation by CSN. 10.1038/nature17416
    Cullin-RING Ligase 5: Functional characterization and its role in human cancers. Zhao Yongchao,Xiong Xiufang,Sun Yi Seminars in cancer biology Cullin-RING ligase 5 (CRL5) is a multi-protein complex and consists of a scaffold protien cullin 5, a RING protein RBX2 (also known as ROC2 or SAG), adaptor proteins Elongin B/C, and a substrate receptor protein SOCS. Through targeting a variety of substrates for proteasomal degradation or modulating various protein-protein interactions, CRL5 is involved in regulation of many biological processes, such as cytokine signal transduction, inflammation, viral infection, and oncogenesis. As many substrates of CRL5 are well-known oncoproteins or tumor suppressors, abnormal regulation of CRL5 is commonly found in human cancers. In this review, we first briefly introduce each of CRL5 components, and then discuss the biological processes regulated by four members of SOCS-box-containing substrate receptor family through substrate degradation. We next describe how CRL5 is hijacked by a variety of viral proteins to degrade host anti-viral proteins, which facilitates virus infection. We further discuss the regulation of CUL5 and its various roles in human cancers, acting as either a tumor suppressor or an oncoprotein in a context-dependent manner. Finally, we propose novel insights for future perspectives on the validation of cullin5 and other CRL5 components as potential targets, and possible targeting strategies to discover CRL5 inhibitors for anti-cancer and anti-virus therapies. 10.1016/j.semcancer.2020.04.003
    An integrative pan-cancer analysis revealing the difference in small ring finger family of SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases. Frontiers in immunology Background:The SCF (Skp1-cullin-F-box proteins) complex is the largest family of E3 ubiquitin ligases that mediate multiple specific substrate proteins degradation. Two ring-finger family members RBX1/ROC1 and RBX2/RNF7/SAG are small molecular proteins necessary for ubiquitin ligation activity of the multimeric SCF complex. Accumulating evidence indicated the involvement of RBX proteins in the pathogenesis and development of cancers, but no research using pan-cancer analysis for evaluating their difference has been directed previously. Methods:We investigated RBX1/2 expression patterns and the association with clinicopathological features, and survivals of cancer patients obtained from the TCGA pan-cancer data. The binding energies of RBX1/2-CUL1 complexes were preliminarily calculated by using molecular dynamics simulations. Meanwhile, we assessed their immune infiltration level across numerous databases, including TISIDB and Timer database. Results:High expression levels of RBX1/2 were observed in most cancer types and correlated with poor prognosis of patients analyzed. Nonetheless, exceptions were observed: RBX2 expression in KICH was higher than normal renal tissues and played a detrimental role in KICH. The expression of RBX1 was not associated with the prognostic risk of KICH. Moreover, the combination of RBX1 and CUL1 expression is more stable than that of RBX2 and CUL1. RBX1/2 expression showed their own specific characteristics in tumor pathological stages and grades, copy number variation and immune components. Conclusions:These findings not only indicated that the difference of RBX1/2 might result in varying degrees of tumor progression, but also suggested that they might serve as biomarkers for immune infiltration in cancers, shedding new light on therapeutics of cancers. 10.3389/fimmu.2022.968777
    Induction of autophagy and senescence by knockdown of ROC1 E3 ubiquitin ligase to suppress the growth of liver cancer cells. Yang D,Li L,Liu H,Wu L,Luo Z,Li H,Zheng S,Gao H,Chu Y,Sun Y,Liu J,Jia L Cell death and differentiation Regulator of Cullins-1 (ROC1) or RING box protein-1 (RBX1) is an essential RING component of Cullin-RING ligase (CRL). Our previous studies showed that ROC1 is required for the growth of several cancer cell lines while ROC1 siRNA silencing inactivates CRL, leading to cell cycle arrest, cell senescence and/or apoptosis. However, it is completely unknown whether ROC1 knockdown triggers autophagic response by inactivating CRL. Moreover, the role of ROC1 in liver cancer remains elusive. In this study, we reported that ROC1 knockdown significantly inhibited the growth of liver cancer cells by sequentially and independently inducing autophagy and p21-dependent cell senescence. Mechanism analysis revealed that ROC1 silencing triggered autophagy by inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity due to accumulation of mTOR-inhibitory protein Deptor, a substrate of CRL. Consistently, Deptor knockdown significantly blocked autophagy response upon ROC1 silencing. Biologically, autophagy response upon ROC1 silencing was a survival signal, and blockage of autophagy pathway sensitized cancer cells to apoptosis. Finally, we demonstrated that ROC1 was overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas, which is associated with poor prognosis of liver cancer patients. These findings suggest that ROC1 is an appealing drug target for liver cancer and provide a proof-of-concept evidence for a novel drug combination of ROC1 inhibitor and an autophagy inhibitor for effective treatment of liver cancer by enhancing apoptosis. 10.1038/cdd.2012.113
    Candidate biomarkers of response to an experimental cancer drug identified through a large-scale RNA interference genetic screen. Mullenders Jasper,von der Saal Wolfgang,van Dongen Miranda M W,Reiff Ulrike,van Willigen Rogier,Beijersbergen Roderick L,Tiefenthaler Georg,Klein Christian,Bernards René Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research PURPOSE:A major impediment in the optimal selection of cancer patients for the most effective therapy is the lack of suitable biomarkers that foretell the response of a patient to a given drug. In the present study, we have used large-scale RNA interference-based genetic screens to find candidate biomarkers of resistance to a new acyl sulfonamide derivative, R3200. This compound inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, but its mechanism of action is unknown. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:We used a large-scale RNA interference genetic screen to identify modulators of the efficacy of R3200. We searched for genes whose suppression in an in vitro cell system could cause resistance to the anticancer effects of R3200. RESULTS:We report here that knockdown of either RBX1 or DDB1 causes resistance to the anticancer effects of R3200, raising the possibility that these two genes may have utility as biomarkers of response to this drug in a clinical setting. Interestingly, both RBX1 and DDB1 are part of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. CONCLUSIONS:We propose that suppression of the activity of a RBX1 and DDB1-containing E3 ligase complex leads to the stabilization of certain proteins, the increased abundance of which is in turn responsible for resistance to R3200. Moreover, our data suggest that RBX1 and DDB1 could potentially be developed into biomarkers of resistance to acyl sulfonamide-based cancer drugs. This will require clinical validation in a series of patients treated with R3200. 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-0261
    The Roles of Cullin-2 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex in Cancer. Liu Xijuan,Zurlo Giada,Zhang Qing Advances in experimental medicine and biology Posttranslational protein modifications play an important role in regulating protein stability and cellular function. There are at least eight Cullin family members. Among them, Cullin-2 forms a functional E3 ligase complex with elongin B, elongin C, RING-box protein 1 (RBX1, also called ROC1), as well as the substrate recognition subunit (SRS) to promote the substrate ubiquitination and degradation. In this book chapter, we will review Cullin-2 E3 ligase complexes that include various SRS proteins, including von Hippel Lindau (pVHL), leucine-rich repeat protein-1 (LRR-1), preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME), sex-determining protein FEM-1 and early embryogenesis protein ZYG-11. We will focus on the VHL signaling pathway in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), which may reveal various therapeutic avenues in treating this lethal cancer. 10.1007/978-981-15-1025-0_11
    SPOP promotes ATF2 ubiquitination and degradation to suppress prostate cancer progression. Ma Jian,Chang Kun,Peng Jingtao,Shi Qing,Gan Hualei,Gao Kun,Feng Kai,Xu Fujiang,Zhang Hailiang,Dai Bo,Zhu Yao,Shi Guohai,Shen Yijun,Zhu Yiping,Qin Xiaojian,Li Yao,Zhang Pingzhao,Ye Dingwei,Wang Chenji Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR BACKGROUND:Next-generation sequencing of the exome and genome of prostate cancers has identified numerous genetic alterations. SPOP (Speckle-type POZ Protein) is one of the most frequently mutated genes in primary prostate cancer, suggesting that SPOP may be a potential driver of prostate cancer. The aim of this work was to investigate how SPOP mutations contribute to prostate cancer development and progression. METHODS:To identify molecular mediators of the tumor suppressive function of SPOP, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screen in a HeLa cDNA library using the full-length SPOP as bait. Immunoprecipitation and Western Blotting were used to analyze the interaction between SPOP and ATF2. Cell migration and invasion were determined by Transwell assays. Immunohistochemistry were used to analyze protein levels in patients' tumor samples. RESULTS:Here we identified ATF2 as a bona fide substrate of the SPOP-CUL3-RBX1 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. SPOP recognizes multiple Ser/Thr (S/T)-rich degrons in ATF2 and triggers ATF2 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Strikingly, prostate cancer-associated mutants of SPOP are defective in promoting ATF2 degradation in prostate cancer cells and contribute to facilitating prostate cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. CONCLUSION:SPOP promotes ATF2 ubiquitination and degradation, and ATF2 is an important mediator of SPOP inactivation-induced cell proliferation, migration and invasion. 10.1186/s13046-018-0809-0
    SPOP suppresses prostate cancer through regulation of CYCLIN E1 stability. Ju Lin-Gao,Zhu Yuan,Long Qiao-Yun,Li Xue-Jing,Lin Xiang,Tang Shan-Bo,Yin Lei,Xiao Yu,Wang Xing-Huan,Li Lianyun,Zhang Lei,Wu Min Cell death and differentiation SPOP is one of the important subunits for CUL3/SPOP/RBX1 complex tightly connected with tumorigenesis. However, its exact roles in different cancers remain debatable. Here, we identify CYCLIN E1, as a novel substrate for SPOP. SPOP directly interacts with CYCLIN E1 and specific regulates its stability in prostate cancer cell lines. SPOP/CUL3/RBX1 complex regulates CYCLIN E1 stability through poly-ubiquitination. CDK2 competes with SPOP for CYCLIN E1 interaction, suggesting that SPOP probably regulates the stability of CDK2-free CYCLIN E1. CYCLIN E1 expression rescued proliferation, migration, and tumor formation of prostate cancer cell suppressed by SPOP. Furthermore, we found SPOP selectively regulates the substrates' stability and signaling pathways in prostate cancer and CCRC cell lines, suggesting that complicated mechanisms exist for SPOP to regulate substrate specificity. Altogether, we have revealed a novel mechanism for SPOP in suppressing prostate cancer and provided evidence to show SPOP has dual functions in prostate cancer and CCRC. 10.1038/s41418-018-0198-0
    Structure of a glomulin-RBX1-CUL1 complex: inhibition of a RING E3 ligase through masking of its E2-binding surface. Duda David M,Olszewski Jennifer L,Tron Adriana E,Hammel Michal,Lambert Lester J,Waddell M Brett,Mittag Tanja,DeCaprio James A,Schulman Brenda A Molecular cell The approximately 300 human cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) are multisubunit E3s in which a RING protein, either RBX1 or RBX2, recruits an E2 to catalyze ubiquitination. RBX1-containing CRLs also can bind Glomulin (GLMN), which binds RBX1's RING domain, regulates the RBX1-CUL1-containing SCF(FBW7) complex, and is disrupted in the disease Glomuvenous Malformation. Here we report the crystal structure of a complex between GLMN, RBX1, and a fragment of CUL1. Structural and biochemical analyses reveal that GLMN adopts a HEAT-like repeat fold that tightly binds the E2-interacting surface of RBX1, inhibiting CRL-mediated chain formation by the E2 CDC34. The structure explains the basis for GLMN's selectivity toward RBX1 over RBX2, and how disease-associated mutations disrupt GLMN-RBX1 interactions. Our study reveals a mechanism for RING E3 ligase regulation, whereby an inhibitor blocks E2 access, and raises the possibility that other E3s are likewise controlled by cellular proteins that mask E2-binding surfaces to mediate inhibition. 10.1016/j.molcel.2012.05.044
    Protective autophagy induced by RBX1/ROC1 knockdown or CRL inactivation via modulating the DEPTOR-MTOR axis. Yang Dongqin,Zhao Yongchao,Liu Jie,Sun Yi,Jia Lijun Autophagy RBX1/ROC1 is an essential subunit of the largest multiunit Cullin-RING E3 ligase (CRL), which controls the degradation of diverse substrates, thereby regulating numerous cellular processes. Recently, we reported that RBX1 is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and its expression is negatively correlated with patient survival. Moreover, siRNA silencing of RBX1 inhibits the proliferation of liver cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo by inducing CDKN1A/p21-dependent cell senescence. Interestingly, independent of senescence, RBX1 knockdown also triggers an autophagy response, due, at least in part, to the accumulation of the MTOR-inhibitory protein DEPTOR, a recently identified CRL substrate. Biologically, blockage of autophagy significantly enhances the growth-suppressive effect of RBX1 knockdown by triggering massive apoptosis, indicating that the autophagy response upon RBX1 knockdown serves as a survival signal in liver cells. Similar observations were also made in many types of human cancer cells upon inhibition of CRL by MLN4924. These findings suggest that RBX1-CRL is a promising anti-cancer drug target and provide proof-of-concept evidence for a novel drug combination of RBX1-CRL inhibitor and autophagy inhibitor for effective treatment of human cancer. 10.4161/auto.22024
    Frequent concerted genetic mechanisms disrupt multiple components of the NRF2 inhibitor KEAP1/CUL3/RBX1 E3-ubiquitin ligase complex in thyroid cancer. Martinez Victor D,Vucic Emily A,Pikor Larissa A,Thu Kelsie L,Hubaux Roland,Lam Wan L Molecular cancer BACKGROUND:Reactive oxygen species contribute to normal thyroid function. The NRF2 oxidative response pathway is frequently and constitutively activated in multiple tumor types, including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Genetic mechanisms underlying NRF2 pathway activation in PTC are not fully understood. Thus, we aimed to determine whether inactivating patterns of DNA-level alterations affect genes encoding for individual NRF2 inhibitor complex components (CUL3/KEAP1/RBX1) occur in PTC. FINDINGS:Combined patterns of epi/genetic alterations for KEAP1/CUL3/RBX1 E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex components were simultaneously interrogated for a panel of 310 PTC cases and 40 adjacent non-malignant tissues. Data were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas project. Enrichment of NRF2 pathway activation was assessed by gene-set enrichment analysis using transcriptome data. Our analyses revealed that PTC sustain a strikingly high frequency (80.6%) of disruption to multiple component genes of the NRF2 inhibitor complex. Hypermethylation is the predominant inactivating mechanism primarily affecting KEAP1 (70.6%) and CUL3 (20%), while copy number loss mostly affects RBX1 (16.8%). Concordantly, NRF2-associated gene expression signatures are positively and significantly enriched in PTC. CONCLUSIONS:The KEAP1/CUL3/RBX1 E3-ubiquitin ligase complex is almost ubiquitously affected by multiple DNA-level mechanisms and downstream NRF2 pathway targets are activated in PTC. Given the importance of this pathway to normal thyroid function as well as to cancer; targeted inhibition of NRF2 regulators may impact strategies for therapeutic intervention involving this pathway. 10.1186/1476-4598-12-124
    Reduced RBX1 expression induces chromosome instability and promotes cellular transformation in high-grade serous ovarian cancer precursor cells. Bungsy Manisha,Palmer Michaela C L,Jeusset Lucile M,Neudorf Nicole M,Lichtensztejn Zelda,Nachtigal Mark W,McManus Kirk J Cancer letters Despite high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) being the most common and lethal gynecological cancer in women, the early etiological events driving disease development remain largely unknown. Emerging evidence now suggests that chromosome instability (CIN; ongoing changes in chromosome numbers) may play a central role in the development and progression of HGSOC. Importantly, genomic amplification of the Cyclin E1 gene (CCNE1) contributes to HGSOC pathogenesis in ~20% of patients, while Cyclin E1 overexpression induces CIN in model systems. Cyclin E1 levels are normally regulated by the SCF (SKP1-CUL1-FBOX) complex, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that includes RBX1 as a core component. Interestingly, RBX1 is heterozygously lost in ~80% of HGSOC cases and reduced expression corresponds with worse outcomes, suggesting it may be a pathogenic event. Using both short (siRNA) and long (CRISPR/Cas9) term approaches, we show that reduced RBX1 expression corresponds with significant increases in CIN phenotypes in fallopian tube secretory epithelial cells, a cellular precursor of HGSOC. Moreover, reduced RBX1 expression corresponds with increased Cyclin E1 levels and anchorage-independent growth. Collectively, these data identify RBX1 as a novel CIN gene with pathogenic implications for HGSOC. 10.1016/j.canlet.2020.11.051