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    Prebiotic, immuno-stimulating and gut microbiota-modulating effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide. Zhu Wei,Zhou Shuxin,Liu Jihua,McLean Robert J C,Chu Weihua Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie The present study was done to evaluate the prebiotic effect of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP), its effect on murine fecal microbiota composition and innate immune response. Results showed that LBP supports the growth of selective probiotic bacteria with a maximum of 8.23 (log10 cfu/mL) and 6.62 (log10 cfu/mL) for Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum respectively. In vivo studies revealed that the administrations of LBP to mice resulted in an increase in the abundance of the phyla Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, while reducing the ratio of the phylum Bacteroidetes. At the genus level, the administration of LBP stimulated the emergence of some potential probiotic genera (Akkermansia, Lactobacillus, and Prevotellaceae). The concentrations of TGF-β and IL-6 in serum and sIgA in the colon content were enriched significantly after LBP administrations in mice. The thymus index and spleen index of mice treated with LBP displayed significant difference compared to the control group (P < 0.05). These findings suggest that LBP is a good source as a potential prebiotic and can enhance the intestinal microbiota and boost beneficial bacteria levels, modulate innate immune response. 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109591
    Lycium barbarum polysaccharide combined with aerobic exercise ameliorated nonalcoholic fatty liver disease through restoring gut microbiota, intestinal barrier and inhibiting hepatic inflammation. Gao Lu-Lu,Ma Jia-Min,Fan Yan-Na,Zhang Yan-Nan,Ge Rui,Tao Xiu-Juan,Zhang Meng-Wei,Gao Qing-Han,Yang Jian-Jun International journal of biological macromolecules Gut microbiota and intestinal permeability have been demonstrated to be the key players in the gut-liver cross talk in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Lycium barbarum polysaccharides (LBPs), which seem to be a potential prebiotic, and aerobic exercise (AE) have shown protective effects on NAFLD. However, their combined effects on intestinal microecology remain unclear. This study evaluated the effects of LBP, AE, and its combination (LBP + AE) on gut microbiota composition, intestinal barrier, and hepatic inflammation in NAFLD. LBP + AE showed high abundance and diversity of gut microbiota, restored the gut microbiota composition, increased some Bacteroidetes, short chain fatty acids, but decreased Proteobacteria and the ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes. Simultaneously, LBP, AE, and LBP + AE could restore the colonic and ileum tight junctions by increasing the expression of zonula occludens-1 and occludin. They also downregulated gut-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPSs), hepatic LPS-binding proteins, inflammatory factors, and related indicators of the LPS/TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway for the liver. Our results implied that LBP could be considered a prebiotic agent, and LBP + AE might be a promising treatment for NAFLD because it could maintain gut microbiota balance, thereby restoring intestinal barrier and exerting hepatic benefits. 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.05.066
    The in vivo and in vitro study of polysaccharides from a two-herb formula on ulcerative colitis and potential mechanism of action. Zhao Linjing,Wu Hongbing,Zhao Aihua,Lu Huili,Sun Wei,Ma Chungwah,Yang Yiting,Xin Xue,Zou Haimiao,Qiu Mingfeng,Jia Wei Journal of ethnopharmacology ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Lycium barbarum and Astragalus membranaceus are two traditional medicinal herbs widely used in China for nourishing Yin and reinforcing Qi. The purpose of the study was to investigate the prophylactic and curative effects of crude polysaccharides (QHPS) extracted from a two-herb formula composed of Lycium barbarum and Astragalus membranaceus at a ratio of 2:3 in colitis rats, and to further elucidate the potential mechanism of action in epithelial cell proliferation in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS:An acetic acid (AA)-induced ulcerative colitis rat model was applied in the study. Two independent protocols were used to assess the prophylactic and curative effects of QHPS, respectively, in which rats were either pre-treated with QHPS (0.18g/kg) for 14 days prior to AA induction, or post-treated with QHPS for 7 days after AA induction. The stool consistency and weight loss were used to evaluate disease activity. The morphological changes in intestinal mucosa at the end of the experiments were observed. The serum levels of endotoxin (EDT), diamine oxidase (DAO) and d-lactate (DLA), important biochemical markers for evaluating intestinal mucosal structure and function, were measured. In the in vitro mechanistic studies, rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) were used to access for epithelium regeneration. RESULTS:The intra-colonic instillation of AA induced ulcerative colitis in rat, as indicated by diarrhea, weight loss, and colonic mucosal damage. Both prophylactic and curative treatments effectively reduced the weight loss and diarrhea and attenuated the colonic mucosal damage associated with inducible colitis. The significant increase in serum levels of DAO, DLA and EDT was induced by AA and inhibited by QHPS treatment. Moreover, QHPS could significantly stimulate IEC-6 proliferation in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). CONCLUSION:The present study indicated for the first time that polysaccharides extracted from this two-herb formula can protect against experimental ulcerative colitis, presumably by promoting the recovery of the intestinal barrier. 10.1016/j.jep.2014.02.008
    Fecal 16S rRNA Gene Sequencing Analysis of Changes in the Gut Microbiota of Rats with Low-Dose Aspirin-Related Intestinal Injury. Chi Tianyu,Zhao Quchuan,Wang Peili BioMed research international Background:The incidence of small intestinal injury caused by low-dose aspirin (LDA) is high, but the pathogenesis and intervention measures of it have not been elucidated. Recent studies have found gut microbiota to be closely associated with onset and development of NSAID-induced intestinal injury. However, studies of the changes in the gut microbiota of rats with LDA-related intestinal injury have been lacking recently. In this study, we investigated fecal 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis of changes in the gut microbiota of rats with LDA-related intestinal injury. Methods:Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat models of small intestinal injury were established by intragastric administration of LDA. The small intestinal tissues and the fecal samples were harvested. The fecal samples were then analyzed using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA V3-V4 amplicons. The gut microbiota composition and diversity were analyzed and compared using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis, the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) clustering analysis, multivariate statistical analysis (ANOSIM, MetaStats, and LEfSe), and spatial statistics. Results:The LDA rat model was successfully established. Decreased Firmicutes and increased Bacteroidetes abundances in rats with LDA-induced small intestinal injury were revealed. MetaStats analysis between the before administration of LDA (CG) and after administration of LDA (APC) groups showed that the intestinal floras exhibiting significant differences ( < 0.05, < 0.1) were Firmicutes, Bacteroides, Cyanobacteria, Melainabacteria, Coriobacteriia, Bacteroidia, Bacteroidales, Eubacteriaceae, and Streptococcaceae. In addition, the bacterial taxa showing significant differences between the control (NS) and APC groups were Firmicutes, Bacteroides, Verrucomicrobiaceae and Peptococcaceae. Conclusions:The alterations in the gut microbiota composition and diversity of rats with LDA-related intestinal injury were found in the present study. The change of gut microbiota in LDA-related intestinal injury will lay the foundation for further research on the function and signaling pathways of the intestinal flora and promote the use of intestinal flora as drug targets to treat LDA-induced small intestinal injury. 10.1155/2021/8848686
    A review of the mechanism and prophylaxis of acetyl salicylic acid-induced injury of the small intestine. Handa Osamu,Takayama Shun,Mukai Rieko,Suyama Yosuke,Majima Atsushi,Fukui Akifumi,Omatsu Tatsushi,Naito Yuji Free radical research Besides the preventive effect of aspirin on cerebrocardiovascular diseases, aspirin has adverse effects, especially on the gastrointestinal system and kidneys. Especially, a recent advancement in endoscopy revealed that aspirin-induced small intestinal mucosal injury is considerably higher than previously believed. However, the mechanism of this phenomenon is not clear yet. Moreover, effective prophylaxis does not exist. First, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of aspirin on the intestinal epithelial cell line in rats at a high concentration, and found that aspirin significantly decreased heat shock protein 70 expression, increased reactive oxygen species production, and increased epithelial cell apoptosis. These phenomena were prevented by the increment of heat shock protein 70 expression. Next, we investigated the effect of a lower concentration of aspirin on epithelial cell permeability, and found that aspirin significantly increased reactive oxygen species production, decreased tight junction protein expression, and increased epithelial permeability. These phenomena were suppressed by an antioxidant. Finally, we investigated the role of intestinal mucus on aspirin-induced mucosal damage using an in vivo model, and found that mucus prevented a high concentration of aspirin-induced mucosal damage. The investigation of chronic users of aspirin revealed that mucus-increasing therapy might be useful for preventing aspirin-induced small intestinal mucosal injury. 10.1080/10715762.2018.1455003