Humanistic and economic burden associated with depression in the United States: a cross-sectional survey analysis.
BACKGROUND:Depression (major depressive disorder [MDD]) affects the functioning of patients in many facets of life. Very few large-scale studies to date have compared health and economic related outcomes of those with versus without depression, and across various depression severity groups. We aimed to evaluate humanistic and economic burden in respondents with and without depression diagnosis, and across symptom severity groups. METHODS:Data from the 2017 US National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS) were utilized. Of the adult respondents (N = 75,004), 59,786 were < 65 years old. Respondents not meeting eligibility criteria were excluded (e.g., those self-reporting bipolar disorder or experiencing depression in past 12 months but no depression diagnosis). Overall, data from 39,331 eligible respondents (aged 18-64 years) were analyzed; and comprised respondents 'with depression diagnosis' (n = 8853; self-reporting physician diagnosis of depression and experiencing depression in past 12 months) and respondents 'without depression diagnosis' (n = 30,478; no self-reported physician diagnosis of depression and not experiencing depression). Respondents with depression were further examined across depression severity based on Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Outcome measures included health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL; Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form [SF-36v2]: mental and physical component summary [MCS and PCS]; Short-Form 6 Dimensions [SF-6D]; and EuroQol 5 Dimensions [EQ-5D]), work productivity and activity impairment (WPAI), and health resource utilization (HRU). Multivariate analysis was performed to examine group differences after adjusting covariates. RESULTS:Respondents with depression diagnosis reported significantly higher rates of diagnosed anxiety and sleep problems versus those without depression (for both; P < 0.001). Adjusted MCS, PCS, SF-6D, and EQ-5D scores were significantly lower in respondents with depression versus those without depression (all P < 0.001). Consistently, respondents with depression reported higher absenteeism, presenteeism, and overall WPAI, as well as greater number of provider visits, emergency room visits, and hospitalizations compared with those without depression (all P < 0.001). Further, burden of each outcome increased with an increase in disease severity. CONCLUSIONS:Diagnosed depression was associated with lower health-related quality-of-life and work productivity, and higher healthcare utilization than those without depression, and burden increased with an increase in symptom severity. The results show the burden of depression remains high even among those experiencing minimal symptoms.
Suicide attempt rate and the risk factors in young, first-episode and drug-naïve Chinese Han patients with major depressive disorder.
BACKGROUND:In recent years, the rates of suicide among young people have been increasing, and major depressive disorder (MDD) is regarded to be its main cause. Many factors such as thyroid dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities are thought to mediate this process, but the conclusions are inconsistent. This study investigated the rate of suicide attempts and associated risk factors among young, first-episode and drug-naïve Chinese Han patients with MDD. METHODS:A total of 917 patients with MDD (aged 18 ~ 35 years) were recruited. Demographic and clinical data were collected and thyroid function, fasting blood glucose and lipid profiles were measured. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-17 items (HAMD-17), Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAMA), positive symptom subscale of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and clinical global impression of severity scale (CGI-S) were adopted to assess depression, anxiety, psychotic symptoms and disease severity respectively. RESULTS:The rate of suicide attempts was 19.5% in young MDD patients. There were significant differences in age (p = 0.003), education level (p = 0.001), age of onset (p = 0.004) and disease duration (p = 0.001) between patients with and without suicide attempts. Compared with patients without suicide attempts, patients with suicide attempts had significantly higher scores on the HAMD-17, HAMA, PANSS positive symptom subscale and CGI-S (all p < 0.001). Patients with suicide attempts had significantly higher levels of TSH (p < 0.001), TgAb (p = 0.004), TPOAb (p < 0.001), TG (p = 0.016), TC (p < 0.001), LDL (p < 0.001), and fasting glucose (p < 0.001), but significantly lower levels of HDL (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis showed that marital status (OR = 0.515, 95%CI: 0.280-0.950, p = 0.515), disease duration (OR = 1.100, 95%CI: 1.013-1.194, p = 0.024), HAMA score (OR = 1.313, 95%CI: 1.205-1.430, p < 0.001), CGI-S score (OR = 1.875, 95%CI: 1.339-2.624, p < 0.001), levels of FT3(OR = 0.717, 95%CI: 0.536-0.959, p = 0.025), TPOAb (OR = 1.004, 95%CI: 1.002-1.006, p < 0.001), TC (OR = 1.330, 95%CI: 1.011-1.750, p = 0.042) and LDL (OR = 0.736, 95%CI: 0.558-0.971, p = 0.030) were all independently associated with suicide attempts in young MDD patients. CONCLUSIONS:In China, the rate of suicide attempts in young patients with MDD is quite high and thyroid dysfunction and metabolic abnormalities may be implicated in its pathogenesis.
Prevalence and associated risk factors for anxiety and depression in infertile couples of ART treatment: a cross-sectional study.
BACKGROUND:Infertility now is a public health concern and is associated with increased psychological distress. METHODS:We enrolled 1247 infertile couples and assessed their anxiety and depression status before and during assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment using the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) and Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). The Chi-square or fisher's exact test was used to analyze the prevalence of anxiety and depression in infertile couples. Multivariate logistical regression was performed to analyze the risk factors for anxiety and depression. RESULTS:The prevalence of anxiety was 13.5% and 8.7% (p < 0.05), and that of depression was 9.4% and 7.9% (p = 0.2) in female and male partners, respectively. Female SAS and SDS scores were positively associated with male SAS and SDS scores, respectively (r = 0.52 and r = 0.50, respectively, both p < 0.0001), and were positively associated with their own SDS and SAS scores, respectively (r = 0.63 and r = 0.62, respectively, both p < 0.0001). Their own depression or partners' anxiety was associated with the anxiety, and their own anxiety or partners' depression was associated with the depression in infertile couples. No children, unemployment, and low education level were also associated with female anxiety. SAS and SDS scores were significantly decreased during ART treatment. CONCLUSIONS:Females were more vulnerable to having anxiety than males in infertile couples. Anxiety and depression in infertile couples could interact, therefore, anxiety and depression would be simultaneously counseled, and their partners also should be given supportive psychotherapy. TRIAL REGISTRATION:It was an observational study and had no health care interventions on participants. So it was not registrated.