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    In Silico Analysis of Elastomer-Coated Cerclage for Reducing Sternal Cut-Through in High-Risk Patients. Subasi Omer,Oral Atacan,Torabnia Shams,Erdogan Deniz,Erdogan Mustafa Bilge,Lazoglu Ismail Journal of biomechanical engineering BACKGROUND:AISI 316 L stainless steel wire cerclage routinely used in sternotomy closure causes lateral cut-through damage and fracture, especially in cases of high-risk patients, which leads to postoperative complications. A biocompatible elastomer (Pellethane®) coating on the standard wire is proposed to mitigate the cut-through effect. METHODS:Simplified peri-sternal and transsternal, sternum-cerclage contact models are created and statically analyzed in a finite element (FE) software to characterize the stress-reduction effect of the polymer coating for thicknesses between 0.5 and 1.125 mm. The performance of the polymer-coated cerclage in alleviating the detrimental cortical stresses is also compared to the standard steel cerclage in a full sternal closure FE model for the extreme cough loading scenario. RESULTS:It was observed via the simplified contact simulations that the cortical stresses can be substantially decreased by increasing the coating thickness. The full closure coughing simulation on the human sternum further corroborated the simplified contact results. The stress reduction effect was found to be more prominent in the transsternal contacts in comparison to peri-sternal contacts. CONCLUSIONS:Bearing in mind the promising numerical simulation results, it is put forth that a standard steel wire coated with Pellethane will majorly address the cut-through complication. 10.1115/1.4050912
    Review of Biomechanical Studies and Finite Element Modeling of Sternal Closure Using Bio-Active Adhesives. Bioengineering (Basel, Switzerland) The most common complication of median sternotomy surgery is sternum re-separation after sternal fixation, which leads to high rates of morbidity and mortality. The adhered sternal fixation technique comprises the wiring fixation technique and the use of bio-adhesives. Adhered sternal fixation techniques have not been extensively studied using finite element analysis, so mechanical testing studies and finite element analysis of sternal fixation will be presented in this review to find the optimum techniques for simulating sternal fixation with adhesives. The optimal wiring technique should enhance bone stability and limit sternal displacement. Bio-adhesives have been proposed to support sternal fixation, as wiring is prone to failure in cases of post-operative problems. The aim of this paper is to review and present the existing numerical and biomechanical sternal fixation studies by reviewing common sternal closure techniques, adhesives for sternal closure, biomechanical modeling of sternal fixation, and finite element modeling of sternal fixation systems. Investigating the physical behavior of 3D sternal fixation models by finite element analysis (FEA) will lower the expense of conducting clinical trials. This indicates that FEA studies of sternal fixation with adhesives are needed to analyze the efficiency of this sternal closure technique virtually. 10.3390/bioengineering9050198