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    The pathogen spectrum and resistance in patients with peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis: A single-center, observational clinical study
. Yang Li,Gong Nirong,Zhou Hui,Jiang Jianping Clinical nephrology BACKGROUND:Peritoneal dialysis-associated peritonitis (PDAP) is one of the major causes of peritoneal dialysis (PD) failure and death. Therefore, it is important to determine how to effectively treat patients with PDAP. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We analyzed the pathogen spectrum and bacterial resistance in 203 PDAP cases that were enrolled in this study from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017. All patients were infected with peritonitis and had been treated with antibiotics while at our center. Bacterial culture results of PD fluid and pathogen drug resistance were collected and analyzed. A total of 159 cases (78.3%) had a positive bacterial culture of PD fluid. RESULTS:A total of 47 pathogens were identified, including 19 (40.4%) Gram-positive cocci strains (the most common was spp.), 15 (31.9%) Gram-negative bacilli strains (the most common was , 4 fungal strains, and 9 other strains. The drug sensitivity test showed that Gram-positive cocci were sensitive to vancomycin (94.9%), but had a high resistance to cefazolin (67.7%). Gram-negative bacilli were sensitive to imipenem (96.2%), but had a high resistance to ceftriaxone (60.0%). Voriconazole and itraconazole were sensitive in fungal infections. A total of 162 cases were cured, 37 cases were unresponsive to antibiotic treatment and converted to hemodialysis after Tenckhoff catheter removal, and 4 cases resulted in death. CONCLUSION:Gram-positive cocci are still the primary pathogen of PDAP cases in our center, but demonstrate a high resistance to first-generation cephalosporin, which is the suggested treatment per International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis 2016 Peritonitis Recommendations. Therefore, an individualized treatment based on the distribution of pathogens and drug resistance in different centers is more conducive to improve the cure rate of PDAP. 10.5414/CN109634
    Early Peritonitis in a Large Peritoneal Dialysis Provider System in Colombia. Vargas Edgar,Blake Peter G,Sanabria Mauricio,Bunch Alfonso,López Patricia,Vesga Jasmín,Buitrago Alberto,Astudillo Kindar,Devia Martha,Sánchez Ricardo Peritoneal dialysis international : journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis ♦ BACKGROUND: Peritonitis is the most important complication of peritoneal dialysis (PD), and early peritonitis rate is predictive of the subsequent course on PD. Our aim was to calculate the early peritonitis rate and to identify characteristics and predisposing factors in a large nationwide PD provider network in Colombia. ♦ METHODS: This was a historical observational cohort study of all adult patients starting PD between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, in 49 renal facilities in the Renal Therapy Services in Colombia. We studied the peritonitis rate in the first 90 days of treatment, its causative micro-organisms, its predictors and its variation with time on PD and between individual facilities. ♦ RESULTS: A total of 3,525 patients initiated PD, with 176 episodes of peritonitis during 752 patient-years of follow-up for a rate of 0.23 episodes per patient year equivalent to 1 every 52 months. In 41 of 49 units, the rate was better than 1 per 33 months, and in 45, it was better than 1 per 24 months. Peritonitis rates did not differ with age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or PD modality. We identified high incidence risk periods at 2 to 5 weeks after initiation of PD and again at 10 to 12 weeks. ♦ CONCLUSION: An excellent peritonitis rate was achieved across a large nationwide network. This occurred in the context of high nationwide PD utilization and despite high rates of socioeconomic deprivation. We propose that a key factor in achieving this was a standardized approach to management of patients. 10.3747/pdi.2016.00030