Essential steps in bioprinting: From pre- to post-bioprinting.
Datta Pallab,Barui Ananya,Wu Yang,Ozbolat Veli,Moncal Kazim K,Ozbolat Ibrahim T
An increasing demand for directed assembly of biomaterials has inspired the development of bioprinting, which facilitates the assembling of both cellular and acellular inks into well-arranged three-dimensional (3D) structures for tissue fabrication. Although great advances have been achieved in the recent decade, there still exist issues to be addressed. Herein, a review has been systematically performed to discuss the considerations in the entire procedure of bioprinting. Though bioprinting is advancing at a rapid pace, it is seen that the whole process of obtaining tissue constructs from this technique involves multiple-stages, cutting across various technology domains. These stages can be divided into three broad categories: pre-bioprinting, bioprinting and post-bioprinting. Each stage can influence others and has a bearing on the performance of fabricated constructs. For example, in pre-bioprinting, tissue biopsy and cell expansion techniques are essential to ensure a large number of cells are available for mass organ production. Similarly, medical imaging is needed to provide high resolution designs, which can be faithfully bioprinted. In the bioprinting stage, compatibility of biomaterials is needed to be matched with solidification kinetics to ensure constructs with high cell viability and fidelity are obtained. On the other hand, there is a need to develop bioprinters, which have high degrees of freedom of movement, perform without failure concerns for several hours and are compact, and affordable. Finally, maturation of bioprinted cells are governed by conditions provided during the post-bioprinting process. This review, for the first time, puts all the bioprinting stages in perspective of the whole process of bioprinting, and analyzes their current state-of-the art. It is concluded that bioprinting community will recognize the relative importance and optimize the parameter of each stage to obtain the desired outcomes.