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    Histone Deacetylase 6 Regulates the Activation of M1 Macrophages by the Glycolytic Pathway During Acute Liver Failure. Wang Yao,Li Xun,Chen Qian,Jiao Fangzhou,Shi Chunxia,Pei Maohua,Wang Luwen,Gong Zuojiong Journal of inflammation research Background:The glycolysis pathway of M1 macrophages is a key factor affecting the inflammatory response. The aim of this article is to investigate the role of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in the M1 macrophage glycolysis pathway during acute liver failure (ALF). Methodology:Targeted metabolomics for quantitative analysis of energy metabolites technology was used to detect the characteristics of energy metabolism for 8 ALF patients and 8 normal volunteers. The ALF mice model was intervened with HDAC6 inhibitor ACY-1215. iTRAQ/TMT quantitative proteomics was used to detect protein expression in livers in different mice groups. The liver function, energy metabolites, M1 macrophages, cytokines, and pathological structure, DDX3X, NLRP3 and DNMT1 in liver tissue were detected. The changes of the above molecules were verified in cell groups. Results:ALF patients and mice have significant energy metabolism disorders, accompanied by activation of M1 macrophages. After the intervention of ACY-1215, the activated M1 macrophages and cytokines levels in the mouse liver were reduced. The levels of IDH1, MDH1, and ATP were significantly increased. The expression of DDX3X increased, while the expression of NLRP3 and DNMT1 decreased. ACY-1215 could reduce the model cell apoptosis level and inflammatory response, and improve energy metabolism. It could also promote the expression of DDX3X, and inhibit the expression of NLRP3 and DNMT1. Conclusion:ACY-1215 could inhibit the activation of M1 macrophages by improving the glycolytic pathway through regulating DNMT1 and DDX3X/NLRP3 signals to alleviate ALF. 10.2147/JIR.S302391
    Inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase pathway attenuates acute liver failure by inhibiting macrophage activation. Li Lu,Liu Yi-Rong,Gao Shan,Li Jun-Feng,Li Shan-Shan,Zhang Dan-Dan,Liu Shuang,Bai Li,Zheng Su-Jun,Duan Zhong-Ping,Qi Min,Chen Yu Journal of immunology research This study aimed to investigate the role of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) in acute liver failure (ALF) and changes in macrophage activation by blocking it. ALF was induced in rats by administration of D-galactosamine (D-GalN)/lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Rats were injected intraperitoneally with AA-861 (a specific 5-LO inhibitor), 24 hr before D-GalN/LPS administration. After D-GalN/LPS injection, the liver tissue was collected for assessment of histology, macrophage microstructure, macrophage counts, 5-LO mRNA formation, protein expression, and concentration of leukotrienes. Serum was collected for detecting alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), total bilirubin (Tbil), and tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α . Twenty-four hours after injection, compared with controls, ALF rats were characterized by widespread hepatocyte necrosis and elevated ALT, AST, and Tbil, and 5-LO protein expression reached a peak. Liver leukotriene B4 was also significantly elevated. However, 5-LO mRNA reached a peak 8 hr after D-GalN/LPS injection. Simultaneously, the microstructure of macrophages was changed most significantly and macrophages counts were increased significantly. Moreover, serum TNF- α was also elevated. By contrast, AA-861 pretreatment significantly decreased liver necrosis as well as all of the parameters compared with the rats without pretreatment. Macrophages, via the 5-LO pathway, play a critical role in ALF, and 5-LO inhibitor significantly alleviates ALF, possibly related to macrophage inhibition. 10.1155/2014/697560
    Soyasaponin II protects against acute liver failure through diminishing YB-1 phosphorylation and Nlrp3-inflammasome priming in mice. Wang Fangzhao,Gong Shenhai,Wang Teng,Li Lei,Luo Haihua,Wang Junhao,Huang Chenyang,Zhou Hongwei,Chen Guiming,Liu Zhanguo,Zhang Qifan,Jiang Yong,Chen Peng Theranostics Acute liver failure is characterized by the rapid development of liver dysfunction and remarkably high mortality. Accumulating evidence suggests that soyasaponin possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities. Here, we aimed to investigate the potential role of soyasaponin II in acute liver failure and establish the underlying mechanism. : Lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine (LPS/GalN) was employed to induce acute liver failure. We applied liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC/MS) to characterize the changes of soyasaponin II levels in the cecal content and liver. Transcriptomics and proteomics analysis were used to evaluate the functional molecule mediated by soyasaponin II in macrophages. : LPS/GalN administration markedly decreased fecal and hepatic soyasaponin II levels. Soyasaponin II treatment protected mice against LPS/GalN induced acute liver injury. Additionally, soyasaponin II markedly diminished Y-Box Binding Protein 1 (YB-1) phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, Nlrp3 inflammasome priming, and interleukin 1β (Il-1β) production in macrophages. Phosphorylated YB-1 could activate Nlrp3 mRNA transcription by binding the promoter region. Finally, immunofluorescence analysis showed elevated p-YB-1 nuclear translocation in macrophages of acute liver failure patients compared to controls. : Our data shows that soyasaponin II which serves as a novel inhibitor for YB-1 phosphorylation and Nlrp3 inflammasome priming could protect mice against LPS/GalN induced acute liver failure. 10.7150/thno.40128
    TNF-α/HMGB1 inflammation signalling pathway regulates pyroptosis during liver failure and acute kidney injury. Wang Yao,Zhang Haiyue,Chen Qian,Jiao Fangzhou,Shi Chunxia,Pei Maohua,Lv Jian,Zhang Hong,Wang Luwen,Gong Zuojiong Cell proliferation OBJECTIVE:Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of acute liver failure (ALF). Pyroptosis is a necrosis type related to inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the role of TNF-α/HMGB1 pathway in pyroptosis during ALF and AKI. METHODS:An ALF and AKI mouse model was generated using LPS/D-Gal, and a TNF-α inhibitor, CC-5013, was used to treat the mice. THP-1 cells were induced to differentiate into M1 macrophages, then challenged with either CC-5013 or an HMGB1 inhibitor, glycyrrhizin. pLVX-mCMVZsGreen-PGK-Puros plasmids containing TNF-α wild-type (WT), mutation A94T of TNF-α and mutation P84L of TNF-α were transfected into M1 macrophages. RESULTS:Treatment with CC-5013 decreased the activation of TNF-α/HMGB1 pathway and pyroptosis in the treated mice and cells compared with the control mice and cells. CC-5013 also ameliorated liver and kidney pathological changes and improved liver and renal functions in treated mice, and the number of M1 macrophages in the liver and kidney tissues also decreased. The activation of TNF-α/HMGB1 pathway and pyroptosis increased in the M1 macrophage group compared with the normal group. Similarly, the activation of TNF-α/HMGB1 pathway and pyroptosis in the LPS + WT group also increased. By contrast, the activation of the TNF-α/HMGB1 pathway and pyroptosis decreased in the LPS + A94T and LPS + P84L groups. Moreover, glycyrrhizin inhibited pyroptosis. CONCLUSION:The TNF-α/HMGB1 inflammation signalling pathway plays an important role in pyroptosis during ALF and AKI. 10.1111/cpr.12829
    Gasdermin D-mediated hepatocyte pyroptosis expands inflammatory responses that aggravate acute liver failure by upregulating monocyte chemotactic protein 1/CC chemokine receptor-2 to recruit macrophages. Li Hong,Zhao Xue-Ke,Cheng Yi-Ju,Zhang Quan,Wu Jun,Lu Shuang,Zhang Wei,Liu Yang,Zhou Ming-Yu,Wang Ya,Yang Jing,Cheng Ming-Liang World journal of gastroenterology BACKGROUND:Massive hepatocyte death is the core event in acute liver failure (ALF). Gasdermin D (GSDMD)-mediated pyroptosis is a type of highly inflammatory cell death. However, the role of hepatocyte pyroptosis and its mechanisms of expanding inflammatory responses in ALF are unclear. AIM:To investigate the role and mechanisms of GSDMD-mediated hepatocyte pyroptosis through and experiments. METHODS:The expression of pyroptosis pathway-associated proteins in liver tissues from ALF patients and a hepatocyte injury model was examined by Western blot. GSDMD short hairpin RNA (shRNA) was used to investigate the effects of downregulation of GSDMD on monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1) and its receptor CC chemokine receptor-2 (CCR2) . For experiments, we used GSDMD knockout mice to investigate the role and mechanism of GSDMD in a D-galactose/lipopolysaccharide (D-Galn/LPS)-induced ALF mouse model. RESULTS:The levels of pyroptosis pathway-associated proteins in liver tissue from ALF patients and a hepatocyte injury model increased significantly. The level of GSDMD-N protein increased most obviously ( < 0.001). , downregulation of GSDMD by shRNA decreased the cell inhibition rate and the levels of MCP1/CCR2 proteins ( < 0.01). , GSDMD knockout dramatically eliminated inflammatory damage in the liver and improved the survival of D-Galn/LPS-induced ALF mice ( < 0.001). Unlike the mechanism of immune cell pyroptosis that involves releasing interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18, GSDMD-mediated hepatocyte pyroptosis recruited macrophages MCP1/CCR2 to aggravate hepatocyte death. However, this pathological process was inhibited after knocking down GSDMD. CONCLUSION:GSDMD-mediated hepatocyte pyroptosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ALF, recruiting macrophages to release inflammatory mediators by upregulating MCP1/CCR2 and leading to expansion of the inflammatory responses. GSDMD knockout can reduce hepatocyte death and inflammatory responses, thus alleviating ALF. 10.3748/wjg.v25.i44.6527
    Noncanonical Wnt5a/JNK Signaling Contributes to the Development of D-Gal/LPS-Induced Acute Liver Failure. Inflammation Acute liver failure (ALF) is a deadly clinical disorder with few effective treatments and unclear pathogenesis. In our previous study, we demonstrated that aberrant Wnt5a expression was involved in acute-on-chronic liver failure. However, the role of Wnt5a in ALF is unknown. We investigated the expression of Wnt5a and its downstream c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in a mouse model of ALF established by coinjection of D-galactosamine (D-Gal) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in C57BL/6 mice. We also investigated the role of Box5, a Wnt5a antagonist, in vivo. Moreover, the effect of Wnt5a/JNK signaling on downstream inflammatory cytokine expression, phagocytosis, and migration in THP-1 macrophages was studied in vitro. Aberrant Wnt5a expression and JNK activation were detected in D-Gal/LPS-induced ALF mice. Box5 pretreatment reversed JNK activation and eventually decreased the mortality rate of D-Gal/LPS-treated mice, with reduced hepatic necrosis and apoptosis, serum ALT and AST levels, and liver inflammatory cytokine expression, although the latter was not significant. We further demonstrated that recombinant Wnt5a (rWnt5a)-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA expression and increased THP-1 macrophage phagocytosis in a JNK-dependent manner, which could be restored by Box5. In addition, rWnt5a-induced migration of THP-1 macrophages was also reversed by Box5. Our findings suggested that Wnt5a/JNK signaling plays an important role in the development of ALF and that Box5 could have particular hepatoprotective effects in ALF. 10.1007/s10753-022-01627-y
    Pretreatment of exosomes derived from hUCMSCs with TNF-α ameliorates acute liver failure by inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 in macrophage. Zhang Shuqin,Jiang Linrui,Hu Huazhong,Wang Hong,Wang Xiaoyan,Jiang Jiaohua,Ma Yanyan,Yang Jing,Hou Yu,Xie Denghui,Zhang Qun Life sciences AIMS:The management of acute liver failure (ALF) is a major challenge worldwide. The current study aimed to determine the therapeutic potential of TNF-α pretreatment of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes (T-Exo) in ALF. MAIN METHODS:Here, we enriched T-Exo and untreated exosomes (Exo), them were measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) for particle size detection and identified surface marker by Western blot and flow cytometry. Then the cell proliferation was detected by CCK-8 and the effect of T-Exo on the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines was tested by ELISA. ALF mouse models were induced by LPS and D-GalN. H&E staining, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot were used to detect the effect of T-Exo on the levels of NLRP3 and other inflammation-related pathway proteins. qPCR was used to detect the expression level of microRNA-299-3p in T-Exo and its transfer to macrophages. Laser confocal microscopy was used to detect colocalization of exosomes,Golgi and NLRP3 in macrophages. KEY FINDINGS:Our study shows that T-Exo can reduce serum ALT, AST and proinflammatory cytokines level and inhibit activation of NLRP3 inflammation-associated pathway proteins. T-Exo treatment reduces pathological liver damage caused by ALF. Anti-inflammatory-related miRNA-299-3p is up-regulated in TNF-α-stimulated MSCs and selectively packaged into exosomes for role in exosomal treatment. And conducted preliminary exploration and hypothesis on the specific mechanism of this effect. SIGNIFICANCE:These in vitro and in vivo studies indicate that T-Exo attenuates inflammatory damage caused by ALF and promotes liver tissue repair by inhibiting the activation of the NLRP3 pathway. 10.1016/j.lfs.2020.117401