Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Body Fatness: Associations with Total Body Fat, Visceral Fat, and Liver Fat.
Medicine and science in sports and exercise
PURPOSE:It remains unclear to what extent habitual physical activity and sedentary time (ST) are associated with visceral fat and liver fat. We studied the substitution of ST with time spent physically active and total body fat (TBF), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and hepatic triglyceride content (HTGC) in middle-age men and women. DESIGN:In this cross-sectional analysis of the Netherlands Epidemiology of Obesity study, physical activity was assessed in 228 participants using a combined accelerometer and heart rate monitor. TBF was assessed by the Tanita bioelectrical impedance, VAT by magnetic resonance imaging, and HTGC by proton-MR spectroscopy. Behavioral intensity distribution was categorized as ST, time spent in light physical activity (LPA), and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). To estimate the effect of replacing 30 min·d-1 of ST with 30 min·d-1 LPA or MVPA, we performed isotemporal substitution analyses, adjusted for sex, age, ethnicity, education, the Dutch Healthy Diet index, and smoking. RESULTS:Included participants (41% men) had a mean ± SD age of 56 ± 6 yr and spent 88 ± 56 min in MVPA and 9.0 ± 2.1 h of ST. Replacing 30 min·d-1 of ST with 30 min of MVPA was associated with 1.3% less TBF (95% confidence interval = -2.0 to -0.7), 7.8 cm2 less VAT (-11.6 to -4.0), and 0.89 times HTGC (0.82-0.97). Replacement with LPA was not associated with TBF (-0.03%; -0.5 to 0.4), VAT (-1.7 cm2; -4.4 to 0.9), or HTGC (0.98 times; 0.92-1.04). CONCLUSIONS:Reallocation of time spent sedentary with time spent in MVPA, but not LPA, was associated with less TBF, visceral fat, and liver fat. These findings contribute to the development of more specified guidelines on ST and physical activity.
Isotemporal Associations of Device-Measured Sedentary Time and Physical Activity with Cardiac-Autonomic Regulation in Previously Pregnant Women.
International journal of behavioral medicine
BACKGROUND:High sedentary time (ST) and low physical activity may increase cardiovascular risk, potentially though cardiac-autonomic dysregulation. This study investigated associations of statistically exchanging device-measured ST and physical activity with measures of cardiac-autonomic regulation in previously pregnant women. METHOD:This cross-sectional, secondary analysis included 286 women (age = 32.6 ± 5.7 years; 68% white) measured 7-15 years after delivery. ST and light (LPA), moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous (MVPA) intensity physical activity were measured by ActiGraph GT3X. ST was further partitioned into long (≥ 30 min) and short (< 30 min) bouts. MVPA was also partitioned into long (≥ 10 min) and short (< 10 min) bouts. Cardiac-autonomic regulation was assessed by heart rate variability (HRV) (resting heart rate, natural log transformed standard deviation of normal R-R intervals [lnSDNN], natural log-transformed root mean square of successive differences [lnRMSSD]) from a 5-min seated ECG. Progressive isotemporal substitution models adjusted for confounders. Sensitivity analyses removed women with related underlying medical conditions and who did not meet respiration rate criteria. RESULTS:Initial analyses found no significant associations with HRV when exchanging 30 min of ST and physical activity (p > 0.05). Yet, replacing long- and short-bout ST with 30 min of long-bout MVPA yielded significantly higher (healthier) lnRMSSD (B = 0.063 ± 0.030 and B = 0.056 ± 0.027, respectively; both p < 0.05). Sensitivity analyses strengthened these associations and yielded further associations of higher lnSDNN and lnRMSSD when replacing 30 min of short-bout MVPA with equivalent amounts of long-bout MVPA (B = 0.074 ± 0.037 and B = 0.091 ± 0.046, respectively). CONCLUSION:Replacing ST with long-bout MVPA is a potential strategy to improve cardiac-autonomic function in previously pregnant women.