High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protects against ischemic stroke by inhibiting M1 microglia polarization through let-7b-5p/HMGA2/NF-κB signaling pathway.
BACKGROUND:Microglia assume opposite phenotypes in response to ischemic brain injury, exerting neurotoxic and neuroprotective effects under different ischemic stages. Modulating M1/M2 polarization is a potential therapy for treating ischemic stroke. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) held the capacity to regulate neuroinflammation and astrocytic polarization, but little is known about rTMS effects on microglia. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the rTMS influence on microglia polarization and the underlying possible molecular mechanisms in ischemic stroke models. METHODS:Previously reported 10 Hz rTMS protocol that regulated astrocytic polarization was used to stimulate transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats and oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R) injured BV2 cells. Specific expression levels of M1 marker iNOS and M2 marker CD206 were measured by western blotting and immunofluorescence. MicroRNA expression changes detected by high-throughput second-generation sequencing were validated by RT-PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Dual-luciferase report assay and miRNA knock-down were applied to verify the possible mechanisms regulated by rTMS. Microglia culture medium (MCM) from different groups were collected to measure the TNF-α and IL-10 concentrations, and detect the influence on neuronal survival. Finally, TTC staining and modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS) were used to determine the effects of MCM on ischemic stroke volume and neurological functions. RESULTS:The 10 Hz rTMS inhibited ischemia/reperfusion induced M1 microglia and significantly increased let-7b-5p level in microglia. HMGA2 was predicted and proved to be the target protein of let-7b-5p. HMGA2 and its downstream NF-κB signaling pathway were inhibited by rTMS. Microglia culture medium (MCM) collected from rTMS treated microglia contained lower TNF-α concentration but higher IL-10 concentration than no rTMS treated MCM, reducing ischemic volumes and neurological deficits of MCAO mice. However, knockdown of let-7b-5p by antagomir reversed rTMS effects on microglia phenotype and associated HMGA/NF-κB activation and neurological recovery. CONCLUSION:High-frequency rTMS could alleviate ischemic stroke injury through inhibiting M1 microglia polarization via regulating let-7b-5p/HMGA2/NF-κB signaling pathway in MCAO models.
Relevant mediators involved in and therapies targeting the inflammatory response induced by activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in ischemic stroke.
Xu Qingxue,Zhao Bo,Ye Yingze,Li Yina,Zhang Yonggang,Xiong Xiaoxing,Gu Lijuan
Journal of neuroinflammation
The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a member of the NLR family of inherent immune cell sensors. The NLRP3 inflammasome can detect tissue damage and pathogen invasion through innate immune cell sensor components commonly known as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs promote activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, thus increasing the transcription of genes encoding proteins related to the NLRP3 inflammasome. The NLRP3 inflammasome is a complex with multiple components, including an NAIP, CIITA, HET-E, and TP1 (NACHT) domain; apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC); and a leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domain. After ischemic stroke, the NLRP3 inflammasome can produce numerous proinflammatory cytokines, mediating nerve cell dysfunction and brain edema and ultimately leading to nerve cell death once activated. Ischemic stroke is a disease with high rates of mortality and disability worldwide and is being observed in increasingly younger populations. To date, there are no clearly effective therapeutic strategies for the clinical treatment of ischemic stroke. Understanding the NLRP3 inflammasome may provide novel ideas and approaches because targeting of upstream and downstream molecules in the NLRP3 pathway shows promise for ischemic stroke therapy. In this manuscript, we summarize the existing evidence regarding the composition and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, the molecules involved in inflammatory pathways, and corresponding drugs or molecules that exert effects after cerebral ischemia. This evidence may provide possible targets or new strategies for ischemic stroke therapy.
Neuroprotective Effect of Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF) in a Mouse Model of Ischemic Stroke.
International journal of molecular sciences
The mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in vivo is unclear. We investigated whether the MIF promotes neurological recovery in an in vivo mouse model of ischemic stroke. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery was performed to make ischemic stroke mouse model. Male mice were allocated to a sham vehicle, a sham MIF, a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) vehicle, and MCAO+MIF groups. Transient MCAO (tMCAO) was performed in the MCAO groups, and the vehicle and the MIF were administered via the intracerebroventricular route. We evaluated the neurological functional scale, the rotarod test, and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging. The expression level of the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), Bcl2, and the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were further measured by Western blot assay. The Garcia test was significantly higher in the MCAO+MIF group than in the MCAO+vehicle group. The MCAO+MIF group exhibited significantly better performance on the rotarod test than the MCAO+vehicle group, which further had a significantly reduced total infarct volume on T2-weighted MRI imaging than the MCAO vehicle group. Expression levels of BDNF, and MAP2 tended to be higher in the MCAO+MIF group than in the MCAO+vehicle group. The MIF exerts a neuroprotective effect in an in vivo ischemic stroke model. The MIF facilitates neurological recovery and protects brain tissue from ischemic injury, indicating a possibility of future novel therapeutic agents for stroke patients.
Astrocytic p75 expression provoked by ischemic stroke exacerbates the blood-brain barrier disruption.
The disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a critical role in the pathology of ischemic stroke. p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75 ) contributes to the disruption of the blood-retinal barrier in retinal ischemia. However, whether p75 influences the BBB permeability after acute cerebral ischemia remains unknown. The present study investigated the role and underlying mechanism of p75 on BBB integrity in an ischemic stroke mouse model, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). After 24 h of MCAO, astrocytes and endothelial cells in the infarct-affected brain area up-regulated p75 . Genetic p75 knockdown (p75 ) or pharmacological inhibition of p75 using LM11A-31, a selective inhibitor of p75 , both attenuated brain damage and BBB leakage in MCAO mice. Astrocyte-specific conditional knockdown of p75 mediated with an adeno-associated virus significantly ameliorated BBB disruption and brain tissue damage, as well as the neurological functions after stroke. Further molecular biological examinations indicated that astrocytic p75 activated NF-κB and HIF-1α signals, which upregulated the expression of MMP-9 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), subsequently leading to tight junction degradation after ischemia. As a result, increased leukocyte infiltration and microglia activation exacerbated brain injury after stroke. Overall, our results provide novel insight into the role of astrocytic p75 in BBB disruption after acute cerebral ischemia. The p75 may therefore be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ischemic stroke.
Neuroprotective effects of SOX5 against ischemic stroke by regulating VEGF/PI3K/AKT pathway.
Zhang Wu,Wu Yuqin,Chen Hong,Yu Dan,Zhao Jinfeng,Chen Jing
Ischemic stroke is a common clinical cardiovascular disease and often accompanied by central nervous system injury. It often causes paralysis or loss of motor function after central nervous system injury and significantly reduces the patient's quality of life. At present, there is no effective treatment strategy for nerve damage caused by ischemic stroke. Therefore, it is urgently need to explore effective treatment targets. The protein expression of SOX5, VEGF and apoptosis related proteins were measured by western blot. The mRNA expression of SOX5 and VEGF were detected by RT-qPCR. The concentration of S100B and GFAP which are related to nerve damage were detected using ELISA assay. The transcriptional regulation of SOX5 on VEGF was detected using ChIP-PCR and dual luciferase reporter gene assays. The cell apoptosis was measured by TUNEL assay and cell viability was detected by CCK-8 assay. In our study, we found that the expression of SOX5 was significantly reduced when LPS induced apoptosis in PC-12 cells. Overexpression of SOX5 repaired LPS-induced apoptosis. SOX5 promotes VEGF expression as a transcription factor to activate the PI3K/AKT pathway. VEGF also repairs nerve injury and brain tissue injury caused by ischemic stroke. In conclusion, SOX5 transcription regulates the expression of VEGF to activate the PI3K/AKT pathway, which repaired nerve damage caused by ischemic stroke. Therefore, SOX5 could be a new targetto regulate VEGF which can repair nerve injury induced by ischemic stroke.
Corticotropin-Releasing Factor Aggravates Ischemic Stroke Injury by the Inflammatory Activation of Microglia.
Wu Qiang,Feng Yan,Liu Ling,Liu Yang,Liu Xin,Zhang Liqiao,Li Yanan,Wang Liqun
Ischemic stroke is the second leading cause of death worldwide. Therefore, exploring effective and emerging molecular targets for ischemic stroke is a primary task of basic and clinical research. The aim of the present study was to investigate the function of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in ischemic stroke and its related mechanisms, to provide a reference for the treatment of ischemic stroke. CRF, antalarmin, or astressin-2B were used to activate or block the CRF1 (CRF receptor 1) or CRF2 (CRF receptor 2) in BV2 cells and adult male mice, thus constructing a distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO) model. CRF not only accelerated microglial activity by promoting transcription and production of inflammatory factors, but also promoted the transformation of activated BV2 cells from a neuroprotective phenotype (M2) to cytotoxic phenotype (M1), and these effects were mediated by the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. These effects can be blocked by antalarmin but not by astressin-2B. CRF significantly aggravated the neurological deficit, increased infarction volume, and exacerbated neuronal injuries. Additionally, CRF significantly improved the levels of TNF-α and phospho-NF-κB in the ischemia penumbra. Finally, CRF significantly increased the number of CD16/Iba-1-positive cells and decreased the number of CD206/Iba-1-positive cells in the ischemia penumbra. These results provide evidence of the proinflammatory role of CRF in an ischemic stroke model and a possible underlying mechanism, which may facilitate the elucidation of potential treatment approaches for ischemic stroke.
Hirudin alleviates acute ischemic stroke by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation: In vivo and in vitro approaches.
Acute ischemic stroke is a severe condition that a vessel supplying blood to the brain is abruptly blocked mostly due to cerebral thrombosis and embolism. There is a dearth of the effective prevention and early intervention strategies. NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation plays a crucial role in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. Hirudin is a secretion from the salivary glands of the leech Hirudo medicinalis and has a role in regulating inflammation. In this study, hirudin with a dose of 10-40 mg/kg was given to middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion mice. Hirudin markedly constrained cerebral infarct area in a dose-dependent manner, and significantly improved locomotor disability at 40 mg/kg dose. Similar to MCC950, a selective NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor, hirudin inhibited M1 polarization and promoted M2 polarization. It also strikingly suppressed the ischemia-induced overexpression of NLRP3 and its downstream components, caspase-1, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Hirudin and MCC950 equivalently protected viability and death of BV-2 microglia cells against oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion (OGD/R), an in vitro cell model of brain ischemia. Both agents had similar effects in normalizing the OGD/R-evoked aberrant microglial profiles and NLRP3 pathway dysregulation as observed in the mice. These results demonstrated anti-ischemic effects of hirudin and its association with the inhibition of microglial NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated neuroinflammation. Hirudin is a promising agent for the early intervention of acute ischemic stroke.
FUS aggregation following ischemic stroke favors brain astrocyte activation through inducing excessive autophagy.
As is the case with neurodegenerative diseases, abnormal accumulation of aggregated proteins in neurons and glial are also known to implicate in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. However, the potential role of protein aggregates in brain ischemia remains largely unknown. Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) protein has a vital role in RNA metabolism and regulating cellular homeostasis. FUS pathology has been demonstrated in the formation of toxic aggregates and critically affecting cell viability in neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but whether this also applies to neurological injury following cerebral ischemia is unclear. Herein, we demonstrated a critical role of aggregated FUS in astrocyte activation caused by cerebral ischemia and a possible underlying molecular mechanism. Cerebral ischemic injury significantly induced the formation of cytoplasmic FUS aggregates in reactive astrocytes and injured neurons, thereby aggravating neurofunctional damages and worsening stroke outcomes. Further analysis revealed that extranuclear aggregation of FUS in astrocytes was involved in the induction of excessive autophagy, which contributes to autophagic cell injury or death. In conclusion, our results reveal the important contribution of FUS aggregates in promoting astrocyte activation in stroke pathology independent of its transcriptional regulation activity. We thus propose that aggregation of FUS is an important pathological process in ischemic stroke and targeting FUS aggregates might be of unique therapeutic value in the development of future treatment strategies for ischemic stroke.
4-Ethylguaiacol Modulates Neuroinflammation and Promotes Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression to Ameliorate Brain Injury in Ischemic Stroke.
Frontiers in immunology
Ischemic stroke is caused by a sudden reduction in cerebral blood flow that subsequently induces a complex cascade of pathophysiological responses, leading to brain inflammation and irreversible infarction. 4-ethylguaiacol (4-EG) is reported to suppress inflammatory immune responses. However, whether 4-EG exerts anti-inflammatory effects in ischemic stroke remains unexplored. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of 4-EG and examined the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects of 4-EG in ischemic stroke. The effect of 4-EG in ischemic stroke was determined by using a transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) animal model followed by exploring the infarct size, neurological deficits, microglia activation, inflammatory cytokine production, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, brain endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression, and microglial heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression. and HO-1 inhibitor ZnPP-treated mice were also subjected to MCAO to evaluate the role of the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in 4-EG-mediated protection in ischemic stroke. We found that 4-EG attenuated infarct size and neurological deficits, and lessened BBB disruption in ischemic stroke. Further investigation revealed that 4-EG suppressed microglial activation, peripheral inflammatory immune cell infiltration, and brain endothelial cell adhesion molecule upregulation in the ischemic brain. Finally, we identified that the protective effect of 4-EG in ischemic stroke was abolished in and ZnPP-treated MCAO mice. Our results identified that 4-EG confers protection against ischemic stroke and reveal that the protective effect of 4-EG in ischemic stroke is mediated through the induction of the Nrf2/HO1 pathway. Thus, our findings suggest that 4-EG could be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of ischemic stroke.
Therapeutic targets of neuroprotection and neurorestoration in ischemic stroke: Applications for natural compounds from medicinal herbs.
Zhu Ting,Wang Lei,Wang Li-Ping,Wan Qi
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
Neuroprotective and neurorestorative therapy represent two major drug intervention strategies for ischemic stroke. Multiple factors such as excitotoxicity, inflammation, angiogenesis, and neurogenesis are the main pathological processes that underlie acute and chronic ischemic brain injury. Furthermore, their intimate interactions mediate blood-brain barrier permeability, increase neurovascular unit structural damage as well as a hemorrhagic transformation during ischemic stroke. We aimed to review the current understandings of the underlying mechanisms of neuroprotection and neurorestoration in ischemic stroke. Notably, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has notable advantages in the comprehensive treatment and overall regulation of multi-site and multi-target diseases. Therefore, we reviewed the recent advances in natural compounds from medicinal herbs that possess the bioactivities of simultaneously promoting neuroprotection (e.g., excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammation, and autophagy) and neurorestoration (e.g., angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and axonal sprouting) following brain ischemia injury. These natural compounds were divided into glycosides (astragaloside IV, gastrodin, ginsenoside Rg1 and salidroside), flavonoids (baicalin, icariin, puerarin and breviscapine), phenols (resveratrol, curcumin and salvianolic acid B), and terpenes (ginkgolide B and catalpol). We found that all compounds exhibited anti-brain ischemia activities in vivo and in vitro experiments by promoting neuroprotection and, or neurorestoration. This review tracks and summarizes the progress of the past five years to explore the active compounds and the underlying molecular mechanisms of TCMs that produce pro-neuroprotection and pro-neurorestoration. Additionally, we provide another basis of reference supporting the advantages of TCMs, which could ultimately lead to the development of precise clinical medications for ischemic stroke treatment.
Novel Therapeutic Strategies for Ischemic Stroke: Recent Insights into Autophagy.
Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity
Stroke is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Autophagy is a conserved cellular catabolic pathway that maintains cellular homeostasis by removal of damaged proteins and organelles, which is critical for the maintenance of energy and function homeostasis of cells. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that autophagy plays important roles in pathophysiological mechanisms under ischemic stroke. Previous investigations show that autophagy serves as a "double-edged sword" in ischemic stroke as it can either promote the survival of neuronal cells or induce cell death in special conditions. Following ischemic stroke, autophagy is activated or inhibited in several cell types in brain, including neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, as well as microvascular endothelial cells, which involves in inflammatory activation, modulation of microglial phenotypes, and blood-brain barrier permeability. However, the exact mechanisms of underlying the role of autophagy in ischemic stroke are not fully understood. This review focuses on the recent advances regarding potential molecular mechanisms of autophagy in different cell types. The focus is also on discussing the "double-edged sword" effect of autophagy in ischemic stroke and its possible underlying mechanisms. In addition, potential therapeutic strategies for ischemic stroke targeting autophagy are also reviewed.
Characterization of Astrocytes in the Minocycline-Administered Mouse Photothrombotic Ischemic Stroke Model.
Astrocytes, together with microglia, play important roles in the non-infectious inflammation and scar formation at the brain infarct during ischemic stroke. After ischemia occurs, these become highly reactive, accumulate at the infarction, and release various inflammatory signaling molecules. The regulation of astrocyte reactivity and function surrounding the infarction largely depends on intercellular communication with microglia. However, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Furthermore, recent molecular biological studies have revealed that astrocytes are highly divergent under both resting and reactive states, whereas it has not been well reported how the communication between microglia and astrocytes affects astrocyte divergency during ischemic stroke. Minocycline, an antibiotic that reduces microglial activity, has been used to examine the functional roles of microglia in mice. In this study, we used a mouse photothrombotic ischemic stroke model to examine the characteristics of astrocytes after the administration of minocycline during ischemic stroke. Minocycline increased astrocyte reactivity and affected the localization of astrocytes in the penumbra region. Molecular characterization revealed that the induced expression of mRNA encoding the fatty acid binding protein 7 (FABP7) by photothrombosis was enhanced by the minocycline administration. Meanwhile, minocycline did not significantly affect the phenotype or class of astrocytes. The expression of Fabp7 mRNA was well correlated with that of tumor-necrosis factor α (TNFα)-encoding Tnf mRNA, indicating that a correlated expression of FABP7 from astrocytes and TNFα is suppressed by microglial activity.
Long-term administration of salvianolic acid A promotes endogenous neurogenesis in ischemic stroke rats through activating Wnt3a/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway.
Acta pharmacologica Sinica
Stroke is the major cause of death and disability worldwide. Most stroke patients who survive in the acute phase of ischemia display various extents of neurological deficits. In order to improve the prognosis of ischemic stroke, promoting endogenous neurogenesis has attracted great attention. Salvianolic acid A (SAA) has shown neuroprotective effects against ischemic diseases. In the present study, we investigated the neurogenesis effects of SAA in ischemic stroke rats, and explored the underlying mechanisms. An autologous thrombus stroke model was established by electrocoagulation. The rats were administered SAA (10 mg/kg, ig) or a positive drug edaravone (5 mg/kg, iv) once a day for 14 days. We showed that SAA administration significantly decreased infarction volume and vascular embolism, and ameliorated pathological injury in the hippocampus and striatum as well as the neurological deficits as compared with the model rats. Furthermore, we found that SAA administration significantly promoted neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) proliferation, migration and differentiation into neurons, enhanced axonal regeneration and diminished neuronal apoptosis around the ipsilateral subventricular zone (SVZ), resulting in restored neural density and reconstructed neural circuits in the ischemic striatum. Moreover, we revealed that SAA-induced neurogenesis was associated to activating Wnt3a/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway and downstream target genes in the hippocampus and striatum. Edaravone exerted equivalent inhibition on neuronal apoptosis in the SVZ, as SAA, but edaravone-induced neurogenesis was weaker than that of SAA. Taken together, our results demonstrate that long-term administration of SAA improves neurological function through enhancing endogenous neurogenesis and inhibiting neuronal apoptosis in ischemic stroke rats via activating Wnt3a/GSK3β/β-catenin signaling pathway. SAA may be a potential therapeutic drug to promote neurogenesis after stroke.
Review of the effects and Mechanisms of microglial autophagy in ischemic stroke.
Stroke is a dysfunction caused by acute cerebrovascular disease, which has become the second leading cause of death in the world, resulting in a heavy burden on family and society. As a cellular adaptive mechanism, autophagy denoted a rather pivotal role in the process of ischemic stroke. Recent studies have suggested that autophagy of microglia has an important effect on polarization of phenotype and regulation of neuroinflammation, which implies that regulating autophagy of microglia may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Therefore, this article explored the effects and signal pathways of microglial autophagy in ischemic stroke, aim to clarify the mechanism of autophagy of stroke, which will provide a reference for development of new targets for the treatment of ischemic stroke.
Receptors, Channel Proteins, and Enzymes Involved in Microglia-mediated Neuroinflammation and Treatments by Targeting Microglia in Ischemic Stroke.
Hou Kun,Li Guichen,Yu Jinlu,Xu Kan,Wu Wei
Stroke is the largest contributor to global neurological disability-adjusted life-years, posing a huge economic and social burden to the world. Though pharmacological recanalization with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and mechanical thrombectomy have greatly improved the prognosis of patients with ischemic stroke, clinically, there is still no effective treatment for the secondary injury caused by cerebral ischemia. In recent years, more and more evidences show that neuroinflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of ischemic cerebral injury. Microglia are brain resident innate immune cells and act the role peripheral macrophages. They play critical roles in mediating neuroinflammation after ischemic stroke. Microglia-mediated neuroinflammation is not an isolated process and has complex relationships with other pathophysiological processes as oxidative/nitrative stress, excitotoxicity, necrosis, apoptosis, pyroptosis, autophagy, and adaptive immune response. Upon activation, microglia differentially express various receptors, channel proteins, and enzymes involved in promoting or inhibiting the inflammatory processes, making them the targets of intervention for ischemic stroke. To inhibit microglia-related neuroinflammation and promote neurological recovery after ischemic stroke, numerous biochemical agents, cellular therapies, and physical methods have been demonstrated to have therapeutic potentials. Though accumulating experimental evidences have demonstrated that targeting microglia is a promising approach in the treatment of ischemic stroke, the clinical progress is slow. Till now, no clinical study could provide convincing evidence that any biochemical or physical therapies could exert neuroprotective effect by specifically targeting microglia following ischemic stroke.
Mechanisms of neuronal cell death in ischemic stroke and their therapeutic implications.
Tuo Qing-Zhang,Zhang Shu-Ting,Lei Peng
Medicinal research reviews
Ischemic stroke caused by arterial occlusion is the most common type of stroke, which is among the most frequent causes of disability and death worldwide. Current treatment approaches involve achieving rapid reperfusion either pharmacologically or surgically, both of which are time-sensitive; moreover, blood flow recanalization often causes ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, even though neuroprotective intervention is urgently needed in the event of stroke, the exact mechanisms of neuronal death during ischemic stroke are still unclear, and consequently, the capacity for drug development has remained limited. Multiple cell death pathways are implicated in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. Here, we have reviewed these potential neuronal death pathways, including intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis, necroptosis, autophagy, ferroptosis, parthanatos, phagoptosis, and pyroptosis. We have also reviewed the latest results of pharmacological studies on ischemic stroke and summarized emerging drug targets with a focus on clinical trials. These observations may help to further understand the pathological events in ischemic stroke and bridge the gap between basic and translational research to reveal novel neuroprotective interventions.
Danshen-Chuanxiongqin Injection attenuates cerebral ischemic stroke by inhibiting neuroinflammation via the TLR2/ TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB Pathway in tMCAO mice.
Xu Xiao-Jing,Long Jin-Bo,Jin Kai-Yu,Chen Li-Bing,Lu Xiao-Yan,Fan Xiao-Hui
Chinese journal of natural medicines
Danshen-Chuanxiongqin Injection (DCI) is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke in China. However, its underlying mechanisms remain completely understood. The current study was designed to explore the protective mechanisms of DCI against cerebral ischemic stroke through integrating whole-transcriptome sequencing coupled with network pharmacology analysis. First, using a mouse model of cerebral ischemic stroke by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO), we found that DCI (4.10 mL·kg) significantly alleviated cerebral ischemic infarction, neurological deficits, and the pathological injury of hippocampal and cortical neurons in mice. Next, the whole-transcriptome sequencing was performed on brain tissues. The cerebral ischemia disease (CID) network was constructed by integrating transcriptome sequencing data and cerebrovascular disease-related genes. The results showed CID network was imbalanced due to tMCAO, but a recovery regulation was observed after DCI treatment. Pathway analysis of the key genes with recovery efficiency showed that the neuroinflammation signaling pathway was highly enriched, while the TLR2/TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB pathway was predicted to be affected. Consistently, the in vivo validation experiments confirmed that DCI exhibited protective effects against cerebral ischemic stroke by inhibiting neuroinflammation via the TLR2/TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB pathway. More interestingly, DCI markedly suppressed the neutrophils infiltrated into the brain parenchyma via the choroid plexus route and showed anti-neuroinflammation effects. In conclusion, our results provide dependable evidence that inhibiting neuroinflammation via the TLR2/TLR4-MyD88-NF-κB pathway is the main mechanism of DCI against cerebral ischemic stroke in mice.
[Study on potential effective components and mechanism of Zhishe Tongluo Capsules in treatment of ischemic stroke].
Li Yu,Tian Ji-Xiang,Xu He,Zhang Fang-Bo,Yang Hong-Jun
Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica
To explore the potential effective components and mechanism of Zhishe Tongluo Capsules in the treatment of ischemic stroke via network pharmacology, molecular docking and cellular experiment. The chemical constituents of Zhishe Tongluo Capsules were found by TCMSP, BATMAN-TCM and literatures. The constituents-target network was predicted by BATMAN-TCM database. Key words such as cerebral stroke, ischemic stroke and cerebral ischemic stroke were used to search ischemic stroke related targets, and then Venny Map was constructed based on the targets of traditional Chinese medicine and the targets of ischemic stroke. The overlapping targets were imported into STRING database to establish the interaction network. Furthermore, the core targets were screened out by Cytoscape software. Go and KEGG enrichment analysis were performed through DVIAD database. The results showed a total of 193 potential chemical constituents, 985 drug targets and 6 035 disease targets. There were 631 potential targets, 44 core targets and 55 potential active components for treating ischemic stroke through Venny mapping. GO enrichment analysis mainly involved response to hypoxia and positive regulation of ERK1/ERK2. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis mainly involved cholinergic synapse, cAMP signaling pathway, and calcium signaling pathway. Molecular docking data revealed that TP53, EGFR, IL6, INS, TNF and SRC had a good capability to bind with their corresponding active components. To ensure the protective effect Zhishe Tongluo Capsules on the inflammation reaction, an in vitro model of lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells was built. The contents of IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in the supernatant were significantly decreased by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The findings suggested that Zhishe Tongluo Capsules could prevent the injury of ischemic stroke by inhibiting the inflammation.
USP20 mitigates ischemic stroke in mice by suppressing neuroinflammation and neuron death via regulating PTEN signal.
Pan Rujun,Xie Yaojuan,Fang Wen,Liu Yuqing,Zhang Yang
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide. The lack of effective pharmacotherapies for ischemic stroke is mainly attributed to the incomplete understanding of its pathogenesis. Deubiquitinase ubiquitin-specific protease 20 (USP20) plays an important role in regulating multiple cellular processes. However, its effects on cerebral ischemic stroke still remain unknown. In the present study, we found that USP20 expression was markedly increased in the early phase of ischemic stroke in mice with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) operation, and were then considerably decreased in mice with ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury. Double immunofluorescence staining showed USP20 abundance in both microglial cells and neurons. We then found that promoting USP20 expression remarkably ameliorated MCAO-induced ischemic brain injury, along with significantly reduced infarct volume, neurological scores and brain water contents. In addition, cognitive impairments in MCAO-operated mice were considerably alleviated by USP20 over-expression. Furthermore, USP20 over-expression dramatically restrained microglial activation, inflammatory response and neuronal death in mice with ischemic stroke. Moreover, our results indicated that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) expression was highly decreased in the infarct areas of MCAO-treated mice, while being greatly rescued by USP20 over-expression. All these effects mediated by USP20 during cerebral I/R injury were confirmed in the cultured primary microglial cells and cortical neurons stimulated by oxygen-glucose deprivation and reoxygenation (OGD/R). Mechanistically, we found that USP20 directly interacted with PTEN. Notably, suppressing PTEN with its specific inhibitor dramatically abolished the function of USP20 to ameliorate neuroinflammation and neuron death induced by OGD/R. Collectively, our results illustrated that USP20 could effectively mitigate the severity of cerebral ischemic stroke and improve behavior deficits in MCAO-operated mice, and identified the USP20/PTEN axis as a promising therapeutic target for ischemic stroke treatment.
Signaling pathways involved in ischemic stroke: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
Signal transduction and targeted therapy
Ischemic stroke is caused primarily by an interruption in cerebral blood flow, which induces severe neural injuries, and is one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. Thus, it is of great necessity to further detailly elucidate the mechanisms of ischemic stroke and find out new therapies against the disease. In recent years, efforts have been made to understand the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke, including cellular excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, cell death processes, and neuroinflammation. In the meantime, a plethora of signaling pathways, either detrimental or neuroprotective, are also highly involved in the forementioned pathophysiology. These pathways are closely intertwined and form a complex signaling network. Also, these signaling pathways reveal therapeutic potential, as targeting these signaling pathways could possibly serve as therapeutic approaches against ischemic stroke. In this review, we describe the signaling pathways involved in ischemic stroke and categorize them based on the pathophysiological processes they participate in. Therapeutic approaches targeting these signaling pathways, which are associated with the pathophysiology mentioned above, are also discussed. Meanwhile, clinical trials regarding ischemic stroke, which potentially target the pathophysiology and the signaling pathways involved, are summarized in details. Conclusively, this review elucidated potential molecular mechanisms and related signaling pathways underlying ischemic stroke, and summarize the therapeutic approaches targeted various pathophysiology, with particular reference to clinical trials and future prospects for treating ischemic stroke.
Profiling the neurovascular unit unveils detrimental effects of osteopontin on the blood-brain barrier in acute ischemic stroke.
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, characterized by degradation of BBB junctional proteins and increased permeability, is a crucial pathophysiological feature of acute ischemic stroke. Dysregulation of multiple neurovascular unit (NVU) cell types is involved in BBB breakdown in ischemic stroke that may be further aggravated by reperfusion therapy. Therefore, therapeutic co-targeting of dysregulated NVU cell types in acute ischemic stroke constitutes a promising strategy to preserve BBB function and improve clinical outcome. However, methods for simultaneous isolation of multiple NVU cell types from the same diseased central nervous system (CNS) tissue, crucial for the identification of therapeutic targets in dysregulated NVU cells, are lacking. Here, we present the EPAM-ia method, that facilitates simultaneous isolation and analysis of the major NVU cell types (endothelial cells, pericytes, astrocytes and microglia) for the identification of therapeutic targets in dysregulated NVU cells to improve the BBB function. Applying this method, we obtained a high yield of pure NVU cells from murine ischemic brain tissue, and generated a valuable NVU transcriptome database ( https://bioinformatics.mpi-bn.mpg.de/SGD_Stroke ). Dissection of the NVU transcriptome revealed Spp1, encoding for osteopontin, to be highly upregulated in all NVU cells 24 h after ischemic stroke. Upregulation of osteopontin was confirmed in stroke patients by immunostaining, which was comparable with that in mice. Therapeutic targeting by subcutaneous injection of an anti-osteopontin antibody post-ischemic stroke in mice resulted in neutralization of osteopontin expression in the NVU cell types investigated. Apart from attenuated glial activation, osteopontin neutralization was associated with BBB preservation along with decreased brain edema and reduced risk for hemorrhagic transformation, resulting in improved neurological outcome and survival. This was supported by BBB-impairing effects of osteopontin in vitro. The clinical significance of these findings is that anti-osteopontin antibody therapy might augment current approved reperfusion therapies in acute ischemic stroke by minimizing deleterious effects of ischemia-induced BBB disruption.
Focus on the role of mitochondria in NLRP3 inflammasome activation: A prospective target for the treatment of ischemic stroke (Review).
International journal of molecular medicine
Post‑ischemic neuroinflammation induced by the innate local immune response is a major pathophysiological feature of cerebral ischemic stroke, which remains the leading cause of mortality and disability worldwide. NLR family pyrin domain containing (NLRP)3 inflammasome crucially mediates post‑ischemic inflammatory responses via its priming, activation and interleukin‑1β release during hypoxic‑ischemic brain damage. Mitochondrial dysfunctions are among the main hallmarks of several brain diseases, including ischemic stroke. In the present review, focus was addressed on the role of mitochondria in cerebral ischemic stroke while keeping NLRP3 inflammasome as a link. Under ischemia and hypoxia, mitochondria are capable of controlling NLRP3 inflammasome‑mediated neuroinflammation through mitochondrial released contents, mitochondrial localization and mitochondrial related proteins. Thus, inflammasome and mitochondria may be attractive targets to treat ischemic stroke as well as the several drugs that target the process of mitochondrial function to treat cerebral ischemic stroke. At present, certain drugs have already been studied in clinical trials.
Glutamate excitotoxicity: Potential therapeutic target for ischemic stroke.
Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie
Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is an important mechanism leading to post ischemic stroke damage. After acute stroke, the sudden reduction in cerebral blood flow is most initially followed by ion transport protein dysfunction and disruption of ion homeostasis, which in turn leads to impaired glutamate release, reuptake, and excessive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation, promoting neuronal death. Despite extensive evidence from preclinical studies suggesting that excessive NMDAR stimulation during ischemic stroke is a central step in post-stroke damage, NMDAR blockers have failed to translate into clinical stroke treatment. Current treatment options for stroke are very limited, and there is therefore a great need to develop new targets for neuroprotective therapeutic agents in ischemic stroke to extend the therapeutic time window. In this review, we highlight recent findings on glutamate release, reuptake mechanisms, NMDAR and its downstream cellular signaling pathways in post-ischemic stroke damage, and review the pathological changes in each link to help develop viable new therapeutic targets. We then also summarize potential neuroprotective drugs and therapeutic approaches for these new targets in the treatment of ischemic stroke.
Proteomics on the role of muscone in the "consciousness-restoring resuscitation" effect of musk on ischemic stroke.
Journal of ethnopharmacology
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Musk is a representative drug of aroma-relieving traditional Chinese medicine, and it is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of ischemic stroke. Muscone is the core medicinal component of musk. AIM OF THE STUDY:We sought to identify the target of muscone in the treatment of ischemic stroke using network pharmacology, an animal model of ischemic stroke, and differential proteomics. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The drug targets of muscone in the treatment of ischemic stroke were predicted and analyzed using information derived from sources such as the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology database and Swiss Target Prediction tool. The animal model of focal cerebral ischemia was established by suture-based occlusion of the middle cerebral artery of rats. The rats were divided into six groups: sham-operated control, model, musk, muscone1, muscone2, and muscone3. Neurological deficit scores were calculated after intragastric administration of musk or muscone. The microcirculation blood flow of the pia mater was detected using a laser speckle blood flow meter. The cerebral infarction rate was detected by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining. The necrosis rate of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampal neurons was detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Blood-brain barrier damage was detected by the Evans blue method. Quantitative proteomics analysis in the sham-operated control, model, and muscone groups was performed using tandem-mass-tags. Considering fold changes exceeding 1.2 as differential protein expression, the quantitative values were compared among groups by analysis of variance. Furthermore, a protein-protein interaction network was constructed, and differentially expressed proteins were analyzed by gene ontology (GO), and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. RESULTS:Network pharmacology identified 339 targets for the intersection of 17 components of musk and cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. The GO and KEGG enrichment items mainly identified regulation of neuronal synaptic structure and transfer function, synaptic neurotransmitters, and receptor activity. Zoopery showed that the model group had a higher behavioral score, cerebral infarction rate, cortical and hippocampal neuron death rate, Evans blue exudation in the brain, and bilateral pia mater microcirculation blood flow differences than the sham-operated control group (P <0.01). Compared with the model group, the behavioral score, infarction rate, hippocampal neuronal mortality, and Evans blue content decreased significantly in the musk, muscone2, and muscone3 groups (P <0.05). Proteomic analysis showed that 160 genes were differentially expressed among the sham-operated control, model, and muscone groups. GO items with high enrichment included neuronal synapses, postsynaptic signal transduction, etc. KEGG items with high enrichment included cholinergic synapses, calcium signaling pathway, dopaminergic synapses, etc. Protein interaction analysis revealed that the top three protein pairs were Ndufa10/Ndufa6, Kcna2/Kcnab2, and Gsk3b/Traf6. CONCLUSIONS:Muscone can reduce neuronal necrosis, protect the blood-brain barrier, and improve the neurological damage caused by cerebral ischemia via molecular mechanisms mainly involving the regulation of neuronal synaptic connections. Muscone is an important active component responsible for the "consciousness-restoring resuscitation" effect of musk on ischemic stroke.
Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Exert Protective Effects After Ischemic Stroke Through Upregulation of Glutathione.
Lan Xiao-Yan,Sun Zheng-Wu,Xu Gui-Lian,Chu Cheng-Yan,Qin Hua-Min,Li Shen,Geng Xin,Gao Peng,Boltze Johannes,Li Shen
Stem cell reviews and reports
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote stroke recovery, however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study naïve rats were intravenously injected with syngeneic BMSCs to screen for potential differences in brain metabolite spectrum versus vehicle-treated controls by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. A total of 65 metabolites were significantly changed after BMSC treatment. Among them, 5-oxoproline, an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the endogenous glutathione (GSH), was increased. To confirm the obtained results and investigate the metabolic pathways, BMSCs were injected into rats 24 h after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Rats receiving vehicle solution and sham-operated animals served as controls. High performance liquid chromatography, reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting revealed that intravenous BMSC application increased the levels of 5-oxoproline and GSH in MCAO rats, as well as the expression of key enzymes involved in GSH synthesis including, gamma-glutamylcyclotransferase and gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase. Subsequent clinical investigation confirmed that acute ischemic stroke patients had higher plasma 5-oxoproline and GSH levels than age- and sex-matched non-stroke controls. The optimal cutoff value for 5-oxoproline diagnosing acute ischemic stroke (≤ 7d) was 3.127 µg/mL (sensitivity, 63.4 %; specificity, 81.2 %) determined by receiver characteristic operator curve. The area under the curve was 0.782 (95 % confidence interval: 0.718-0.845). Our findings indicate that BMSCs play a protective role in ischemic stroke through upregulation of GSH and 5-oxoproline is a potential biomarker for acute ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke causes oxidative stress and induction of endogenous, glutathione-dependent anti-oxidative mechanisms. 5-oxoproline, an important metabolite in glutathione biosynthesis, could serve as a biomarker of acute ischemic stroke. Moreover, intravenous bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) treatment after experimental stroke upregulates the expression of key enzymes involved in glutathione synthesis, which results in better antioxidative defense and improved stroke outcome.
γδ T cells aggravate blood-brain-barrier injury via IL-17A in experimental ischemic stroke.
BACKGROUND:γδ T cells were reported to play a key role in ischemic stroke. The integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) directly affects the prognosis of ischemic stroke. This study aimed to determine whether γδ T cells aggravate BBB injury and determine the outcome of ischemic stroke. METHODS:Oxygen-glucosedeprivation (OGD) and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) were used as ischemic stroke models in vitro and in vivo. Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the intracranial infiltration of γδ T cells. RT-qPCR was used to evaluatethe mRNA levels of cytokines and γδ T cell markers. ELISA was used to test the levels of cytokines. Immunofluorescence, TEER and western blotting were used to measure BBB injury. RESULTS:In this study, we found that a large number of γδ T cells infiltrated the ischemic penumbra 24 h after MCAO. Knockout of γδ T cells improved the motor function injury induced by MCAO and significantly reduced the volume of cerebral infarction and blood-brain barrier injury. IL-17A neutralization could rescue the BBB injury induced by γδ T cells both in vitro and in vivo. CONCLUSIONS:Peripheral γδ T cells immediately infiltrated into the lesion site after ischemic stroke and aggravated BBB injury by releasing IL-17A, which might be a potential therapeutic target for ischemic stroke.
The Translational Potential of Microglia and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages in Ischemic Stroke.
Frontiers in immunology
The immune response to ischemic stroke is an area of study that is at the forefront of stroke research and presents promising new avenues for treatment development. Upon cerebral vessel occlusion, the innate immune system is activated by danger-associated molecular signals from stressed and dying neurons. Microglia, an immune cell population within the central nervous system which phagocytose cell debris and modulate the immune response cytokine signaling, are the first cell population to become activated. Soon after, monocytes arrive from the peripheral immune system, differentiate into macrophages, and further aid in the immune response. Upon activation, both microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages are capable of polarizing into phenotypes which can either promote or attenuate the inflammatory response. Phenotypes which promote the inflammatory response are hypothesized to increase neuronal damage and impair recovery of neuronal function during the later phases of ischemic stroke. Therefore, modulating neuroimmune cells to adopt an anti-inflammatory response post ischemic stroke is an area of current research interest and potential treatment development. In this review, we outline the biology of microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages, further explain their roles in the acute, subacute, and chronic stages of ischemic stroke, and highlight current treatment development efforts which target these cells in the context of ischemic stroke.
Novel contact-kinin inhibitor sylvestin targets thromboinflammation and ameliorates ischemic stroke.
Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Increasing evidence indicates that ischemic stroke is a thromboinflammatory disease in which the contact-kinin pathway has a central role by activating pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory processes. The blocking of distinct members of the contact-kinin pathway is a promising strategy to control ischemic stroke. Here, a plasma kallikrein and active FXII (FXIIa) inhibitor (sylvestin, contained 43 amino acids, with a molecular weight of 4790.4 Da) was first identified from forest leeches (Haemadipsa sylvestris). Testing revealed that sylvestin prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time without affecting prothrombin time. Thromboelastography and clot retraction assays further showed that it extended clotting time in whole blood and inhibited clot retraction in platelet-rich plasma. In addition, sylvestin prevented thrombosis in vivo in FeCl-induced arterial and carrageenan-induced tail thrombosis models. The potential role of sylvestin in ischemic stroke was evaluated by transient and permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion models. Sylvestin administration profoundly protected mice from ischemic stroke by counteracting intracerebral thrombosis and inflammation. Importantly, sylvestin showed no signs of bleeding tendency. The present study identifies sylvestin is a promising contact-kinin pathway inhibitor that can proffer profound protection from ischemic stroke without increased risk of bleeding.
Integrated 16S rRNA gene sequencing and LC/MS-based metabolomics ascertained synergistic influences of the combination of acupuncture and NaoMaiTong on ischemic stroke.
Journal of ethnopharmacology
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE:Acupuncture is an effective therapy for ischemic stroke, which has been widely used in China and gradually accepted in more countries and regions recently. In addition, Chinese medicine also plays an important role in stroke treatment, among which NaoMaiTong (NMT) is an example of an effective herbal formula for the treatment of stroke. A therapeutic strategy that combines acupuncture and medicine was widely used in stroke patients. However, the synergistic influences and mechanisms of combined acupuncture and medicine on ischemic stroke have not yet been entirely elucidated. AIM OF THIS STUDY:The purpose of this study is to explore whether acupuncture and medicine combination treatments can produce synergism by using NMT, a clinically effective Chinese medicinal formula for the treatment of ischemic stroke for decades and has been demonstrated to be effective against ischemic brain injury, as a probe. Meanwhile, the potential mechanisms were investigated via cecal microbiome and plasma metabolomics to provide more strategies and basis for acupuncture-medicine combination for stroke. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Adopted middle-cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion (MCAO/R) rat models, the effect for the stroke of the combination treatment consisting of acupuncture and NMT was evaluated by detecting neurological issues, cerebral infarct dimensions, levels of inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α) and oxidative stress factors (SOD, MDA) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Subsequently,16S rRNA gene sequencing and LC/MS-based metabolomic analysis were utilized to explore the characteristics of cecal-contents microecology and plasma metabolic profile, respectively. Finally, the correlation between intestinal microecological characteristics and plasma metabolic characteristics was analyzed to explore the potential mechanism of the acupuncture-NMT combination. RESULTS:The efficacy of acupuncture-NMT therapy was more effective than a single treatment on ischemic stroke, with more effectively reduced infarct sizes, improved neurobehavioral deficits, and alleviated oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Besides, the combination therapy not only adjusted gut microbiota disturbances by enriching species diversity, reducing the abundance of pathogenic bacteria (such as Escherichia-Shaigella), as well as increasing the abundance of beneficial bacteria (such as Turicibacter, Bifidobacterium), but also improved metabolic disorders by reversing metabolite plasma levels to normality. The results of the correlation analysis demonstrated a significant association between intestinal microbiota and plasma metabolic profile, especially the strong correlation of Turicibacter and isoflavones phyto-estrogens metabolites. CONCLUSION:The combination of acupuncture and NMT could produce synergism, suggesting acupuncture-medicine combination therapy might be more conducive to the recovery of ischemic stroke. And the potential mechanism was probably related to the mediation of intestinal microecology and plasma metabolism. Turicibacter and isoflavones phyto-estrogens metabolites might be the targets for acupuncture-NMT combination for stroke. Our current findings could provide a potential therapeutic strategy against ischemic stroke.
The efficacy and safety of the Xuesaitong soft capsule in the treatment of patients with ischemic stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Annals of palliative medicine
BACKGROUND:Ischaemic stroke is a common neurological disease and a leading cause of severe disability and death in developed countries. In most cases, stroke is thought to be a multifactorial disorder or complex trait for which classic patterns of inheritance cannot be shown. Xuesaitong is one of the most commonly used medicines for treating ischemic stroke in China. However, compared to the conventional therapy, the effectiveness and safety of Xuesaitong for ischemic stroke needs to be further systematically reviewed and determined. METHODS:Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the use of the Xuesaitong soft capsule in the treatment of patients with ischemic stroke were identified from databases, including the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases. Next, 2 researchers independently extracted information from the included studies, analyzed the data using STATA 15.0 software, and evaluated the quality of the included studies using RevMan 5.3. RESULTS:A total of 17 RCTs (comprising 1,942 patients with ischemic stroke) were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-analysis results showed that the Xuesaitong soft capsule treatment increased patients' total effective rate compared to conventional or other drug treatments, and improved patients' Clinical Severity Score (CSS scores) or Barthel index (BI) score. A further subgroup analysis stratified by different treatment times showed that Xuesaitong soft capsule treatment at 4 and 8 weeks improved CSS scores more than treatment at 2 weeks in patients with ischemic stroke. Additionally, the Xuesaitong soft capsule also significantly improved plasma viscosity, whole-blood viscosity at high and low shear rates, fibrinogen, hematocrit, and the effect on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) single symptoms or signs in patients with ischemic stroke. DISCUSSION:In summary, compared to conventional or other drug treatments, the Xuesaitong soft capsule treatment was beneficial in improving patients' TCM symptoms (e.g., crooked mouth and tongue, and dizziness) and various indicators. Further, Xuesaitong soft capsule may be a safe and effective drug for the treatment of ischemic stroke. And large-scale randomized clinical trials are needed to further confirm our findings.
Neural Stem Cells Therapy for Ischemic Stroke: Progress and Challenges.
Translational stroke research
Ischemic stroke, with its high morbidity and mortality, is the most common cerebrovascular accident and results in severe neurological deficits. Despite advances in medical and surgical intervention, post-stroke therapies remain scarce, which seriously affects the quality of life of patients. Over the past decades, stem cell transplantation has been recognized as very promising therapy for neurological diseases. Neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation is the optimal choice for ischemic stroke as NSCs inherently reside in the brain and can potentially differentiate into a variety of cell types within the central nervous system. Recent research has demonstrated that NSC transplantation can facilitate neural recovery after ischemic stroke, but the mechanisms still remain unclear, and basic/clinical studies of NSC transplantation for ischemic stroke have not yet been thoroughly elucidated. We thus, in this review, provide a futher understanding of the therapeutic role of NSCs for ischemic stroke, and evaluate their prospects for future application in clinical patients of ischemic stroke.
Increased Serum Complement C3 Levels Are Associated With Adverse Clinical Outcomes After Ischemic Stroke.
Yang Pinni,Zhu Zhengbao,Zang Yuhan,Bu Xiaoqing,Xu Tian,Zhong Chongke,Wang Aili,Peng Hao,Guo Daoxia,Zheng Xiaowei,Xu Tan,Chen Jing,Zhang Yonghong,He Jiang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Complement C3 has been implicated in inflammation and ischemia/reperfusion injury, but its impact on the prognosis of ischemic stroke remains unclear. Aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the association between serum complement C3 and adverse clinical outcomes after ischemic stroke. METHODS:We measured serum complement C3 levels for 3474 patients with ischemic stroke in 26 participating hospitals and collected data of clinical outcomes at 3 months after ischemic stroke. The primary outcome was composite outcome of death and major disability (modified Rankin Scale score ≥3) at 3 months after stroke onset and secondary outcomes included major disability, death, and vascular events. RESULTS:During 3 months of follow-up, 866 participants (25.4%) developed primary outcome. After multivariate adjustment, elevated serum complement C3 levels were associated with increased risk of primary outcome (odds ratio, 1.30 [95% CI, 1.02-1.65]; =0.038) when 2 extreme tertiles were compared. Each SD increase of log-transformed complement C3 was associated with 13% (95% CI, 2%-25%) increased risk of primary outcome. Multivariable-adjusted spline regression model showed a linear relationship between serum complement C3 and the risk of primary outcome (=0.022). Addition of serum complement C3 to conventional risk factors significantly improved the risk prediction of primary outcome (net reclassification index: 8.87%, =0.028; integrated discrimination index: 0.19%, =0.029). CONCLUSIONS:High serum complement C3 levels at baseline were associated with increased risks of adverse clinical outcomes at 3 months after ischemic stroke, suggesting that serum complement C3 may be a valuable prognostic biomarker for ischemic stroke.
Reduced Severity of Tissue Injury Within the Infarct May Partially Mediate the Benefit of Reperfusion in Ischemic Stroke.
BACKGROUND:Emerging data suggest tissue within the infarct lesion is not homogenously damaged following ischemic stroke but has a gradient of injury. Using blood-brain-barrier (BBB) disruption as a marker of tissue injury, we tested whether therapeutic reperfusion improves clinical outcome by reducing the severity of tissue injury within the infarct in patients with ischemic stroke. METHODS:In a pooled analysis of patients treated for anterior circulation large vessel occlusion in the EXTEND-IA TNK (Tenecteplase Versus Alteplase Before Endovascular Therapy for Ischemic Stroke) and EXTEND-IA part-2 (Determining the Optimal Dose of Tenecteplase Before Endovascular Therapy for Ischaemic Stroke) trials, post-treatment BBB permeability at 24 hours was calculated based on the extent of T1-brightening by extravascular gadolinium on T2* perfusion-weighted imaging and measured within the diffusion-weighted-imaging lesion. First, to determine the clinical significance of BBB disruption as a marker of severity of tissue injury, we examined the association between post-treatment BBB permeability and functional outcome. Second, we performed an exploratory (reperfusion, BBB permeability, functional outcome) mediation analysis to estimate the proportion of the reperfusion-outcome relationship that is mediated by change in BBB permeability. RESULTS:In the 238 patients analyzed, an increased BBB permeability measured within the infarct at 24 hours was associated with a reduced likelihood of favorable outcome (90-day modified Rankin Scale score of ≤2) after adjusting for age, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, premorbid modified Rankin Scale, infarct topography, laterality, thrombolytic agent, sex, parenchymal hematoma, and follow-up infarct volume (adjusted odds ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.75-0.98]; =0.023). Mediation analysis suggested reducing the severity of tissue injury (as estimated by BBB permeability) accounts for 18.2% of the association between reperfusion and favorable outcome, as indicated by a reduction in the regression coefficient of reperfusion after addition of BBB permeability as a covariate. CONCLUSIONS:In patients with ischemic stroke, reduced severity of tissue injury within the infarct, as determined by assessing the integrity of the BBB, is independently associated with improved functional outcome. In addition to reducing diffusion-weighted imaging-defined infarct volume, reperfusion may also improve clinical outcome by reducing tissue injury severity within the infarct.