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    Dual-Modal Imaging-Guided Precise Tracking of Bioorthogonally Labeled Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Mouse Brain Stroke. Lim Seungho,Yoon Hong Yeol,Jang Hee Jeong,Song Sukyung,Kim Woojun,Park Jooho,Lee Kyung Eun,Jeon Sangmin,Lee Sangmin,Lim Dong-Kwon,Kim Byung-Soo,Kim Dong-Eog,Kim Kwangmeyung ACS nano Noninvasive and precise stem cell tracking after transplantation in living subject is very important to monitor both stem cell destinations and their fate, which is closely related to their therapeutic efficacy. Herein, we developed bicyclo[6.1.0]nonyne (BCN)-conjugated glycol chitosan nanoparticles (BCN-NPs) as a delivery system of dual-modal stem cell imaging probes. Near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) dye Cy5.5 was chemically conjugated to the BCN-NPs, and then oleic acid-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (OA-FeO NPs) were encapsulated into BCN-NPs, resulting in Cy5.5-labeled and OA-FeO NP-encapsulated BCN-NPs (BCN-dual-NPs). For bioorthogonal labeling of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), first, hMSCs were treated with tetra-acetylated -azidoacetyl-d-mannosamine (AcManNAz) for generating azide (-N) groups onto their surface metabolic glycoengineering. Second, azide groups on the cell surface were successfully chemically labeled with BCN-dual-NPs bioorthogonal click chemistry . This bioorthogonal labeling of hMSCs could greatly increase the cell labeling efficiency, safety, and imaging sensitivity, compared to only nanoparticle-derived labeling technology. The dual-modal imaging-guided precise tracking of bioorthogonally labeled hMSCs was tested in the photothrombotic stroke mouse model intraparenchymal injection. Finally, BCN-dual-NPs-labeled hMSCs could be effectively tracked by their migration from the implanted site to the brain stroke lesion using NIRF/-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) dual-modal imaging for 14 days. Our observation would provide a potential application of bioorthogonally labeled stem cell imaging in regenerative medicine by providing safety and high labeling efficiency and . 10.1021/acsnano.9b02173
    Microfluidic-Based Approaches in Targeted Cell/Particle Separation Based on Physical Properties: Fundamentals and Applications. Nasiri Rohollah,Shamloo Amir,Ahadian Samad,Amirifar Leyla,Akbari Javad,Goudie Marcus J,Lee KangJu,Ashammakhi Nureddin,Dokmeci Mehmet R,Di Carlo Dino,Khademhosseini Ali Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) Cell separation is a key step in many biomedical research areas including biotechnology, cancer research, regenerative medicine, and drug discovery. While conventional cell sorting approaches have led to high-efficiency sorting by exploiting the cell's specific properties, microfluidics has shown great promise in cell separation by exploiting different physical principles and using different properties of the cells. In particular, label-free cell separation techniques are highly recommended to minimize cell damage and avoid costly and labor-intensive steps of labeling molecular signatures of cells. In general, microfluidic-based cell sorting approaches can separate cells using "intrinsic" (e.g., fluid dynamic forces) versus "extrinsic" external forces (e.g., magnetic, electric field, etc.) and by using different properties of cells including size, density, deformability, shape, as well as electrical, magnetic, and compressibility/acoustic properties to select target cells from a heterogeneous cell population. In this work, principles and applications of the most commonly used label-free microfluidic-based cell separation methods are described. In particular, applications of microfluidic methods for the separation of circulating tumor cells, blood cells, immune cells, stem cells, and other biological cells are summarized. Computational approaches complementing such microfluidic methods are also explained. Finally, challenges and perspectives to further develop microfluidic-based cell separation methods are discussed. 10.1002/smll.202000171
    Tracking adult stem cells. Snippert Hugo J,Clevers Hans EMBO reports The maintenance of stem-cell-driven tissue homeostasis requires a balance between the generation and loss of cell mass. Adult stem cells have a close relationship with the surrounding tissue--known as their niche--and thus, stem-cell studies should preferably be performed in a physiological context, rather than outside their natural environment. The mouse is an attractive model in which to study adult mammalian stem cells, as numerous experimental systems and genetic tools are available. In this review, we describe strategies commonly used to identify and functionally characterize adult stem cells in mice and discuss their potential, limitations and interpretations, as well as how they have informed our understanding of adult stem-cell biology. An accurate interpretation of physiologically relevant stem-cell assays is crucial to identify adult stem cells and elucidate how they self-renew and give rise to differentiated progeny. 10.1038/embor.2010.216
    Commercial nanoparticles for stem cell labeling and tracking. Wang Yaqi,Xu Chenjie,Ow Hooisweng Theranostics Stem cell therapy provides promising solutions for diseases and injuries that conventional medicines and therapies cannot effectively treat. To achieve its full therapeutic potentials, the homing process, survival, differentiation, and engraftment of stem cells post transplantation must be clearly understood. To address this need, non-invasive imaging technologies based on nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed to track transplanted stem cells. Here we summarize existing commercial NPs which can act as contrast agents of three commonly used imaging modalities, including fluorescence imaging, magnetic resonance imaging and photoacoustic imaging, for stem cell labeling and tracking. Specifically, we go through their technologies, industry distributors, applications and existing concerns in stem cell research. Finally, we provide an industry perspective on the potential challenges and future for the development of new NP products. 10.7150/thno.5634
    Clinical imaging in regenerative medicine. Nature biotechnology In regenerative medicine, clinical imaging is indispensable for characterizing damaged tissue and for measuring the safety and efficacy of therapy. However, the ability to track the fate and function of transplanted cells with current technologies is limited. Exogenous contrast labels such as nanoparticles give a strong signal in the short term but are unreliable long term. Genetically encoded labels are good both short- and long-term in animals, but in the human setting they raise regulatory issues related to the safety of genomic integration and potential immunogenicity of reporter proteins. Imaging studies in brain, heart and islets share a common set of challenges, including developing novel labeling approaches to improve detection thresholds and early delineation of toxicity and function. Key areas for future research include addressing safety concerns associated with genetic labels and developing methods to follow cell survival, differentiation and integration with host tissue. Imaging may bridge the gap between cell therapies and health outcomes by elucidating mechanisms of action through longitudinal monitoring. 10.1038/nbt.2993
    New opportunities: the use of nanotechnologies to manipulate and track stem cells. Ferreira Lino,Karp Jeffrey M,Nobre Luis,Langer Robert Cell stem cell Nanotechnologies are emerging platforms that could be useful in measuring, understanding, and manipulating stem cells. Examples include magnetic nanoparticles and quantum dots for stem cell labeling and in vivo tracking; nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and polyplexes for the intracellular delivery of genes/oligonucleotides and protein/peptides; and engineered nanometer-scale scaffolds for stem cell differentiation and transplantation. This review examines the use of nanotechnologies for stem cell tracking, differentiation, and transplantation. We further discuss their utility and the potential concerns regarding their cytotoxicity. 10.1016/j.stem.2008.07.020
    Multifunctional quantum dots-based cancer diagnostics and stem cell therapeutics for regenerative medicine. Onoshima Daisuke,Yukawa Hiroshi,Baba Yoshinobu Advanced drug delivery reviews A field of recent diagnostics and therapeutics has been advanced with quantum dots (QDs). QDs have developed into new formats of biomolecular sensing to push the limits of detection in biology and medicine. QDs can be also utilized as bio-probes or labels for biological imaging of living cells and tissues. More recently, QDs has been demonstrated to construct a multifunctional nanoplatform, where the QDs serve not only as an imaging agent, but also a nanoscaffold for diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. This review highlights the promising applications of multi-functionalized QDs as advanced nanosensors for diagnosing cancer and as innovative fluorescence probes for in vitro or in vivo stem cell imaging in regenerative medicine. 10.1016/j.addr.2015.08.004
    Personalized nanomedicine advancements for stem cell tracking. Janowski Miroslaw,Bulte Jeff W M,Walczak Piotr Advanced drug delivery reviews Recent technological developments in biomedicine have facilitated the generation of data on the anatomical, physiological and molecular level for individual patients and thus introduces opportunity for therapy to be personalized in an unprecedented fashion. Generation of patient-specific stem cells exemplifies the efforts toward this new approach. Cell-based therapy is a highly promising treatment paradigm; however, due to the lack of consistent and unbiased data about the fate of stem cells in vivo, interpretation of therapeutic effects remains challenging hampering the progress in this field. The advent of nanotechnology with a wide palette of inorganic and organic nanostructures has expanded the arsenal of methods for tracking transplanted stem cells. The diversity of nanomaterials has revolutionized personalized nanomedicine and enables individualized tailoring of stem cell labeling materials for the specific needs of each patient. The successful implementation of stem cell tracking will likely be a significant driving force that will contribute to the further development of nanotheranostics. The purpose of this review is to emphasize the role of cell tracking using currently available nanoparticles. 10.1016/j.addr.2012.07.008
    Stem cells in the wild: understanding the World of stem cells through intravital imaging. Brown Samara,Greco Valentina Cell stem cell The limitations of canonical imaging techniques have hampered our abilities to study stem cells in their native environment. Here, we discuss some of the exciting ways stem cells are being visualized by intravital imaging, the intriguing discoveries that have resulted from these endeavors, and the future of this stimulating field. 10.1016/j.stem.2014.11.006
    Molecular imaging in stem cell-based therapies of cardiac diseases. Li Xiang,Hacker Marcus Advanced drug delivery reviews In the past 15years, despite that regenerative medicine has shown great potential for cardiovascular diseases, the outcome and safety of stem cell transplantation has shown controversial results in the published literature. Medical imaging might be useful for monitoring and quantifying transplanted cells within the heart and to serially characterize the effects of stem cell therapy of the myocardium. From the multiple available noninvasive imaging techniques, magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear imaging by positron (PET) or single photon emission computer tomography (SPECT) are the most used clinical approaches to follow the fate of transplanted stem cells in vivo. In this article, we provide a review on the role of different noninvasive imaging modalities and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. We focus on the different in-vivo labeling and reporter gene imaging strategies for stem cell tracking as well as the concept and reliability to use imaging parameters as noninvasive surrogate endpoints for the evaluation of the post-therapeutic outcome. 10.1016/j.addr.2017.07.012
    The distribution of transplanted human mesenchymal stem cells in the CNS of young Macaca fascicularis. Li Jiamei,Zhu Hua,Chen Yunxin,Deng Wei,Li Qin,Lu Shan,Xu Yanfeng,Huang Lan,Ma Chunmei,Zhao Chunhua,Wang Renzhi,Qin Chuan Brain research Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapies have generated much hope and promise as a potential source of cells for cell-based therapeutic strategies in pediatric degenerative diseases. However, the distribution and migratory routes of MSCs are unknown. Here, real-time PCR and microscopy were used to observe the migration and distribution of labeled human MSCs (hMSCs) transplanted into the striatum of young Macaca fascicularis. Moreover, the differentiation of hMSCs was also detected using immunofluorescence. We found that hMSCs were mainly located near the injection site in the brain and in the anterior brain after 2 weeks. After 4 weeks, the hMSCs had dispersed and could be detected in each brain slice and were more uniformly distributed than after 2 weeks. The hMSCs showed a preference for migration towards blood vessels, which may be one of the migratory routes used by hMSCs. Additionally, hMSCs could be observed to give rise to NeuN- and GFAP-positive cells. Transplanted hMSCs also increased the expression levels of N-cadherin in the host brain tissue, which may be one factor that drives the migration and differentiation of hMSCs after transplantation. These results provide preclinical evidence that MSC-based therapies may represent an efficacious alternative to more conventional treatment regimens for a variety of pediatric neurologic disorders. 10.1016/j.brainres.2014.07.016
    Neural stem cell transplantation in ischemic stroke: A role for preconditioning and cellular engineering. Bernstock Joshua D,Peruzzotti-Jametti Luca,Ye Daniel,Gessler Florian A,Maric Dragan,Vicario Nunzio,Lee Yang-Ja,Pluchino Stefano,Hallenbeck John M Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism Ischemic stroke continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. To protect and/or repair the ischemic brain, a multitiered approach may be centered on neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation. Transplanted NSCs exert beneficial effects not only via structural replacement, but also via immunomodulatory and/or neurotrophic actions. Unfortunately, the clinical translation of such promising therapies remains elusive, in part due to their limited persistence/survivability within the hostile ischemic microenvironment. Herein, we discuss current approaches for the development of NSCs more amenable to survival within the ischemic brain as a tool for future cellular therapies in stroke. 10.1177/0271678X17700432
    Platelets as platforms for inhibition of tumor recurrence post-physical therapy by delivery of anti-PD-L1 checkpoint antibody. Han Xiao,Chen Jiawen,Chu Jiacheng,Liang Chao,Ma Qingle,Fan Qin,Liu Zhuang,Wang Chao Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society Cancer local physical therapy (PT) by using heat, cold, electrical stimulation, irradiation or ultrasound to treat tumor is accepted as alternative choice for cancer patients. However, local recurrence and metastasis after such treatments remains to be the major cause of treatment failure and mortality. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a therapeutic strategy to inhibit local recurrence and metastasis. Inspired by the excellent inflammatory targeting ability of platelets, here we expect that the monoclonal antibody against programmed-death ligand 1 (aPDL1) engineered platelets could inhibit tumor local recurrence effectively, by facilitating transport of anti-PD-L1 antibodies to the ablated area with residue tumors. Using triple-negative breast carcinomas (4T1) bearing mouse model, we proved that antibody-coupled platelets could effectively target incompletely ablated tumor with thermal ablation (TA). We found the release of anti-PD-L1 can be triggered upon the platelets activation, together with many pro-inflammatory cytokines. The release of anti-PD-L1 is likely due to the dissociation of platelets upon the activation. Our findings approved that our platelet-based platform could facilitate the delivery of immune checkpoint antibody to tumor residues and remarkably prevent tumor recurrence after ablation. Moreover, this platelet-based delivery strategy may be extended to the targeted delivery of therapeutics post other types of local therapies including photodynamic therapy, high-intensity-focused-ultrasound ablation therapy, and even radiotherapy. 10.1016/j.jconrel.2019.05.008
    Combination immunotherapy and radiotherapy causes an abscopal treatment response in a mouse model of castration resistant prostate cancer. Dudzinski Stephanie O,Cameron Brent D,Wang Jian,Rathmell Jeffrey C,Giorgio Todd D,Kirschner Austin N Journal for immunotherapy of cancer BACKGROUND:Prostate cancer is poorly responsive to immune checkpoint inhibition, yet a combination with radiotherapy may enhance the immune response. In this study, we combined radiotherapy with immune checkpoint inhibition (iRT) in a castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) preclinical model. METHODS:Two Myc-CaP tumor grafts were established in each castrated FVB mouse. Anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 antibodies were given and one graft was irradiated 20 Gy in 2 fractions. RESULTS:In CRPC, a significant increase in survival was found for radiation treatment combined with either anti-PD-1 or anti-PD-L1 compared to monotherapy. The median survival for anti-PD-L1 alone was 13 days compared to 30 days for iRT (p = 0.0003), and for anti-PD-1 alone was 21 days compared to 36 days for iRT (p = 0.0009). Additional treatment with anti-CD8 antibody blocked the survival effect. An abscopal treatment effect was observed for iRT in which the unirradiated graft responded similarly to the irradiated graft in the same mouse. At 21 days, the mean graft volume for anti-PD-1 alone was 2094 mm compared to iRT irradiated grafts 726 mm (p = 0.04) and unirradiated grafts 343 mm (p = 0.0066). At 17 days, the mean graft volume for anti-PD-L1 alone was 1754 mm compared to iRT irradiated grafts 284 mm (p = 0.04) and unirradiated grafts 556 mm (p = 0.21). Flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry identified CD8+ immune cell populations altered by combination treatment in grafts harvested at the peak effect of immunotherapy, 2-3 weeks after starting treatment. CONCLUSIONS:These data provide preclinical evidence for the use of iRT targeting PD-1 and PD-L1 in the treatment of CRPC. Immune checkpoint inhibition combined with radiotherapy treats CPRC with significant increases in median survival compared to drug alone: 70% longer for anti-PD-1 and 130% for anti-PD-L1, and with an abscopal treatment effect. PRECIS:Castration-resistant prostate cancer in a wild-type mouse model is successfully treated by X-ray radiotherapy combined with PD-1 or PD-L1 immune checkpoint inhibition, demonstrating significantly increased median overall survival and robust local and abscopal treatment responses, in part mediated by CD8 T-cells. 10.1186/s40425-019-0704-z
    The Microbiome of the Prostate Tumor Microenvironment. Cavarretta Ilaria,Ferrarese Roberto,Cazzaniga Walter,Saita Diego,Lucianò Roberta,Ceresola Elisa R,Locatelli Irene,Visconti Laura,Lavorgna Giovanni,Briganti Alberto,Nebuloni Manuela,Doglioni Claudio,Clementi Massimo,Montorsi Francesco,Canducci Filippo,Salonia Andrea European urology BACKGROUND:The advent of molecular-based methods of identification and characterization of complex microbial populations has led to a new era of microbial discovery. A detailed and comprehensive analysis of the microbial ecosystem of the pathologic and healthy prostate tissues has not been yet reported. OBJECTIVES:To characterize the microbiome possibly associated to the pathologic prostate microenvironment. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:The microbiome profile of tumor, peri-tumor, and nontumor tissues was assessed on 16 radical prostatectomy-specimens. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS:Microbiome analysis was assessed by massive ultradeep pyrosequencing. Bacteria load was expressed as a percentage of the total number of bacteria. The statistical significance of differences among specimen-groups was tested with Friedman's test (Dunn posthoc test) and Wilcoxon rank-sum test. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS:Three phyla, six classes, nine orders, 14 families, and 11 genera were above the set threshold value of 1%, respectively. Significant differences in specific microbial populations among tumor/peri-tumor and nontumor prostate specimens were observed at certain taxonomic levels. Among genera, Propionibacterium spp. were the most abundant. Staphylococcus spp. were more represented in the tumor/peri-tumor tissues (p<0.05). The restricted number of specimens represents a potential limitation. CONCLUSIONS:The prostate contains a plethora of bacteria, which set themselves within the gland with a distribution dependent on the nature of the tissue, thus suggesting a possible pathophysiological correlation between the composition of the local microbial niche and the presence of the tumor itself. Future studies will help to clarify the role of these specific bacteria and their potential to be exploited as new biomarkers. PATIENT SUMMARY:The pathological prostate is populated by specific microbial populations, whose distribution varies according to the nature of the tissue. This finding opens interesting perspectives for the identification of novel therapeutic approaches and biomarkers. 10.1016/j.eururo.2017.03.029
    Redox-Activated Porphyrin-Based Liposome Remote-Loaded with Indoleamine 2,3-Dioxygenase (IDO) Inhibitor for Synergistic Photoimmunotherapy through Induction of Immunogenic Cell Death and Blockage of IDO Pathway. Liu Dechun,Chen Binlong,Mo Yulin,Wang Zenghui,Qi Tong,Zhang Qiang,Wang Yiguang Nano letters Immunotherapy through stimulating the host immune system has emerged as a powerful therapeutic strategy for various malignant and metastatic tumors in the clinic. However, harnessing the immune system for cancer treatment often fails to obtain a durable response rate due to the poor immunogenicity and the strong immunosuppressive milieu in the tumor site. Herein, a redox-activated liposome was developed from the self-assembly of the porphyrin-phospholipid conjugate and coencapsulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) inhibitor into the interior lumen via remote-loading for simultaneous induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD) and reversing of suppressive tumor microenvironment. The nanoparticle exhibited prolonged blood circulation and enhanced tumor accumulation in the 4T1 tumor-bearing mice after intravenous injection. The nanovesicle could render exponential activation of fluorescence signal and photodynamic therapy (PDT) activity (>100-fold) in response to the high level of intracellular glutathione after endocytosed by tumor cells, thereby achieving effective inhibition of tumor growth and reduced phototoxicity to normal tissues owing to the activatable design of the nanoparticle. More importantly, redox-activated PDT induced intratumoral infiltration of cytotoxic T lymphocytes by induction of ICD of tumor cells. After combining with the IDO inhibitor, the systemic antitumor immune response was further augmented. Hence, we believe that the present nanovesicle strategy has the potential for the synergistic immunotherapy of the metastatic cancers. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b02306
    Breast Cancer Chemo-immunotherapy through Liposomal Delivery of an Immunogenic Cell Death Stimulus Plus Interference in the IDO-1 Pathway. Lu Jianqin,Liu Xiangsheng,Liao Yu-Pei,Wang Xiang,Ahmed Ayman,Jiang Wen,Ji Ying,Meng Huan,Nel Andre E ACS nano Immunotherapy provides the best approach to reduce the high mortality of metastatic breast cancer (BC). We demonstrate a chemo-immunotherapy approach, which utilizes a liposomal carrier to simultaneously trigger immunogenic cell death (ICD) as well as interfere in the regionally overexpressed immunosuppressive effect of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO-1) at the BC tumor site. The liposome was constructed by self-assembly of a phospholipid-conjugated prodrug, indoximod (IND), which inhibits the IDO-1 pathway, followed by the remote loading of the ICD-inducing chemo drug, doxorubicin (DOX). Intravenous injection of the encapsulated two-drug combination dramatically improved the pharmacokinetics and tumor drug concentrations of DOX and IND in an orthotopic 4T1 tumor model in syngeneic mice. Delivery of a threshold ICD stimulus resulted in the uptake of dying BC cells by dendritic cells, tumor antigen presentation and the activation/recruitment of naı̈ve T-cells. The subsequent activation of perforin- and IFN-γ releasing cytotoxic T-cells induced robust tumor cell killing at the primary as well as metastatic tumor sites. Immune phenotyping of the tumor tissues confirmed the recruitment of CD8 cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), disappearance of Tregs, and an increase in CD8/FOXP3 T-cell ratios. Not only does the DOX/IND-Liposome provide a synergistic antitumor response that is superior to a DOX-only liposome, but it also demonstrated that the carrier could be effectively combined with PD-1 blocking antibodies to eradicate lung metastases. All considered, an innovative nano-enabled approach has been established to allow deliberate use of ICD to switch an immune deplete to an immune replete BC microenvironment, allowing further boosting of the response by coadministered IDO inhibitors or immune checkpoint blocking antibodies. 10.1021/acsnano.8b05189
    A Three-in-One Immunotherapy Nanoweapon via Cascade-Amplifying Cancer-Immunity Cycle against Tumor Metastasis, Relapse, and Postsurgical Regrowth. Li Qian,Zhang Di,Zhang Jing,Jiang Yue,Song Aixin,Li Zhonghao,Luan Yuxia Nano letters The antitumor immune response involves a cascade of three phases, namely, antigen presentation (Phase I), lymphocyte activation and proliferation/differentiation (Phase II), and tumor elimination (Phase III). Therefore, an ideal immunotherapy nanoplatform is one that can simultaneously execute these three phases. However, it is of great challenge to develop a single immunotherapy nanoplatform which can deliver individual immunoagent to their on-demand target sites for simultaneously tailoring three phases because of the different target sites restricted by three phases. Herein, for the first time we reported a three-in-one immunotherapy nanoplatform that can simultaneously execute these three phases. Chlorin e6 (Ce6)-conjugated hyaluronic acid (HC), dextro-1-methyl tryptophan (1-mt)-conjugated polylysine (PM) and anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies (aPD-L1) were rationally designed as aPD-L1@HC/PM NPs via an assembling strategy. The step-by-step detachment of the antigen from near-infrared light irradiated HC component, the indoleamine-pyrrole 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) pathway inhibitor 1-mt, and the anti-PD-L1 toward their on-demand target sites demonstrated the simultaneous tailoring of Phase I, Phase II, and Phase III, respectively, of the immunotherapy. The aPD-L1@HC/PM NPs were verified to be an excellent immunotherapy nanoplatform against tumor metastasis, relapse, and postsurgical regrowth because of the cascade-amplifying cancer-immunity cycle. The present all-immunity-phase-boosted immunotherapy strategy is of great interest for designing excellent immunotherapy treatments. 10.1021/acs.nanolett.9b02923
    Pegylated protein encapsulated multivesicular liposomes: a novel approach for sustained release of interferon alpha. Vyas S P,Rawat M,Rawat A,Mahor S,Gupta P N Drug development and industrial pharmacy Hepatitis C viral chemotherapy suffers from a relatively short half-life of the interferon alpha-2a (IFN alpha). To address this issue, we investigated the effects of polyethylene glycol modification and their subsequent encapsulation in multivesicular liposomes (MVLs), on the release properties of IFN alpha. In the present study, interferon-alpha was conjugated with methoxy-polyethylene glycol (mPEG, MW 5000). Prepared IFN alpha-mPEG5000 conjugate (IFN alpha-mPEG5000) was purified with size exclusion chromatography. The relative in vitro anti-viral activity of pegylated interferon alpha-2a was found to 87.9% of the unmodified IFN alpha. Pegylated IFN alpha encapsulated multivesicular liposomes were prepared by double emulsification technique followed by evaporation of organic solvents from chloroform ether spherules suspended in water. Prepared MVLs were then characterized for shape, size, vesicle count, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro release rate. In process stability studies of pegylated IFN alpha protein exhibited better stability when exposed to chloroform: diethyl ether (1:1 ratio) mixture as well as variable vortexing time as compared to native IFN alpha. Relatively high percentage of encapsulation of protein ( approximately 75%) was achieved. In vitro release profile of pegylated IFN alpha-mPEG5000 containing MVLs in the PBS showed lower initial burst release with sustained and incomplete release over a period of 1 week. In contrast, native IFN alpha entrapped MVLs were observed as higher initial burst release, i.e., nearly 35% followed by almost complete release. The results confirmed the possibility of multivesicular liposomes as a long-acting or sustained-release delivery system using a combination of pegylation and encapsulation technique for controlled delivery of interferon alpha. 10.1080/03639040500528954
    In vitro IFN-α release from IFN-α- and pegylated IFN-α-loaded poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and pegylated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles. Feczkó Tivadar,Fodor-Kardos Andrea,Sivakumaran Muttuswamy,Haque Shubhra Quazi Tanminul Nanomedicine (London, England) AIM:Interferon alpha (IFN-α) controlled release of nanoparticles was investigated under in vitro conditions. MATERIALS & METHODS:IFN-α and pegylated IFN-α (PEG-IFN-α) were encapsulated by poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and pegylated PLGA (PEG-PLGA) copolymers using double emulsion solvent evaporation method. RESULTS:The size of resulting four nanoparticles (IFN-α in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acids), IFN-α in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylene glycol, PEG-IFN-α in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acids) and PEG-IFN-α in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylene glycol) was below 130 nm diameter. IFN-α encapsulation efficiency of the nanoparticles was between 78 and 91%. CONCLUSION:The in vitro drug release studies conducted in phosphate-buffered saline and human plasma highlighted the role of incubation medium on the IFN release from the nanoparticles. The PEG-IFN-α in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)-polyethylene glycol was the most promising nanoparticle among the four formulations because of its remarkably constant release in both phosphate-buffered saline and plasma. 10.2217/nnm-2016-0058
    Mesenchymal stem cells: a double-edged sword in regulating immune responses. Li W,Ren G,Huang Y,Su J,Han Y,Li J,Chen X,Cao K,Chen Q,Shou P,Zhang L,Yuan Z-R,Roberts A I,Shi S,Le A D,Shi Y Cell death and differentiation Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been employed successfully to treat various immune disorders in animal models and clinical settings. Our previous studies have shown that MSCs can become highly immunosuppressive upon stimulation by inflammatory cytokines, an effect exerted through the concerted action of chemokines and nitric oxide (NO). Here, we show that MSCs can also enhance immune responses. This immune-promoting effect occurred when proinflammatory cytokines were inadequate to elicit sufficient NO production. When inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) production was inhibited or genetically ablated, MSCs strongly enhance T-cell proliferation in vitro and the delayed-type hypersensitivity response in vivo. Furthermore, iNOS(-/-) MSCs significantly inhibited melanoma growth. It is likely that in the absence of NO, chemokines act to promote immune responses. Indeed, in CCR5(-/-)CXCR3(-/-) mice, the immune-promoting effect of iNOS(-/-) MSCs is greatly diminished. Thus, NO acts as a switch in MSC-mediated immunomodulation. More importantly, the dual effect on immune reactions was also observed in human MSCs, in which indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) acts as a switch. This study provides novel information about the pathophysiological roles of MSCs. 10.1038/cdd.2012.26
    IFN-γ-secreting-mesenchymal stem cells exert an antitumor effect in vivo via the TRAIL pathway. Yang Xinyuan,Du Jingchun,Xu Xia,Xu Chun,Song Wu Journal of immunology research Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can exhibit either prooncogenic or antitumor properties depending on the context. Based on our previous study, we hypothesized that MSCs engineered to deliver IFN-γ would kill cancer cells through persistent activation of the TRAIL pathway. Human bone-marrow (BM-) derived MSCs were isolated, amplified, and transduced with a lentiviral vector encoding the IFN-γ gene under the control of the EF1α promoter. The IFN-γ-modified MSCs effectively secreted functional IFN-γ, which led to long-term expression of TRAIL. More importantly, the IFN-γ-modified MSCs selectively induced apoptosis in lung tumor cells through caspase-3 activation within the target cells. The percentage of activated-caspase-3-positive tumor cells in IFN-γ-modified MSCs cocultures was significantly higher than in control MSCs cocultures. Treatment with anti-TRAIL antibody dramatically suppressed the caspase-3 activation observed in H460 cells. After injection into nude mice, the IFN-γ-modified MSCs inhibited the growth and progression of lung carcinoma compared with control cells. Collectively, our results provide a new strategy for tumor therapy that utilizes IFN-γ-modified MSCs. 10.1155/2014/318098
    Interferon-α-secreting mesenchymal stem cells exert potent antitumor effect in vivo. Xu C,Lin L,Cao G,Chen Q,Shou P,Huang Y,Han Y,Wang Y,Shi Y Oncogene Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a kind of adult stem cells that can be isolated easily from bone marrow, adipose tissue, umbilical cord and many other tissues. MSCs have been shown to specifically migrate to inflammatory sites, including tumors, and hold great promise as tumor-specific vectors to deliver antitumor agents. Interferon-α (IFNα) has been used in clinic to treat various types of tumors; however, because of its short half-life, significant therapeutic effects require high doses that often results in serious side effects. Here, we tested whether MSCs continuingly secreting IFNα can exert a persistent antitumor effect and eliminate the side effects associated with high clinical doses of recombinant IFNα. We found that even a small number of IFNα-secreting MSCs could potently halt B16 tumor growth in vivo. The antitumor activity of IFNα-secreting MSCs was largely abolished in immunodeficient mice, an effect largely attributed to natural killer cells and CD8(+) T cells. Therefore, IFNα-secreting MSCs provide an innovative strategy for tumor therapy. 10.1038/onc.2013.458
    Enhanced homing permeability and retention of bone marrow stromal cells by noninvasive pulsed focused ultrasound. Ziadloo Ali,Burks Scott R,Gold Eric M,Lewis Bobbi K,Chaudhry Aneeka,Merino Maria J,Frenkel Victor,Frank Joseph A Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) have shown significant promise in the treatment of disease, but their therapeutic efficacy is often limited by inefficient homing of systemically administered cells, which results in low number of cells accumulating at sites of pathology. BMSC home to areas of inflammation where local expression of integrins and chemokine gradients is present. We demonstrated that nondestructive pulsed focused ultrasound (pFUS) exposures that emphasize the mechanical effects of ultrasound-tissue interactions induced local and transient elevations of chemoattractants (i.e., cytokines, integrins, and growth factors) in the murine kidney. pFUS-induced upregulation of cytokines occurred through approximately 1 day post-treatment and returned to contralateral kidney levels by day 3. This window of significant increases in cytokine expression was accompanied by local increases of other trophic factors and integrins that have been shown to promote BMSC homing. When BMSCs were intravenously administered following pFUS treatment to a single kidney, enhanced homing, permeability, and retention of BMSC was observed in the treated kidney versus the contralateral kidney. Histological analysis revealed up to eight times more BMSC in the peritubular regions of the treated kidneys on days 1 and 3 post-treatment. Furthermore, cytokine levels in pFUS-treated kidneys following BMSC administration were found to be similar to controls, suggesting modulation of cytokine levels by BMSC. pFUS could potentially improve cell-based therapies as a noninvasive modality to target homing by establishing local chemoattractant gradients and increasing expression of integrins to enhance tropism of cells toward treated tissues. 10.1002/stem.1099
    BMSC Transplantation Aggravates Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Fibrosis and Impairs Skeletal Muscle Regeneration. Liu Xiaoguang,Zheng Lifang,Zhou Yongzhan,Chen Yingjie,Chen Peijie,Xiao Weihua Frontiers in physiology Skeletal muscle contusion is one of the most common muscle injuries in sports medicine and traumatology. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC) transplantation has been proposed as a promising strategy to promote skeletal muscle regeneration. However, the roles and underlying mechanisms of BMSCs in the regulation of skeletal muscle regeneration are still not completely clear. Here, we investigated the role of BMSC transplantation after muscle contusion. BMSCs were immediately transplanted into gastrocnemius muscles (GMs) following direct contusion. Comprehensive morphological and genetic analyses were performed after BMSC transplantation. BMSC transplantation exacerbated muscle fibrosis and inflammation, as evidenced by increased leukocyte and macrophage infiltration, increased inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and increased matrix metalloproteinases. BMSC transplantation also increased muscle oxidative stress. Overall, BMSC transplantation aggravated inflammation, oxidative stress and fibrosis and impaired skeletal muscle regeneration. These results, shed new light on the role of BMSCs in regenerative medicine and indicate that caution is needed in the application of BMSCs for muscle injury. 10.3389/fphys.2019.00087
    Prostate cancer derived prostatic acid phosphatase promotes an osteoblastic response in the bone microenvironment. Larson Sandy R,Chin Jessica,Zhang Xiaotun,Brown Lisha G,Coleman Ilsa M,Lakely Bryce,Tenniswood Martin,Corey Eva,Nelson Peter S,Vessella Robert L,Morrissey Colm Clinical & experimental metastasis Approximately 90 % of patients who die of prostate cancer (PCa) have bone metastases, often promoting osteoblastic lesions. We observed that 88 % of castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) bone metastases express prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), a soluble secreted protein expressed by prostate epithelial cells in predominately osteoblastic (n = 18) or osteolytic (n = 15) lesions. Additionally, conditioned media (CM) of an osteoblastic PCa xenograft LuCaP 23.1 contained significant levels of PAP and promoted mineralization in mouse and human calvaria-derived cells (MC3T3-E1 and HCO). To demonstrate that PAP promotes mineralization, we stimulated MC3T3-E1 cells with PAP and observed increased mineralization, which could be blocked with the specific PAP inhibitor, phosphonic acid. Furthermore, the mineralization promoted by LuCaP 23.1 CM was also blocked by phosphonic acid, suggesting PAP is responsible for the mineralization promoting activity of LuCaP 23.1. In addition, gene expression arrays comparing osteoblastic to osteolytic CRPC (n = 14) identified betacellulin (BTC) as a gene upregulated during the osteoblastic response in osteoblasts during new bone formation. Moreover, BTC levels were increased in bone marrow stromal cells in response to LuCaP 23.1 CM in vitro. Because new bone formation does occur in osteoblastic and can occur in osteolytic CRPC bone metastases, we confirmed by immunohistochemistry (n = 36) that BTC was highly expressed in osteoblasts involved in new bone formation occurring in both osteoblastic and osteolytic sites. These studies suggest a role for PAP in promoting the osteoblastic reaction in CRPC bone metastases and identify BTC as a novel downstream protein expressed in osteoblasts during new bone formation. 10.1007/s10585-013-9625-2
    Diverse AR-V7 cistromes in castration-resistant prostate cancer are governed by HoxB13. Chen Zhong,Wu Dayong,Thomas-Ahner Jennifer M,Lu Changxue,Zhao Pei,Zhang Qingfu,Geraghty Connor,Yan Pearlly S,Hankey William,Sunkel Benjamin,Cheng Xiaolong,Antonarakis Emmanuel S,Wang Qi-En,Liu Zhihua,Huang Tim H-M,Jin Victor X,Clinton Steven K,Luo Jun,Huang Jiaoti,Wang Qianben Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America The constitutively active androgen receptor (AR) splice variant 7 (AR-V7) plays an important role in the progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Although biomarker studies established the role of AR-V7 in resistance to AR-targeting therapies, how AR-V7 mediates genomic functions in CRPC remains largely unknown. Using a ChIP-exo approach, we show AR-V7 binds to distinct genomic regions and recognizes a full-length androgen-responsive element in CRPC cells and patient tissues. Remarkably, we find dramatic differences in AR-V7 cistromes across diverse CRPC cells and patient tissues, regulating different target gene sets involved in CRPC progression. Surprisingly, we discover that HoxB13 is universally required for and colocalizes with AR-V7 binding to open chromatin across CRPC genomes. HoxB13 pioneers AR-V7 binding through direct physical interaction, and collaborates with AR-V7 to up-regulate target oncogenes. Transcriptional coregulation by HoxB13 and AR-V7 was further supported by their coexpression in tumors and circulating tumor cells from CRPC patients. Importantly, HoxB13 silencing significantly decreases CRPC growth through inhibition of AR-V7 oncogenic function. These results identify HoxB13 as a pivotal upstream regulator of AR-V7-driven transcriptomes that are often cell context-dependent in CRPC, suggesting that HoxB13 may serve as a therapeutic target for AR-V7-driven prostate tumors. 10.1073/pnas.1718811115
    Clinical Significance of Androgen Receptor Splice Variant-7 mRNA Detection in Circulating Tumor Cells of Men With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Treated With First- and Second-Line Abiraterone and Enzalutamide. Antonarakis Emmanuel S,Lu Changxue,Luber Brandon,Wang Hao,Chen Yan,Zhu Yezi,Silberstein John L,Taylor Maritza N,Maughan Benjamin L,Denmeade Samuel R,Pienta Kenneth J,Paller Channing J,Carducci Michael A,Eisenberger Mario A,Luo Jun Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology Purpose We reported previously that the detection of androgen receptor splice variant-7 (AR-V7) mRNA in circulating tumor cells (CTCs) correlated with poor outcomes from the use of abiraterone and enzalutamide in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Here, we expanded our cohort size to better characterize the prognostic significance of AR-V7 in this setting. Methods We prospectively enrolled 202 patients with CRPC starting abiraterone or enzalutamide and investigated the prognostic value of CTC detection (+ v -) and AR-V7 detection (+ v -) using a CTC-based AR-V7 mRNA assay. We examined ≥ 50% prostate-specific antigen (PSA) responses, PSA progression-free survival, clinical and radiologic progression-free survival, and overall survival. We constructed multivariable models adjusting for PSA, Gleason sum, number of prior hormone therapies, prior abiraterone or enzalutamide use, prior taxane use, presence of visceral metastases, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score. We also separately examined the first-line and second-line novel hormonal therapy (NHT) settings. Results Median follow-up times were 15.0, 21.7, and 14.6 months for CTC-, CTC+/AR-V7- and CTC+/AR-V7+ patients, respectively. CTC+/AR-V7+ patients were more likely to have Gleason scores ≥ 8 ( P = .05), metastatic disease at diagnosis ( P = .01), higher PSA ( P < .01), prior abiraterone or enzalutamide use ( P = .03), prior taxane use ( P = .02), and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group ≥ 1 ( P = .01). Outcomes for the overall cohort (and separately for the first-line and second-line NHT cohorts) were best for CTC- patients, intermediate for CTC+/AR-V7- patients, and worse for CTC+/AR-V7+ patients. These correlations remained significant in multivariable models. Conclusion This expanded analysis further characterizes the importance of CTC-based AR-V7 mRNA detection in predicting outcomes in patients with CRPC receiving first- and second-line NHT and, to the best of our knowledge, is the first to suggest that this assay be interpreted using three separate prognostic categories: CTC-, CTC+/AR-V7-, and CTC+/AR-V7+. 10.1200/JCO.2016.70.1961
    ARv7 Represses Tumor-Suppressor Genes in Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Cato Laura,de Tribolet-Hardy Jonas,Lee Irene,Rottenberg Jaice T,Coleman Ilsa,Melchers Diana,Houtman René,Xiao Tengfei,Li Wei,Uo Takuma,Sun Shihua,Kuznik Nane C,Göppert Bettina,Ozgun Fatma,van Royen Martin E,Houtsmuller Adriaan B,Vadhi Raga,Rao Prakash K,Li Lewyn,Balk Steven P,Den Robert B,Trock Bruce J,Karnes R Jeffrey,Jenkins Robert B,Klein Eric A,Davicioni Elai,Gruhl Friederike J,Long Henry W,Liu X Shirley,Cato Andrew C B,Lack Nathan A,Nelson Peter S,Plymate Stephen R,Groner Anna C,Brown Myles Cancer cell Androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer (PCa) benefits patients with early disease, but becomes ineffective as PCa progresses to a castration-resistant state (CRPC). Initially CRPC remains dependent on androgen receptor (AR) signaling, often through increased expression of full-length AR (ARfl) or expression of dominantly active splice variants such as ARv7. We show in ARv7-dependent CRPC models that ARv7 binds together with ARfl to repress transcription of a set of growth-suppressive genes. Expression of the ARv7-repressed targets and ARv7 protein expression are negatively correlated and predicts for outcome in PCa patients. Our results provide insights into the role of ARv7 in CRPC and define a set of potential biomarkers for tumors dependent on ARv7. 10.1016/j.ccell.2019.01.008
    Cells as advanced therapeutics: State-of-the-art, challenges, and opportunities in large scale biomanufacturing of high-quality cells for adoptive immunotherapies. Dwarshuis Nate J,Parratt Kirsten,Santiago-Miranda Adriana,Roy Krishnendu Advanced drug delivery reviews Therapeutic cells hold tremendous promise in treating currently incurable, chronic diseases since they perform multiple, integrated, complex functions in vivo compared to traditional small-molecule drugs or biologics. However, they also pose significant challenges as therapeutic products because (a) their complex mechanisms of actions are difficult to understand and (b) low-cost bioprocesses for large-scale, reproducible manufacturing of cells have yet to be developed. Immunotherapies using T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) have already shown great promise in treating several types of cancers, and human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) are now extensively being evaluated in clinical trials as immune-modulatory cells. Despite these exciting developments, the full potential of cell-based therapeutics cannot be realized unless new engineering technologies enable cost-effective, consistent manufacturing of high-quality therapeutic cells at large-scale. Here we review cell-based immunotherapy concepts focused on the state-of-the-art in manufacturing processes including cell sourcing, isolation, expansion, modification, quality control (QC), and culture media requirements. We also offer insights into how current technologies could be significantly improved and augmented by new technologies, and how disciplines must converge to meet the long-term needs for large-scale production of cell-based immunotherapies. 10.1016/j.addr.2017.06.005
    Apoptosis in mesenchymal stromal cells induces in vivo recipient-mediated immunomodulation. Galleu Antonio,Riffo-Vasquez Yanira,Trento Cristina,Lomas Cara,Dolcetti Luigi,Cheung Tik Shing,von Bonin Malte,Barbieri Laura,Halai Krishma,Ward Sophie,Weng Ling,Chakraverty Ronjon,Lombardi Giovanna,Watt Fiona M,Orchard Kim,Marks David I,Apperley Jane,Bornhauser Martin,Walczak Henning,Bennett Clare,Dazzi Francesco Science translational medicine The immunosuppressive activity of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is well documented. However, the therapeutic benefit is completely unpredictable, thus raising concerns about MSC efficacy. One of the affecting factors is the unresolved conundrum that, despite being immunosuppressive, MSCs are undetectable after administration. Therefore, understanding the fate of infused MSCs could help predict clinical responses. Using a murine model of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), we demonstrate that MSCs are actively induced to undergo perforin-dependent apoptosis by recipient cytotoxic cells and that this process is essential to initiate MSC-induced immunosuppression. When examining patients with GvHD who received MSCs, we found a striking parallel, whereby only those with high cytotoxic activity against MSCs responded to MSC infusion, whereas those with low activity did not. The need for recipient cytotoxic cell activity could be replaced by the infusion of apoptotic MSCs generated ex vivo. After infusion, recipient phagocytes engulf apoptotic MSCs and produce indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, which is ultimately necessary for effecting immunosuppression. Therefore, we propose the innovative concept that patients should be stratified for MSC treatment according to their ability to kill MSCs or that all patients could be treated with ex vivo apoptotic MSCs. 10.1126/scitranslmed.aam7828
    Tumour-associated mesenchymal stem/stromal cells: emerging therapeutic targets. Shi Yufang,Du Liming,Lin Liangyu,Wang Ying Nature reviews. Drug discovery Mesenchymal stem cells, also known as mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), exist in many tissues and are known to actively migrate to sites of tissue injury, where they participate in wound repair. Tumours can be considered "wounds that never heal" and, in response to cues from a tumour, MSCs are continuously recruited to and become integral components of the tumour microenvironment. Recently, it has become apparent that such tumour-associated MSCs (TA-MSCs) have an active role in tumour initiation, promotion, progression and metastasis. In this Review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenic role of TA-MSCs in regulating the survival, proliferation, migration and drug resistance of tumour cells, as well as the influence of MSCs on the immune status of the tumour microenvironment. Moreover, we discuss therapeutic approaches that target TA-MSC upstream or downstream modulators or use MSCs as vehicles for the delivery of tumoricidal agents. It is anticipated that new insights into the functions of TA-MSCs will lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies against tumours. 10.1038/nrd.2016.193
    Recent advances on the progressive mechanism and therapy in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Wang Keshan,Ruan Hailong,Xu Tianbo,Liu Lei,Liu Di,Yang Hongmei,Zhang Xiaoping,Chen Ke OncoTargets and therapy BACKGROUND:Although there have been great advances in mechanisms and therapeutic methods of prostate cancer, the mortality rate of prostate cancer remains high. The castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), which develops from hormone-sensitive prostate cancer, foreshadows a more dismal outcome. Concomitant with the researches in the mechanism of CRPC and therapy for CRPC, more and more landmark progress has been made in recent years. METHODS:A number of clinical and experimental studies were reviewed to indicate the novel advancement in the progressive mechanism and therapy of CRPC. RESULTS:The androgen receptor () is still a vital driver in the progression of CRPC, while other multiple mechanisms also contribute to this progression, such as tumor immunity, cancer stem cells, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and DNA repair disorder. In terms of the therapeutic methods of CRPC, chemotherapy with drugs, such as docetaxel, has been the first-line therapy for CRPC for many years. Besides, newer agents, which target some of the above mechanisms, show additional overall survival benefits for CRPC patients. These therapies include drugs targeting the androgen axis pathway (androgen synthesis, androgen receptor splice variants, coactivators of AR and so on), pathway, pathway, DNA repair, rearrangement of gene, novel chemotherapy and immunotherapy, bone metastasis therapy and so on. Understanding these novel findings on the mechanisms of CRPC and the latest potential CRPC therapies will direct us for further exploration of CRPC. CONCLUSION:Through comprehensive consideration, the predominant mechanism of CRPC might be the AR signal axis concomitant with tumor microenvironment, stress, immunity, tumor microenvironment and so on. For CRPC therapy, targeting the AR axis pathway and chemotherapy are the first-line treatments at present. However, with the advancements in CRPC therapy made by the researchers, other novel potential methods will occupy more and more important position in the treatment of CRPC, especially the therapies targeting the tumor microenviroment, tumor immunity and DNA repair and so on. 10.2147/OTT.S159777
    Mesenchymal stem cells expressing therapeutic genes induce autochthonous prostate tumour regression. Abrate Alberto,Buono Roberta,Canu Tamara,Esposito Antonio,Del Maschio Alessandro,Lucianò Roberta,Bettiga Arianna,Colciago Giorgia,Guazzoni Giorgio,Benigni Fabio,Hedlund Petter,Altaner Cestmir,Montorsi Francesco,Cavarretta Ilaria T R European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990) Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) as vehicles of therapeutic genes represent a unique tool to activate drugs within a neoplastic mass due to their property to home and engraft into tumours. In particular, MSC expressing the cytosine deaminase::uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (CD-MSC) have been previously demonstrated to inhibit growth of subcutaneous prostate cancer xenografts thanks to their ability to convert the non-toxic 5-fluorocytosine into the antineoplastic 5-fluorouracil. Since both the immune system and the tumour microenvironment play a crucial role in directing cancer progression, in order to advance towards clinical applications, we tested the therapeutic potential of this approach on animal models that develop autochthonous prostate cancer and preserve an intact immune system. As cell vectors, we employed adipose-tissue and bone-marrow MSC. CD-MSC toxicity on murine prostate cancer cells and tumour tropism were verified in vitro and ex-vivo before starting the preclinical studies. Magnetic Resonance Imaging was utilised to follow orthotopic tumour progression. We demonstrated that intravenous injections of CD-MSC cells, followed by intraperitoneal administration of 5-fluorocytosine, caused tumour regression in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model, which develops aggressive and spontaneous prostate cancer. These results add new insights to the therapeutic potential of specifically engineered MSC in prostate cancer disease. 10.1016/j.ejca.2014.06.014
    Sustained proliferation in cancer: Mechanisms and novel therapeutic targets. Feitelson Mark A,Arzumanyan Alla,Kulathinal Rob J,Blain Stacy W,Holcombe Randall F,Mahajna Jamal,Marino Maria,Martinez-Chantar Maria L,Nawroth Roman,Sanchez-Garcia Isidro,Sharma Dipali,Saxena Neeraj K,Singh Neetu,Vlachostergios Panagiotis J,Guo Shanchun,Honoki Kanya,Fujii Hiromasa,Georgakilas Alexandros G,Bilsland Alan,Amedei Amedeo,Niccolai Elena,Amin Amr,Ashraf S Salman,Boosani Chandra S,Guha Gunjan,Ciriolo Maria Rosa,Aquilano Katia,Chen Sophie,Mohammed Sulma I,Azmi Asfar S,Bhakta Dipita,Halicka Dorota,Keith W Nicol,Nowsheen Somaira Seminars in cancer biology Proliferation is an important part of cancer development and progression. This is manifest by altered expression and/or activity of cell cycle related proteins. Constitutive activation of many signal transduction pathways also stimulates cell growth. Early steps in tumor development are associated with a fibrogenic response and the development of a hypoxic environment which favors the survival and proliferation of cancer stem cells. Part of the survival strategy of cancer stem cells may manifested by alterations in cell metabolism. Once tumors appear, growth and metastasis may be supported by overproduction of appropriate hormones (in hormonally dependent cancers), by promoting angiogenesis, by undergoing epithelial to mesenchymal transition, by triggering autophagy, and by taking cues from surrounding stromal cells. A number of natural compounds (e.g., curcumin, resveratrol, indole-3-carbinol, brassinin, sulforaphane, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, genistein, ellagitannins, lycopene and quercetin) have been found to inhibit one or more pathways that contribute to proliferation (e.g., hypoxia inducible factor 1, nuclear factor kappa B, phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Akt, insulin-like growth factor receptor 1, Wnt, cell cycle associated proteins, as well as androgen and estrogen receptor signaling). These data, in combination with bioinformatics analyses, will be very important for identifying signaling pathways and molecular targets that may provide early diagnostic markers and/or critical targets for the development of new drugs or drug combinations that block tumor formation and progression. 10.1016/j.semcancer.2015.02.006
    Oncogenic transformation of mesenchymal stem cells decreases Nrf2 expression favoring in vivo tumor growth and poorer survival. Funes Juan M,Henderson Stephen,Kaufman Rachel,Flanagan James M,Robson Mathew,Pedley Barbara,Moncada Salvador,Boshoff Chris Molecular cancer BACKGROUND:The transcription factor Nrf2 is a key regulator of the cellular antioxidant response, and its activation by chemoprotective agents has been proposed as a potential strategy to prevent cancer. However, activating mutations in the Nrf2 pathway have been found to promote tumorigenesis in certain models. Therefore, the role of Nrf2 in cancer remains contentious. METHODS:We employed a well-characterized model of stepwise human mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transformation and breast cancer cell lines to investigate oxidative stress and the role of Nrf2 during tumorigenesis. The Nrf2 pathway was studied by microarray analyses, qRT-PCR, and western-blotting. To assess the contribution of Nrf2 to transformation, we established tumor xenografts with transformed MSC expressing Nrf2 (n = 6 mice per group). Expression and survival data for Nrf2 in different cancers were obtained from GEO and TCGA databases. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS:We found an accumulation of reactive oxygen species during MSC transformation that correlated with the transcriptional down-regulation of antioxidants and Nrf2-downstream genes. Nrf2 was repressed in transformed MSC and in breast cancer cells via oncogene-induced activation of the RAS/RAF/ERK pathway. Furthermore, restoration of Nrf2 function in transformed cells decreased reactive oxygen species and impaired in vivo tumor growth (P = 0.001) by mechanisms that included sensitization to apoptosis, and a decreased hypoxic/angiogenic response through HIF-1α destabilization and VEGFA repression. Microarray analyses showed down-regulation of Nrf2 in a panel of human tumors and, strikingly, low Nrf2 expression correlated with poorer survival in patients with melanoma (P = 0.0341), kidney (P = 0.0203) and prostate (P = 0.00279) cancers. CONCLUSIONS:Our data indicate that oncogene-induced Nrf2 repression is an adaptive response for certain cancers to acquire a pro-oxidant state that favors cell survival and in vivo tumor growth. 10.1186/1476-4598-13-20
    Therapy escape mechanisms in the malignant prostate. Santer Frédéric R,Erb Holger H H,McNeill Rhiannon V Seminars in cancer biology Androgen receptor (AR) is the main target for prostate cancer therapy. Clinical approaches for AR inactivation include chemical castration, inhibition of androgen synthesis and AR antagonists (anti-androgens). However, treatment resistance occurs for which an important number of therapy escape mechanisms have been identified. Herein, we summarise the current knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying therapy resistance in prostate cancer. Moreover, the tumour escape mechanisms are arranged into the concepts of target modification, bypass signalling, histologic transformation, cancer stem cells and miscellaneous mechanisms. This may help researchers to compare and understand same or similar concepts of therapy resistance in prostate cancer and other cancer types. 10.1016/j.semcancer.2015.08.005
    Aldehyde Dehydrogenase Is Regulated by β-Catenin/TCF and Promotes Radioresistance in Prostate Cancer Progenitor Cells. Cojoc Monica,Peitzsch Claudia,Kurth Ina,Trautmann Franziska,Kunz-Schughart Leoni A,Telegeev Gennady D,Stakhovsky Eduard A,Walker John R,Simin Karl,Lyle Stephen,Fuessel Susanne,Erdmann Kati,Wirth Manfred P,Krause Mechthild,Baumann Michael,Dubrovska Anna Cancer research Radiotherapy is a curative treatment option in prostate cancer. Nevertheless, patients with high-risk prostate cancer are prone to relapse. Identification of the predictive biomarkers and molecular mechanisms of radioresistance bears promise to improve cancer therapies. In this study, we show that aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity is indicative of radioresistant prostate progenitor cells with an enhanced DNA repair capacity and activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Gene expression profiling of prostate cancer cells, their radioresistant derivatives, ALDH(+) and ALDH(-) cell populations revealed the mechanisms, which link tumor progenitors to radioresistance, including activation of the WNT/β-catenin signaling pathway. We found that expression of the ALDH1A1 gene is regulated by the WNT signaling pathway and co-occurs with expression of β-catenin in prostate tumor specimens. Inhibition of the WNT pathway led to a decrease in ALDH(+) tumor progenitor population and to radiosensitization of cancer cells. Taken together, our results indicate that ALDH(+) cells contribute to tumor radioresistance and their molecular targeting may enhance the effectiveness of radiotherapy. 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-14-1924
    Mesenchymal stem cells: key players in cancer progression. Ridge Sarah M,Sullivan Francis J,Glynn Sharon A Molecular cancer Tumour progression is dependent on the interaction between tumour cells and cells of the surrounding microenvironment. The tumour is a dynamic milieu consisting of various cell types such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, cells of the immune system and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs are multipotent stromal cells that are known to reside in various areas such as the bone marrow, fat and dental pulp. MSCs have been found to migrate towards inflammatory sites and studies have shown that they also migrate towards and incorporate into the tumour. The key question is how they interact there. MSCs may interact with tumour cells through paracrine signalling. On the other hand, MSCs have the capacity to differentiate to various cell types such as osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes and it is possible that MSCs differentiate at the site of the tumour. More recently it has been shown that cross-talk between tumour cells and MSCs has been shown to increase metastatic potential and promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. This review will focus on the role of MSCs in tumour development at various stages of progression from growth of the primary tumour to the establishment of distant metastasis. 10.1186/s12943-017-0597-8
    Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells increase motility of prostate cancer cells via production of stromal cell-derived factor-1α. Mognetti Barbara,La Montagna Giuseppe,Perrelli Maria Giulia,Pagliaro Pasquale,Penna Claudia Journal of cellular and molecular medicine Prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to the bone, and the interaction between cancer cells and bone microenvironment has proven to be crucial in the establishment of new metastases. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) secrete various cytokines that can regulate the behaviour of neighbouring cell. However, little is known about the role of BM-MSCs in influencing the migration and the invasion of prostate cancer cells. We hypothesize that the stromal cell-derived factor-1α released by BM-MSCs may play a pivotal role in these processes. To study the interaction between factors secreted by BM-MSCs and prostate cancer cells we established an in vitro model of transwell co-culture of BM-MSCs and prostate cancer cells DU145. Using this model, we have shown that BM-MSCs produce soluble factors which increase the motility of prostate cancer cells DU145. Neutralization of stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF1α) via a blocking antibody significantly limits the chemoattractive effect of bone marrow MSCs. Moreover, soluble factors produced by BM-MSCs greatly activate prosurvival kinases, namely AKT and ERK 1/2. We provide further evidence that SDF1α is involved in the interaction between prostate cancer cells and BM-MSCs. Such interaction may play an important role in the migration and the invasion of prostate cancer cells within bone. 10.1111/jcmm.12010
    Tumor-infiltrating mesenchymal stem cells: Drivers of the immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment in prostate cancer? Krueger Timothy E,Thorek Daniel L J,Meeker Alan K,Isaacs John T,Brennen W Nathaniel The Prostate BACKGROUND:Prostate cancer is characterized by T-cell exclusion, which is consistent with their poor responses to immunotherapy. In addition, T-cells restricted to the adjacent stroma and benign areas are characterized by anergic and immunosuppressive phenotypes. In order for immunotherapies to produce robust anti-tumor responses in prostate cancer, this exclusion barrier and immunosuppressive microenvironment must first be overcome. We have previously identified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in primary and metastatic human prostate cancer tissue. METHODS:An Opal Multiplex immunofluorescence assay based on CD73, CD90, and CD105 staining was used to identify triple-labeled MSCs in human prostate cancer tissue. T-cell suppression assays and flow cytometry were used to demonstrate the immunosuppressive potential of primary MSCs expanded from human bone marrow and prostate cancer tissue from independent donors. RESULTS:Endogenous MSCs were confirmed to be present at sites of human prostate cancer. These prostate cancer-infiltrating MSCs suppress T-cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner similar to their bone marrow-derived counterparts. Also similar to bone marrow-derived MSCs, prostate cancer-infiltrating MSCs upregulate expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 on their cell surface in the presence of IFNγ and TNFα. CONCLUSION:Prostate cancer-infiltrating MSCs suppress T-cell proliferation similar to canonical bone marrow-derived MSCs, which have well-documented immunosuppressive properties with numerous effects on both innate and adaptive immune system function. Thus, we hypothesize that selective depletion of MSCs infiltrating sites of prostate cancer should restore immunologic recognition and elimination of malignant cells via broad re-activation of cytotoxic pro-inflammatory pathways. 10.1002/pros.23738
    Mesenchymal stem cells overexpressing Sirt1 inhibit prostate cancer growth by recruiting natural killer cells and macrophages. Yu Yang,Zhang Qingyun,Meng Qinggui,Zong Chen,Liang Lei,Yang Xue,Lin Rui,Liu Yan,Zhou Yang,Zhang Hongxiang,Hou Xiaojuan,Han Zhipeng,Cheng Jiwen Oncotarget Prostate cancer (PCa) has become the second leading cause of male cancer-related mortality in the United States. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are able to migrate to tumor tissues, and are thus considered to be novel antitumor carriers. However, due to their immunosuppressive nature, the application of MSCs in PCa therapy remains limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of MSCs overexpressing an NAD-dependent deacetylase sirtuin 1 (MSCs-Sirt1) on prostate tumor growth, and we analyzed the underlying mechanisms. Our results show that MSCs accelerate prostate tumor growth, whereas MSCs-Sirt1 significantly suppresses tumor growth. Natural killer (NK) cells and macrophages are the prominent antitumor effectors of the MSCs-Sirt1-induced antitumor activity. IFN-γ and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) are highly expressed in MSCs-Sirt1 mice. The antitumor effect of MSCs-Sirt1 is weakened when CXCL10 and IFN-γ are inhibited. These results show that MSCs-Sirt1 can effectively inhibit prostate cancer growthrecruiting NK cells and macrophages in a tumor inflammatory microenvironment. 10.18632/oncotarget.12737
    Mesenchymal stem cells recruited by castration-induced inflammation activation accelerate prostate cancer hormone resistance via chemokine ligand 5 secretion. Yu Yang,Zhang Qingyun,Ma Chengzhong,Yang Xue,Lin Rui,Zhang Hongxiang,Liu Yan,Han Zhipeng,Cheng Jiwen Stem cell research & therapy BACKGROUND:Androgen deprivation (AD) as the first-line treatment for advanced prostate cancer (PCa) is insufficient for a long-term effect. Castration resistance remains the greatest obstacle in PCa clinical therapy. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can migrate into PCa tissues contributing to tumor progression, therefore, in this study we explored the effect of AD on MSC migration to PCa and elicited its importance for the emergence of castration resistance. METHODS:MSC migration assay was performed in several PCa cells (LNCaP, VCaP, and 22Rv1) using in-vivo and in-vitro approaches. Reactive oxygen species generation was evaluated by fluorescence assay. IL-1β was analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and neutralization experiments were conducted using neutralization antibody. Stem markers (CD133, CD44, and SOX2) were quantified by real-time PCR analysis. The concentration of chemokine ligand 5 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and small hairpin RNA was used for functional analyses. RESULTS:AD could significantly contribute to PCa recruitment of MSCs in vivo and in vitro. AD-induced oxidative stress could promote the inflammatory response mediated by IL-1β secretion via activating the NF-κB signaling pathway. Moreover, N-acetylcysteine could significantly inhibit MSC recruitment to PCa sites when AD is performed. Furthermore, we found MSCs could increase stemness of PCa cells via promoting chemokine ligand 5 secretion in the AD condition, and consequently accelerate emergence of castration resistance. CONCLUSIONS:Our results suggest that castration in clinical PCa therapy may elicit oxidative stress in tumor sites, resulting in increased MSC migration and in tumor cell growth in an androgen-independent manner. Blocking MSC migration to the tumor may provide a new potential target to suppress castration-resistant PCa emergence. 10.1186/s13287-018-0989-8
    Secreted factors from metastatic prostate cancer cells stimulate mesenchymal stem cell transition to a pro-tumourigenic 'activated' state that enhances prostate cancer cell migration. Ridge Sarah M,Bhattacharyya Dibyangana,Dervan Eoin,Naicker Serika D,Burke Amy J,Murphy J M,O'leary Karen,Greene John,Ryan Aideen E,Sullivan Francis J,Glynn Sharon A International journal of cancer Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are a heterogeneous population of multipotent cells that are capable of differentiating into osteocytes, chondrocytes and adipocytes. Recently, MSCs have been found to home to the tumour site and engraft in the tumour stroma. However, it is not yet known whether they have a tumour promoting or suppressive function. We investigated the interaction between prostate cancer cell lines 22Rv1, DU145 and PC3, and bone marrow-derived MSCs. MSCs were 'educated' for extended periods in prostate cancer cell conditioned media and PC3-educated MSCs were found to be the most responsive with a secretory profile rich in pro-inflammatory cytokines. PC3-educated MSCs secreted increased osteopontin (OPN), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) and decreased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) compared to untreated MSCs. PC3-educated MSCs showed a reduced migration and proliferation capacity that was dependent on exposure to PC3-conditioned medium. Vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA) expression was decreased in PC3-educated MSCs compared to untreated MSCs. PC3 and DU145 education of healthy donor and prostate cancer patient-derived MSCs led to a reduced proportion of FAP+ αSMA+ cells contrary to characteristics commonly associated with cancer associated fibroblasts (CAFs). The migration of PC3 cells was increased toward both PC3-educated and DU145-educated MSCs compared to untreated MSCs, while DU145 migration was only enhanced toward patient-derived MSCs. In summary, MSCs developed an altered phenotype in response to prostate cancer conditioned medium which resulted in increased secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, modified functional activity and the chemoattraction of prostate cancer cells. 10.1002/ijc.31226
    [The Inhibitory Effect and Mechanism of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Prostate Cancer Metastasis]. Wu Yun-Jian,Wei Qiang,Nie Ming,Yin Yong,Xi Yong Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition OBJECTIVE:To test whether umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UMSCs) can inhibit the growth and metastasis of prostate cancer cells, and to investigate the mechanism. METHODS:The UMSCs from human umbilical cord tissue were isolate by explant technique. After being co-cultured the UMSCs with LNCaP and PC-3 cells for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, LNCaP and PC-3 cells' proliferation were tested and the 72 h proliferation inhibitory rate () was calculated. Transwell invasion assay was used to test the migration and invasion abilities of prostate cancer cells after being co-cultured with UMSCs for 48 h. The invasion were calculated. The expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-2, MMP-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2 in the 72 h co-culture supernatants were tested by MILLIPLEX®method. RESULTS:The proliferation of prostate cancer cells was inhibited after being co-cultured with UMSCs. The proliferation rate of LNCaP was lower than control group at 72 h (<0.05), and the proliferation was 37.21%. The proliferation rate of PC-3 was lower than control group at 48 h and 72 h (<0.05), and the proliferation was 31.27% at 72 h. Transwell invasion assays showed that co-culturing 48 h with UMSCs inhibited the invasive abilities of LNCaP and PC-3, and the invasion were 48.35% (LNCaP) and 46.91% (PC-3). Co-culturing 72 h, the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were down-regulated (<0.05) and the secretion of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 were up-regulated (<0.05) compared with control group. CONCLUSION:UMSCs can inhibit the proliferation and invasion abilities of prostate cancer cells by secreting TIMPs, the antagonist of MMPs, which suppressed the overexpression of MMPs.
    ATM deficiency promotes progression of CRPC by enhancing Warburg effect. Xu Lingfan,Ma Enze,Zeng Tao,Zhao Ruya,Tao Yulei,Chen Xufeng,Groth Jeff,Liang Chaozhao,Hu Hailiang,Huang Jiaoti Endocrine-related cancer ATM is a well-known master regulator of double strand break (DSB) DNA repair and the defective DNA repair has been therapeutically exploited to develop PARP inhibitors based on the synthetic lethality strategy. ATM mutation is found with increased prevalence in advanced metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying ATM mutation-driving disease progression are still largely unknown. Here, we report that ATM mutation contributes to the CRPC progression through a metabolic rather than DNA repair mechanism. We showed that ATM deficiency generated by CRISPR/Cas9 editing promoted CRPC cell proliferation and xenograft tumor growth. ATM deficiency altered cellular metabolism and enhanced Warburg effect in CRPC cells. We demonstrated that ATM deficiency shunted the glucose flux to aerobic glycolysis by upregulating LDHA expression, which generated more lactate and produced less mitochondrial ROS to promote CRPC cell growth. Inhibition of LDHA by siRNA or inhibitor FX11 generated less lactate and accumulated more ROS in ATM-deficient CRPC cells and therefore potentiated the cell death of ATM-deficient CRPC cells. These findings suggest a new therapeutic strategy for ATM-mutant CRPC patients by targeting LDHA-mediated glycolysis metabolism, which might be effective for the PARP inhibitor resistant mCRPC tumors. 10.1530/ERC-18-0196
    Metastatic bone disease: Pathogenesis and therapeutic options: Up-date on bone metastasis management. D'Oronzo Stella,Coleman Robert,Brown Janet,Silvestris Francesco Journal of bone oncology Bone metastases (BM) are a common complication of cancer, whose management often requires a multidisciplinary approach. Despite the recent therapeutic advances, patients with BM may still experience skeletal-related events and symptomatic skeletal events, with detrimental impact on quality of life and survival. A deeper knowledge of the mechanisms underlying the onset of lytic and sclerotic BM has been acquired in the last decades, leading to the development of bone-targeting agents (BTA), mainly represented by anti-resorptive drugs and bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. Recent pre-clinical and clinical studies have showed promising effects of novel agents, whose safety and efficacy need to be confirmed by prospective clinical trials. Among BTA, adjuvant bisphosphonates have also been shown to reduce the risk of BM in selected breast cancer patients, but failed to reduce the incidence of BM from lung and prostate cancer. Moreover, adjuvant denosumab did not improve BM free survival in patients with breast cancer, suggesting the need for further investigation to clarify BTA role in early-stage malignancies. The aim of this review is to describe BM pathogenesis and current treatment options in different clinical settings, as well as to explore the mechanism of action of novel potential therapeutic agents for which further investigation is needed. 10.1016/j.jbo.2018.10.004
    Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells incorporate into the prostate during regrowth. Placencio Veronica R,Li Xiaohong,Sherrill Taylor P,Fritz Gloria,Bhowmick Neil A PloS one BACKGROUND:Prostate cancer recurrence involves increased growth of cancer epithelial cells, as androgen dependent prostate cancer progresses to castrate resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) following initial therapy. Understanding CRPC prostate regrowth will provide opportunities for new cancer therapies to treat advanced disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Elevated chemokine expression in the prostate stroma of a castrate resistant mouse model, Tgfbr2(fspKO), prompted us to look at the involvement of bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) in prostate regrowth. We identified bone marrow cells recruited to the prostate in GFP-chimeric mice. A dramatic increase in BMDC recruitment for prostate regrowth occurred three days after exogenous testosterone implantation. Recruitment led to incorporation of BMDCs within the prostate epithelia. Immunofluorescence staining suggested BMDCs in the prostate coexpressed androgen receptor; p63, a basal epithelial marker; and cytokeratin 8, a luminal epithelial marker. A subset of the BMDC population, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), were specifically found to be incorporated in the prostate at its greatest time of remodeling. Rosa26 expressing MSCs injected into GFP mice supported MSC fusion with resident prostate epithelial cells through co-localization of β-galactosidase and GFP during regrowth. In a human C4-2B xenograft model of CRPC, MSCs were specifically recruited. Injection of GFP-labeled MSCs supported C4-2B tumor progression by potentiating canonical Wnt signaling. The use of MSCs as a targeted delivery vector for the exogenously expressed Wnt antagonist, secreted frizzled related protein-2 (SFRP2), reduced tumor growth, increased apoptosis and potentiated tumor necrosis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Mesenchymal stem cells fuse with prostate epithelia during the process of prostate regrowth. MSCs recruited to the regrowing prostate can be used as a vehicle for transporting genetic information with potential therapeutic effects on castrate resistant prostate cancer, for instance by antagonizing Wnt signaling through SFRP2. 10.1371/journal.pone.0012920
    Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Results in Downregulation of c-Myc and DNA Replication Pathways with Immunomodulation Toward CD4 and CD8 Cells. Wang Li-Tzu,Jiang Shih-Sheng,Ting Chiao-Hsuan,Hsu Pei-Ju,Chang Chia-Chi,Sytwu Huey-Kang,Liu Ko-Jiunn,Yen B Linju Stem cells (Dayton, Ohio) Multilineage tissue-source mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess strong immunomodulatory properties and are excellent therapeutic agents, but require constant isolation from donors to combat replicative senescence. The differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) into MSCs offers a renewable source of MSCs; however, reports on their immunomodulatory capacity have been discrepant. Using MSCs differentiated from iPSCs reprogrammed using diverse cell types and protocols, and in comparison to human embryonic stem cell (ESC)-MSCs and bone marrow (BM)-MSCs, we performed transcriptome analyses and assessed for functional immunomodulatory properties. Differentiation of MSCs from iPSCs results in decreased c-Myc expression and its downstream pathway along with a concomitant downregulation in the DNA replication pathway. All four lines of iPSC-MSCs can significantly suppress in vitro activated human peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) proliferation to a similar degree as ESC-MSCs and BM-MSCs, and modulate CD4 T lymphocyte fate from a type 1 helper T cell (Th1) and IL-17A-expressing (Th17) cell fate to a regulatory T cell (Treg) phenotype. Moreover, iPSC-MSCs significantly suppress cytotoxic CD8 T proliferation, activation, and differentiation into type 1 cytotoxic T (Tc1) and IL-17-expressing CD8 T (Tc17) cells. Coculture of activated PBMCs with human iPSC-MSCs results in an overall shift of secreted cytokine profile from a pro-inflammatory environment to a more immunotolerant milieu. iPSC-MSC immunomodulation was also validated in vivo in a mouse model of induced inflammation. These findings support that iPSC-MSCs possess low oncogenicity and strong immunomodulatory properties regardless of cell-of-origin or reprogramming method and are good potential candidates for therapeutic use. Stem Cells 2018;36:903-914. 10.1002/stem.2795