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    Plasma Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Level as a Predictor of the Severity of Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Yong Kok-Khun,Chang Jer-Hwa,Chien Ming-Hsien,Tsao Shih-Ming,Yu Ming-Chih,Bai Kuan-Jen,Tsao Thomas Chang-Yao,Yang Shun-Fa International journal of molecular sciences Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 increases in the serum of immunocompetent patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the correlation between the circulating level of MCP-1 and severity of CAP remains unclear. This study investigated differential changes in the plasma MCP-1 levels of patients with CAP before and after an antibiotic treatment and further analyzes the association between the CAP severity and MCP-1 levels. We measured the plasma MCP-1 levels of 137 patients with CAP and 74 healthy controls by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Upon initial hospitalization, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II); confusion, urea level, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age of >64 years (CURB-65); and pneumonia severity index (PSI) scores were determined for assessing the CAP severity in these patients. The antibiotic treatment reduced the number of white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils as well as the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and MCP-1. The plasma MCP-1 level, but not the CRP level or WBC count, correlated with the CAP severity according to the PSI (r = 0.509, p < 0.001), CURB-65 (r = 0.468, p < 0.001), and APACHE II (r = 0.360, p < 0.001) scores. We concluded that MCP-1 levels act in the development of CAP and are involved in the severity of CAP. 10.3390/ijms17020179
    Helicobacter pylori Infection in Pediatrics. Roma Eleftheria,Miele Erasmo Helicobacter This review includes the main pediatric studies published from April 2014 to March 2015. The host response of Treg cells with increases in FOXP3 and TGF-β1 combined with a reduction in IFN-γ by Teff cells may contribute to Helicobacter pylori susceptibility in children. Genotypic variability in H. pylori strains influences the clinical manifestation of the infection. Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with variables indicative of a crowded environment and poor living conditions, while breast-feeding has a protective effect. Intrafamilial infection, especially from mother to children and from sibling to sibling, is the dominant transmission route. Studies showed conflicting results regarding the association between H. pylori infection and iron deficiency anemia. One study suggests that H. pylori eradication plays a role in the management of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura in H. pylori-infected children and adolescents. The prevalence of H. pylori was higher in chronic urticaria patients than in controls and, following H. pylori eradication, urticarial symptoms disappeared. An inverse relationship between H. pylori infection and allergic disease was reported. Antibiotic resistance and insufficient compliance to treatment limit the efficacy of eradication therapy. Sequential therapy had no advantage over standard triple therapy. In countries where H. pylori infection is prevalent, studies focusing on virulence factors and antibiotic susceptibility may provide anticipation of the prognosis and may be helpful to reduce morbidity and mortality. 10.1111/hel.12257
    Adverse effects of topical corticosteroids in paediatric eczema: Australasian consensus statement. Mooney Emma,Rademaker Marius,Dailey Rebecca,Daniel Ben S,Drummond Catherine,Fischer Gayle,Foster Rachael,Grills Claire,Halbert Anne,Hill Sarah,King Emma,Leins Elizabeth,Morgan Vanessa,Phillips Roderic J,Relic John,Rodrigues Michelle,Scardamaglia Laura,Smith Saxon,Su John,Wargon Orli,Orchard David The Australasian journal of dermatology Atopic eczema is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting about 30% of Australian and New Zealand children. Severe eczema costs over AUD 6000/year per child in direct medical, hospital and treatment costs as well as time off work for caregivers and untold distress for the family unit. In addition, it has a negative impact on a child's sleep, education, development and self-esteem. The treatment of atopic eczema is complex and multifaceted but a core component of therapy is to manage the inflammation with topical corticosteroids (TCS). Despite this, TCS are often underutilised by many parents due to corticosteroid phobia and unfounded concerns about their adverse effects. This has led to extended and unnecessary exacerbations of eczema for children. Contrary to popular perceptions, (TCS) use in paediatric eczema does not cause atrophy, hypopigmentation, hypertrichosis, osteoporosis, purpura or telangiectasia when used appropriately as per guidelines. In rare cases, prolonged and excessive use of potent TCS has contributed to striae, short-term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis alteration and ophthalmological disease. TCS use can also exacerbate periorificial rosacea. TCS are very effective treatments for eczema. When they are used to treat active eczema and stopped once the active inflammation has resolved, adverse effects are minimal. TCS should be the cornerstone treatment of atopic eczema in children. 10.1111/ajd.12313
    [Childhood vasculitis]. Kümmerle-Deschner J B,Thomas J,Benseler S M Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie BACKGROUND:The primary vasculitides are rare conditions in childhood. The most common disease subtypes are Schönlein-Henoch purpura and Kawasaki's syndrome, which frequently have a self-limiting course. In the majority of vasculitides, the etiology remains unknown. Environmental exposure, including infections, is suspected to trigger an autoinflammatory response in predisposed individuals. GOAL:The aim of this review is to present the various aspects of childhood vasculitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Reviews and special original papers on childhood vasculitis, published classification criteria and current therapy guidelines were reviewed and summarized. RESULTS:The classification of vasculitides in childhood has been modified from the previous adult Chapel Hill classification for vasculitides in 2008. Most therapy recommendations for children are adapted from results of studies in adults. This review covers the current classifications, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations and therapy recommendations for children. DISCUSSION:Although etiology and pathogenesis of many vasculitides in childhood are still unknown, clarifying diagnostic methods and effective therapeutic options are available. The knowledge about various forms of disease manifestation may contribute to an early diagnosis and timely initiation of treatment, which may prevent devastating irreversible impairment. 10.1007/s00393-015-0014-x
    Ureteral or vesical involvement in Henoch-Schönlein syndrome: a systematic review of the literature. Siegenthaler Giordano M,Rizzi Mattia,Bettinelli Alberto,Simonetti Giacomo D,Ferrarini Alessandra,Bianchetti Mario G Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany) BACKGROUND:Little information is available on ureteral or vesical involvement in Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. To determine the features of this condition we performed a formal analysis of peer-reviewed scientific literature on this topic. METHODS:The US National Library of Medicine database was used as the data source. All articles published as full-length articles or letters were collected. Reports published in languages other than English, French, German, Italian or Spanish were not considered. RESULTS:We analyzed 32 reports describing 35 cases (24 male and 11 female subjects aged between 3.5 and 63, median 7.0 years) with ureteral (n = 30), vesical (n = 4), or both ureteral and vesical involvement (n = 1). The presentation included colicky abdominal pain, macroscopic hematuria (sometimes containing blood clots), urinary tract infection or urinary retention. The diagnosis of ureteral involvement was often fortuitous. Patients with vesical involvement were managed conservatively. However, the majority of those with ureteral involvement were managed surgically. CONCLUSIONS:Ureteral or vesical involvement is unusual and likely underappreciated in Henoch-Schönlein syndrome. Improved recognition and wider appreciation of this involvement can help to avoid associated morbidity. Management must be individualized for each patient. A multidisciplinary approach may be of value in planning medical treatment, surgical intervention, and follow-up. 10.1007/s00467-013-2621-6
    Rheumatological diseases and kidneys: a nephrologist's perspective. Mittal Tarun,Rathi Manish International journal of rheumatic diseases Renal involvement is a common occurrence in subjects with rheumatological diseases and can develop either due to the disease itself or secondary to drugs used in the treatment. The prevalence of renal involvement and its severity depends on the underlying disease as well as aggressiveness of the therapy. For most rheumatological diseases, renal involvement heralds a poor prognosis and warrants aggressive immunosuppressive treatment. Thus, it is important to diagnose and manage them at an early stage. On the other hand, patients with primary kidney disease can also develop rheumatological manifestations which need to be differentiated from the former. This article provides the nephrologist's perspective upon various rheumatological disorders and associated renal involvement with the aim of sensitizing the rheumatological community about them, resulting in better management of these subjects. 10.1111/1756-185X.12424
    Connective Tissue Disease: Current Concepts. Fernandez Anthony P Dermatologic clinics Connective tissue diseases often prominently affect the skin, requiring dermatologists to play an important role in diagnosis and treatment of these patients. Herein we describe updates on the pathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment of 4 major connective tissue diseases: dermatomyositis, cutaneous lupus erythematosus, limited scleroderma (morphea), and cutaneous vasculitis. Many of these updates promise to improve clinical care of patients who suffer from dermatologic involvement of these diseases and are the result of research performed by dermatologists who have expertise in these conditions. 10.1016/j.det.2018.07.006
    Unusual Eruptions Associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae Respiratory Infections: Review of the Literature. Terraneo Luisa,Lava Sebastiano A G,Camozzi Pietro,Zgraggen Lorenzo,Simonetti Giacomo D,Bianchetti Mario G,Milani Gregorio P Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland) BACKGROUND:Maculopapular or urticarial eruptions and erythema multiforme sometimes occur in patients affected with Mycoplasma pneumoniae respiratory infections. Further eruptions have also been reported. OBJECTIVE:To review the literature addressing M. pneumoniae respiratory infection and rather unusual eruptions. METHODS:Computer-based search in the U.S. National Library of Medicine database as well as in the search engine Google. RESULTS:We found a possible relationship between M. pneumoniae infection and Fuchs' syndrome (n = 37), varicella-like eruptions (n = 8), Henoch-Schönlein syndrome and further leukocytoclastic vasculitides (n = 21) and erythema nodosum (n = 11). A temporal relationship was also observed with 2 cases of Gianotti-Crosti syndrome. Finally, there exists reasonable evidence that pityriasis rosea Gibert and pityriasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta Mucha-Habermann are not associated with Mycoplasma infections. CONCLUSION:This review implies that M. pneumoniae may cause, in addition to erythematous maculopapular (or urticarial) eruptions and erythema multiforme, Fuchs' syndrome and varicella-like eruptions. Furthermore, there is an intriguing link with leukocytoclastic vasculitides or erythema nodosum that deserves further investigation. 10.1159/000430809
    An update on the role of epigenetics in systemic vasculitis. Coit Patrick,Direskeneli Haner,Sawalha Amr H Current opinion in rheumatology PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The purpose of this review is to discuss recent observations of epigenetic changes related to the complex pathogenesis of systemic vasculitides and their contribution to the field. RECENT FINDINGS:There have been new observations of epigenetic changes in vasculitis and their potential role in disease pathogenesis in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis, giant-cell arteritis, Kawasaki disease, Behçet's disease, and IgA vasculitis. Some of this recent work has focused on the efficacy of using DNA methylation and miRNA expression as clinical biomarkers for disease activity and how DNA methylation and histone modifications interact to regulate disease-related gene expression. SUMMARY:DNA methylation, histone modification, and miRNA expression changes are all fruitful ground for biomarker discovery and therapeutic targets in vasculitis. Current knowledge has provided targeted and suggested effects, but in many cases, has relied upon small cohorts, cosmopolitan cell populations, and limited knowledge of functional interactions. Expanding our knowledge of how these epigenetic mechanisms interact in a disease-specific and cell-specific manner will help to better understand the pathogenesis of systemic vasculitis. 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000451
    Emerging role of high mobility group box 1 in ANCA-associated vasculitis. Wang Chen,de Souza Alexandre W S,Westra Johanna,Bijl Marc,Chen Min,Zhao Ming-Hui,Kallenberg Cees G M Autoimmunity reviews High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) has been suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of many autoimmune diseases. In addition to its nuclear functions, extracellular HMGB1 released from activated, injured or dying cells becomes a proinflammatory mediator via binding to various receptors on the surface of responding cells. HMGB1 interacts with various systems involved in inflammation, such as the complement system and the coagulation system. Thus, HMGB1 could amplify inflammation and enhance immune responses in pathophysiology of certain diseases. In the past years, HMGB1 has been studied in several vasculitides including antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, Kawasaki disease, Henoch-Schönlein purpura, Takayasu arteritis and giant cell arteritis. Several studies showed that circulating HMGB1 levels are higher in patients with active disease compared with healthy controls, and levels are associated with disease severity. Further studies on pathogenetic mechanisms revealed pathogenic roles of HMGB1 in some vasculitides. Here we review clinical and experimental studies dealing with the role of HMGB1 in vascular inflammation, and its relation to the manifestations and prognosis of specific vasculitides, in particular ANCA-associated vasculitis. 10.1016/j.autrev.2015.07.010
    Vasculitis in the autoinflammatory diseases. Peleg Hagit,Ben-Chetrit Eldad Current opinion in rheumatology PURPOSE OF REVIEW:This article addresses the prevalence and relationship between autoinflammatory diseases and vasculitis. RECENT FINDINGS:Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are a group of syndromes characterized by episodes of unprovoked inflammation due to dysregulation of the innate immune system. Despite the common occurrence of rashes and other skin lesions in these diseases, vasculitis is reported in only a few. On the other hand, neutrophilic dermatoses are more prevalent. Large vessel vasculitis is reported in patients with Behcet's and Blau's syndromes. Small and medium size vasculitides are reported in familial Mediterranean fever mainly as Henoch-Schonlein purpura and polyarteritis nodosa, respectively. It is rarely described in hyper IgD with periodic fever syndrome, cryopyrin associated periodic syndromes, TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome, deficiency of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and pyoderma gangrenosum and acne syndrome. In most AID where bones and skin are mainly involved (CRMO, Majeed syndrome, Cherubism and DITRA) - vasculitis has not been described at all. In AID small vessel vasculitis affects mainly the skin with no involvement of internal organs. SUMMARY:In AID, neutrophilic dermatoses are more common and prominent than vasculitis. This may reflect a minor role for interleukin-1 in the pathogenesis of vasculitis. The rarity of vasculitis in AID suggests that in most reported cases its occurrence has been probably coincidental rather than being an integral feature of the disease. 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000347
    Pediatric vasculitis. Barut Kenan,Sahin Sezgin,Kasapcopur Ozgur Current opinion in rheumatology PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The aim of this review is to define childhood vasculitis and to highlight new causative factors and treatment modalities under the guidance of recently published studies. RECENT FINDINGS:Childhood vasculitis is difficult to diagnose because of the wide variation in the symptoms and signs. New nomenclature and classification criteria were proposed for the diagnosis of pediatric vasculitis. Recently, progress has been made toward understanding the genetic susceptibility to pediatric vasculitis as it was in other diseases. Various radiological techniques provide great opportunities in establishing the diagnosis of pediatric vasculitis. Mild central nervous system disease can accompany Henoch-Schonlein purpura and can go unnoticed. Antineutrophilic cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis is rare in children. Increased severity of the disease, subglottic stenosis, and renal disease are described more frequently among children. Biological therapies are used with success in children as in adults. Future studies, whose aims are to evaluate treatment responses, prognosis and to design guidelines for activity, and damage index of vasculitis for children are required. SUMMARY:Henoch-Schonlein purpura and Kawasaki disease are the most frequent vasculitides of children. Experience from adult studies for treatment and prognosis are usually used because of low incidence of other vasculitides in children. Multicenter studies of pediatric vasculitis should be conducted to detail treatment responses and prognosis in children. 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000236
    Rituximab therapy for IgA-vasculitis with nephritis: a case series and review of the literature. Fenoglio Roberta,Naretto Carla,Basolo Bruno,Quattrocchio Giacomo,Ferro Michela,Mesiano Paola,Beltrame Giulietta,Roccatello Dario Immunologic research Henoch-Schonlein purpura, also called IgA-vasculitis, is a systemic small vessels vasculitis with immunoglobulin A1-dominant immune deposits. The optimal treatment remains controversial. Because IgA-vasculitis is characterized by leukocyte infiltration of the blood vessel walls along with immunoglobulin A deposition, and because glucocorticosteroids inhibit inflammatory processes, early administration of glucocorticosteroids has been postulated to be effective, but this indication remains controversial. Immunosuppressive agents (azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, cyclosporine, mycophenolate) have been used in combination with glucocorticosteroids without definitive evidence of effectiveness. The efficacy of rituximab in adult IgA-vasculitis has been reported in few cases. We described a monocentric experience on the use of rituximab in adult IgA-vasculitis with biopsy-proven nephritis. The patients achieved a complete remission of nephritis and syndromic manifestations, and no patients experienced adverse reactions. These data have been compared with the limited literature nowadays available. 10.1007/s12026-016-8827-5
    Cutaneous Manifestations of Small-Vessel Leukocytoclastic Vasculitides in Childhood. Lava Sebastiano A G,Milani Gregorio P,Fossali Emilio F,Simonetti Giacomo D,Agostoni Carlo,Bianchetti Mario G Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology In childhood, cutaneous small-vessel vasculitides include Henoch-Schönlein syndrome, a systemic vasculitis, and Finkelstein-Seidlmayer syndrome, a skin-limited vasculitis. Both Henoch-Schönlein and Finkelstein-Seidlmayer syndromes are seen more frequently in white or Asian compared with black children and occur especially in winter and spring with a male-to-female ratio of approximately 2:1. In everyday clinical practice, both conditions are diagnosed on clinical grounds without histological confirmation. The characteristic cutaneous hallmarks of Henoch-Schönlein syndrome include a purpuric rash in all and a subcutaneous edema in approximately every second case, which are often preceded by non-specific red or pink macular elements that mimic a non-itching urticarial rash. Recent data point out that Henoch-Schönlein children often present further cutaneous findings such as Köbnerization, Rumpel-Leede capillary fragility phenomenon, and blistering eruptions. Children with Finkelstein-Seidlmayer syndrome are usually ≤24 months of age and not ill-appearing. They present with (a) large, round, red to purpuric plaques (often with a targetoid appearance) predominantly over the cheeks, ears, and extremities and (b) often tender non-pitting edema of the distal extremities, ears, and face (without pruritus). Both in Henoch-Schönlein syndrome and Finkelstein-Seidlmayer syndrome, there is often scrotal involvement. The cutaneous findings remit without sequelae within 2 months in Henoch-Schönlein and 3 weeks in Finkelstein-Seidlmayer syndrome. 10.1007/s12016-017-8626-3
    Association of AGT M235T gene polymorphism with HSP/HSPN risk. Mao Song,Huang Songming Renal failure To evaluate the association between angiotensinogen (AGT) gene polymorphism and the risk of Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP)/Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN) we searched the eligible studies through Pub Med, Embase, Cochrane, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases according to predefined criteria. A random-effects model was used to calculate the combined odds ratios (ORs) and its corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Five studies were recruited for the analysis of the association between AGT M235T gene polymorphism and HSP/HSPN risk. M allele was associated with lower risk of HSP in adult (p = 0.050), TT genotype was associated with the susceptibility to HSP in adult (p = 0.039). AGT M235T gene polymorphism was not associated with HSP risk in children. No marked association was observed between AGT M235T gene polymorphism and HSPN risk. No evidence of publication bias was observed. In conclusion, M allele might be a protective factor against the HSP risk in adult, TT genotype might be a risk factor for the susceptibility to HSP in adult. However, further larger studies should be performed in the future. 10.3109/0886022X.2014.977142
    Sex Differences in Pediatric Rheumatology. Cattalini Marco,Soliani Martina,Caparello Maria Costanza,Cimaz Rolando Clinical reviews in allergy & immunology Autoimmune diseases affect up to 10% of the world's population and, as a whole, they are far more common in females, although differences exist according to the single disease and also in different age groups. In childhood-onset autoimmune diseases, the sex bias is generally less evident than in adults, probably for the different hormonal milieau, being estrogens strongly implicated in the development of autoimmunity. Still, some rheumatic conditions, such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), show a strong predilection for girls (F:M = 3-6.6:1), and differences may coexist between males and females regarding disease outcome. For example, chronic anterior uveitis associated with JIA affects more commonly girls but boys tend to have a more severe course. Systemic lupus erythematosus predominantly affects girls and women (F:M = 3-5:1 in children, F:M = 10-15:1 in adults). Behςet's disease has been reported to be more prevalent in adult males (F:M = 1:1-4); in children, there are no differences. The sex ratio is equal in children and adults for Henoch-Schönlein purpura (F:M = 1:1). A higher male-to-female ratio exists for Kawasaki disease (F:M = 1:1.1-1.6 in children, F:M = 1:1,5 in adults). Juvenile dermatomyositis (F:M = 2-5:1), systemic sclerosis (F:M = 4:1 in children, F:M = 6:1 in adults), and Takayasu arteritis (F:M = 2:1 in children, F:M = 7-9:1 in adults) are more common in girls and women then in boys and men. There is no gender bias for acute rheumatic fever in children, while in adults, the F:M ratio is 2:1. Given that estrogen levels are not different between genders during childhood, pediatric rheumatic diseases could represent good models to study other mechanisms related to the development of autoimmunity. Recently, the levels of miRNA expression, and their variation according to sex chromosomes, have been linked to the development of autoimmune diseases, with different impact among sexes. This review will focus not only on the sex bias reported in the more common rheumatic conditions of childhood, focusing on differences in incidence, but also on outcome and trying to depict the mechanisms underlying those differences. 10.1007/s12016-017-8642-3
    Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis. Pohl Martin Pediatric nephrology (Berlin, Germany) Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the one of most common types of systemic vasculitis in childhood. Glomerulonephritis (HSPN) occurs in 30-50 % of HSP patients, mostly in a mild form but a small percentage of patients present with nephrotic syndrome or renal failure. HSPN is caused by the glomerular deposition of immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1)-containing immune complexes in the mesangium, the subepithelial and the subendothelial space. Formation of the IgA1 immune complex is thought to be the consequence of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1 molecules secreted into the circulation and their subsequent recognition by IgG specific for galactose-deficient IgA1. Mesangial proliferation and renal damage are triggered by the deposited immune complexes, which likely require activation of the complement system. Whereas other organ manifestations of HSP are mostly benign and self-limiting, HSPN might lead to chronic renal disease and end stage renal failure, thereby justifying immunosuppressive treatment. Long-term renal outcome correlates to the severity of the initial clinical presentation and the extent of renal biopsy changes, both of which are used to decide upon a possible treatment. As there are no evidence-based treatment options for severe HSPN, a large variety of therapeutic regimens are used. Prospective randomized controlled treatment studies are needed, but the low incidence of severe HSPN renders such studies difficult. 10.1007/s00467-014-2815-6
    Vasculitis-What Do We Have to Know? A Review of Literature. Shavit Eran,Alavi Afsaneh,Sibbald R Gary The international journal of lower extremity wounds Cutaneous and other vasculitides are specific inflammations of the blood vessel wall that can take place in any organ system of the body including the skin. Vasculitis has been traditionally divided according to the size of the vessel involved (small, medium, and large). Vasculitis is more of a reaction pattern rather than a specific disease entity. Therefore, the clinical presentation of vasculitis (most commonly palpable purpura on the lower extremities) dictates a thorough history, review of systems, and a meticulous physical examination. The diagnosis of vasculitis relies also on the histopathological and immunofluorescence studies. Wound care specialist may face with vasculitis-associated ulcers along with a spectrum of other cutaneous presentations associated with vasculitis. The focus of this article is to update the types, etiology, pathogenesis, and management options for cutaneous vasculitis. 10.1177/1534734618804982
    Interventions for preventing and treating kidney disease in Henoch-Schönlein Purpura (HSP). Hahn Deirdre,Hodson Elisabeth M,Willis Narelle S,Craig Jonathan C The Cochrane database of systematic reviews BACKGROUND:Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis of childhood but may occur in adults. This small vessel vasculitis is characterised by palpable purpura, abdominal pain, arthritis or arthralgia and kidney involvement. This is an update of a review first published in 2009. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the benefits and harms of different agents (used singularly or in combination) compared with placebo, no treatment or any other agent for: (1) the prevention of severe kidney disease in patients with HSP without kidney disease at presentation; (2) the prevention of severe kidney disease in patients with HSP and minor kidney disease (microscopic haematuria, mild proteinuria) at presentation; (3) the treatment of established severe kidney disease (macroscopic haematuria, proteinuria, nephritic syndrome, nephrotic syndrome with or without acute kidney failure) in HSP; and (4) the prevention of recurrent episodes of HSP-associated kidney disease. SEARCH METHODS:We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant's Specialised Register to 13 July 2015 through contact with the Trials Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. SELECTION CRITERIA:Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing interventions used to prevent or treat kidney disease in HSP compared with placebo, no treatment or other agents were included. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two authors independently determined study eligibility, assessed risk of bias and extracted data from each study. Statistical analyses were performed using the random effects model and the results were expressed as risk ratio (RR) or risk difference (RD) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes with 95% confidence intervals (CI). MAIN RESULTS:Thirteen studies (1403 enrolled patients) were identified. Risks of bias attributes were frequently poorly performed. Low risk of bias was reported in six studies (50%) for sequence generation (selection bias) and in seven (58%) for allocation concealment (selection bias). Blinding of participants and personnel (performance bias) and of outcome assessment (detection bias) was at low risk of bias in three studies. Five studies reported complete outcome data (attrition bias) while eight studies reported expected outcomes so were at low risk of reporting bias.Eight studies evaluated therapy to prevent persistent kidney disease in HSP. There was no significant difference in the risk of persistent kidney disease any time after treatment (5 studies, 746 children: RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.42 to 1.32), or at one, three, six and 12 months in children given prednisone for 14 to 28 days at presentation of HSP compared with placebo or supportive treatment. There were no significant differences in the risk of persistent kidney disease with antiplatelet therapy in children with or without kidney disease at entry. Heparin significantly reduced the risk of persistent kidney disease by three months compared with placebo (1 study, 228 children: RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.55); no significant bleeding occurred. Four studies examined the treatment of severe HSP-associated kidney disease. Two studies (one involving 56 children and the other involving 54 adults) compared cyclophosphamide with placebo or supportive treatment and found no significant benefit of cyclophosphamide. There were no significant differences in adverse effects. In one study comparing cyclosporin with methylprednisolone (15 children) there was no significant difference in remission at final follow-up at a mean of 6.3 years (RR 1.37, 95% CI 0.74 to 2.54). In one study (17 children) comparing mycophenolate mofetil with azathioprine, there was no significant difference in the remission of proteinuria at one year (RR 1.32, 95% CI 0.86 to 2.03). No studies were identified which evaluated the efficacy of therapy on kidney disease in participants with recurrent episodes of HSP. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:There are no substantial changes in conclusions from this update compared with the initial review. From generally low quality evidence, we found no evidence of benefit from RCTs for the use of prednisone or antiplatelet agents to prevent persistent kidney disease in children with HSP. Though heparin appeared effective, this potentially dangerous therapy is not justified to prevent serious kidney disease when fewer than 2% of children with HSP develop severe kidney disease. No evidence of benefit has been found for cyclophosphamide treatment in children or adults with HSP and severe kidney disease. Because of small patient numbers and events leading to imprecision in results, it remains unclear whether cyclosporin and mycophenolate mofetil have any roles in the treatment of children with HSP and severe kidney disease. 10.1002/14651858.CD005128.pub3
    Small vessel vasculitis of the skin. Micheletti Robert G,Werth Victoria P Rheumatic diseases clinics of North America Small vessel vasculitis in the skin manifests with palpable purpura on the lower extremities. This clinical presentation prompts a complete physical examination, history, and review of systems, as well as biopsies for routine processing and direct immunofluorescence to confirm the diagnosis. The presence of vasculitis in other organs, associated underlying conditions, and the severity of cutaneous manifestations dictate management. The majority of cases are self-limited, and overall the prognosis is favorable. Still, a subset of patients can have serious complications and chronic or recurrent disease. 10.1016/j.rdc.2014.09.006
    Approach to cutaneous vasculitides with special emphasis on small vessel vasculitis: histopathology and direct immunofluorescence. Demirkesen Cuyan Current opinion in rheumatology PURPOSE OF REVIEW:The present review will focus on recent publications in cutaneous vasculitides. RECENT FINDINGS:Some histopathological and clinical features, such as papillary dermal edema, perivascular C3 deposition, clinically evident edema, and lesions above the waist, may point out renal or gastrointestinal involvement in Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP). HSP associated with familial Mediterranean fever differs from typical isolated HSP by showing no deposits of IgA, much younger age, and location of the lesions on the face or the trunk. Single-organ cutaneous small vessel vasculitis is a more restricted entity than hypersensitivity vasculitis and HSP. Because cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa and macular lymphocytic arteritis share some clinicopathologic features, the question is raised whether they are not two different entities. Several histopathological features defining IgG4-related disease are found in granuloma faciale and erythema elevatum diutinum, two localized chronic cutaneous vasculitis; however, in a recent series no diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease was detected in them. SUMMARY:When a patient presents with skin lesions, in which necrotizing or leukocytoclastic vascuitis is confirmed histologically, irrespective of the size of the affected vessel, the possibility of systemic vasculitis, an infection, medication, or a systemic disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus must be searched before reaching definitive diagnosis. 10.1097/BOR.0000000000000346
    Oral management of children with Henoch-Schönlein Purpura and associated Glomerulonephritis: a scoping review. Echavarría-García A C,Pozos-Guillén A,Tejeda-Nava F,Flores Arriaga J C,Garrocho-Rangel A European journal of paediatric dentistry AIM:To perform a scoping review of the existing literature in order to gather the most relevant information in the paediatric dentistry field related to the oral management of children affected by Henoch-Schönlein Purpura and associated Glomerulonephritis (HSPG). MATERIALS AND METHODS:Using scoping review methodology for the screening and selection of valid articles, the steps of this review were the following: first, to pose a research question; second, to identify relevant studies; third, to select and retrieve the studies; fourth, to chart the critical data, and finally, to collate, summarise, and report the results from the included articles. Relevant articles published over a 25-year period, up to July 31, 2017, were identified and retrieved from four Internet databases: PubMed; EMBASE/Ovid; Ebsco/Dentistry & Oral Science Source, and the Cochrane Collaboration Library. RESULTS:By title and abstract screening and after removing duplicates, four articles were finally included in the scoping review. According to the extracted data, the following are the most important clinical issues to be considered: (1) the disease can appear as a consequence of a dental treatment, such as those indicated for oral infectious processes; (2) children with HSPG are highly susceptible to dental caries and apical periodontitis, and (3) in affected children, oral infectious foci must be exhaustively eradicated in order to avoid the dissemination of the infection. CONCLUSIONS:Paediatric Dentists should be aware of HSPG, because the disease can be triggered or worsen subsequent to dental treatment. Adequate treatment of oral active infectious processes, together with an exhaustive oral preventive programme and long-term patient screening, are the best management approaches for children with HSPG. 10.23804/ejpd.2018.19.02.07
    Genetics of immunoglobulin-A vasculitis (Henoch-Schönlein purpura): An updated review. López-Mejías Raquel,Castañeda Santos,Genre Fernanda,Remuzgo-Martínez Sara,Carmona F David,Llorca Javier,Blanco Ricardo,Martín Javier,González-Gay Miguel A Autoimmunity reviews Immunoglobulin-A vasculitis (IgAV) is classically a childhood small-sized blood vessel vasculitis with predominant involvement of the skin. Gastrointestinal and joint manifestations are common in patients diagnosed with this condition. Nephritis, which is more severe in adults, constitutes the most feared complication of this vasculitis. The molecular bases underlying the origin of IgAV have not been completely elucidated. Nevertheless, several pieces of evidence support the claim that genes play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of this disease. The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region is, until now, the main genetic factor associated with IgAV pathogenesis. Besides a strong association with HLA class II alleles, specifically HLA-DRB1 alleles, HLA class I alleles also seem to influence on the predisposition of this disease. Other gene polymorphisms located outside the HLA region, including those coding cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules as well as those related to T-cells, aberrant glycosylation of IgA1, nitric oxide production, neoangiogenesis, renin-angiotensin system and lipid, Pyrin and homocysteine metabolism, may be implicated not only in the predisposition to IgAV but also in its severity. An update of the current knowledge of the genetic component associated with the pathogenesis of IgAV is detailed in this review. 10.1016/j.autrev.2017.11.024
    Gallbladder and Pancreas in Henoch-Schönlein Purpura: Review of the Literature. Helbling Rossana,Lava Sebastiano A G,Simonetti Giacomo D,Camozzi Pietro,Bianchetti Mario G,Milani Gregorio P Journal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition OBJECTIVE:Involvement of the pancreato-biliary system has been occasionally noted in Henoch-Schönlein purpura. Furthermore, cases of this vasculitis syndrome sometimes develop in the context of a viral hepatitis or after hepatitis vaccination. METHODS:We completed a review of the literature. RESULTS:Fifty reports published between 1977 and 2015 were retained for the analysis. A pancreato-biliary involvement was recognized in 34 individually well-described patients (♂:♀ = 19:15) with severe abdominal pain: pancreatitis (N = 20), acalculous cholecystitis (N = 11), both pancreatitis and cholecystitis (N = 3). In all of the pancreatitis patients, full recovery occurred (within ≤3 weeks in three-fourths of the patients). Cholecystectomy was performed in 8 cholecystitis patients. Seventeen Henoch-Schönlein patients (♂:♀ = 9:8) were associated with a viral liver disease and 4 (♂:♀ = 1:3) with a hepatitis vaccination. The vasculitis syndrome rapidly remitted in the 7 patients accompanying hepatitis A or E, in 2 patients of hepatitis B, and in the 4 patients preceded by a vaccination. Henoch-Schönlein purpura seemed to be serious in 5 patients with chronic hepatitis B and in 3 with chronic hepatitis C. CONCLUSIONS:This analysis indicates that pancreato-biliary involvement is unusual in Henoch-Schönlein purpura. This complication deserves consideration in patients with especially severe abdominal pain. Finally, viral hepatitides and hepatitis vaccinations seem to be rare triggers of Henoch-Schönlein purpura. 10.1097/MPG.0000000000000955
    Different histological classifications for Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis: which one should be used? Jelusic Marija,Sestan Mario,Cimaz Rolando,Ozen Seza Pediatric rheumatology online journal BACKGROUND:Nephritis is the most important chronic complication of IgA Vasculitis (IgAV)/Henoch-Schönlein purpura (IGAV/HSP) and thus the main prognostic factor of this most common childhood vasculitis. Since the prognosis and treatment selection depends on the mode of interpretation of biopsy material, in this manuscript we have presented several issues related to the uneven application of different histological classifications in IgAV/Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis (HSPN). The nephritis of IgAV/IGAV/HSP will be abbreviated as HSPN for this paper. MAIN BODY:In clinical practice we use different histological classifications for HSPN. It is not known which of these classifications best correlates with severity of renal disease and renal outcome in IgAV/IGAV/HSP. One of the major problem with existing histological classifications is that there is no consensus on the implementation of biopsy in the treatment of HSPN. There is a histologic classification system conventionally used in HSPN, of the International Study of Kidney Disease in Children (ISKDC). On the other hand there is the new classification system suggested for IgA nephropathy, the Oxford classification. The latter has been validated only in IgA nephropathy. There are also two further histologic classifications of Haas and Koskela that have been developed. Current treatment strategies in HSPN are not standardised nor predominantly based on histological classification. CONCLUSION:One of the possible solutions to problems related to the application of different histological classification in HSPN is the implementation of multicenter multinational prospective studies with joint collaboration between pediatric rheumatologists, nephrologists and nephropathologists to correlate the clinical features and outcome with the classification systems as well among the classifications. This classification should be the basis for the construction of guidelines for the treatment of patients with HSPN. 10.1186/s12969-019-0311-z
    New insights in the pathogenesis of immunoglobulin A vasculitis (Henoch-Schönlein purpura). Heineke Marieke H,Ballering Aranka V,Jamin Agnès,Ben Mkaddem Sanae,Monteiro Renato C,Van Egmond Marjolein Autoimmunity reviews Immunoglobulin A vasculitis (IgAV), also referred to as Henoch-Schönlein purpura, is the most common form of childhood vasculitis. The pathogenesis of IgAV is still largely unknown. The disease is characterized by IgA1-immune deposits, complement factors and neutrophil infiltration, which is accompanied with vascular inflammation. Incidence of IgAV is twice as high during fall and winter, suggesting an environmental trigger associated to climate. Symptoms can resolve without intervention, but some patients develop glomerulonephritis with features similar to IgA nephropathy that include hematuria, proteinuria and IgA deposition in the glomerulus. Ultimately, this can lead to end-stage renal disease. In IgA nephropathy immune complexes containing galactose-deficient (Gd-)IgA1 are found and thought to play a role in pathogenesis. Although Gd-IgA1 complexes are also present in patients with IgAV with nephritis, their role in IgAV is disputed. Alternatively, it has been proposed that in IgAV IgA1 antibodies are generated against endothelial cells. We anticipate that such IgA complexes can activate neutrophils via the IgA Fc receptor FcαRI (CD89), thereby inducing neutrophil migration and activation, which ultimately causes tissue damage in IgAV. In this Review, we discuss the putative role of IgA, IgA receptors, neutrophils and other factors such as infections, genetics and the complement system in the pathogenesis of IgA vasculitis. 10.1016/j.autrev.2017.10.009
    Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy and Immunoglobulin A Vasculitis. Nicoara Oana,Twombley Katherine Pediatric clinics of North America Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis and immunoglobulin A nephropathy are common glomerulopathies in the pediatric population that deserve special attention. In some cases the primary care provider can follow the patient but others need more intensive management. Delaying this treatment can lead to worse morbidity. This article provides information on the pathogenesis, outcomes, and follow-up strategies that will aid in the diagnosis and referral of patients at risk for kidney disease. 10.1016/j.pcl.2018.08.008
    The diagnosis and classification of Henoch-Schönlein purpura: an updated review. Yang Yao-Hsu,Yu Hsin-Hui,Chiang Bor-Luen Autoimmunity reviews Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is a common childhood systemic vasculitis with clinical characteristics of cutaneous palpable purpura, arthralgia/arthritis, bowel angina, and hematuria/proteinuria. HSP is identified mainly based on the above presentations. Combined with pathohistological findings of leukocytoclastic vasculitis (LCV) and IgA-immune deposits in vessel walls and/or glomeruli increase the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity. However, considering the accessibility of biopsy and some patients with atypical presentations, there are still medical unmet needs in HSP diagnosis. This article reviews the diagnosis of HSP including the aspects of classification criteria, differential diagnosis, and some laboratory findings as the biomarkers with diagnostic potential. 10.1016/j.autrev.2014.01.031
    Rituximab treatment for chronic steroid-dependent Henoch-Schonlein purpura: 8 cases and a review of the literature. Crayne Courtney B,Eloseily Esraa,Mannion Melissa L,Azerf Saji P,Weiser Peter,Beukelman Timothy,Stoll Matthew L,Feig Daniel I,Prescott Atkinson T,Cron Randy Quentin Pediatric rheumatology online journal BACKGROUND:Henoch-Schonlein purpura (HSP) is a small vessel vasculitis that is characterized by non-thrombocytopenic purpura, abdominal pain, arthritis, and glomerulonephritis. Typically, HSP is self-limited requiring only supportive care, but more severe cases may require corticosteroid (CS) treatment. Rarely, a subset of these patients has persistent rash, arthritis, abdominal involvement, or renal disease despite treatment with CS, or has disease recurrence on CS tapering. Refractory HSP has been effectively treated with a variety of CS sparing therapies. For life-threatening refractory HSP, the B cell depleting agent, rituximab (RTX), has been reported as beneficial for children with substantial renal or central nervous system involvement. However, RTX use for children with less severe HSP, but chronic CS dependent disease refractory to CS sparing immunomodulatory agents, has been less well explored. Herein, we describe 8 children treated with RTX for chronic refractory HSP and report a reduction in recurrent hospitalizations and eventual CS discontinuation. METHODS:This is a retrospective analysis of eight children who were treated with RTX for chronic CS dependent HSP during the years 2006-2014 at a single institution. A chart review of the electronic medical record was performed to determine the presenting symptoms, the type and duration of treatment received, and the number of hospitalizations prior to and after RTX. The number of hospitalizations and oral corticosteroid burden were analyzed using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. RESULTS:Prior to receiving RTX, seven patients had at least one hospitalization for HSP (median 1.5, range 0-3). Following RTX, only two patients were hospitalized, each a single time for recurrent abdominal pain. The median oral CS burden was 0.345 mg/kg/day before RTX and 0 mg/kg/day at 6 months (p = 0.078), 1 year (p = 0.0625), and 2 years (p = 0.03) following RTX infusion. Seven out of eight children met remission criteria, defined as no active rash, arthritis, nephritis (hematuria and proteinuria), or gastrointestinal distress following RTX. No serious adverse events were noted. CONCLUSION:Overall, RTX effectively reduced the number of hospital admissions and oral CS burden. RTX also helped most all children achieve clinical remission. RTX appears to be an effective and safe alternative for chronic CS dependent and immunomodulatory refractory childhood HSP. 10.1186/s12969-018-0285-2
    Helicobacter pylori and skin autoimmune diseases. Magen Eli,Delgado Jorge-Shmuel World journal of gastroenterology Autoimmune skin diseases are characterized by dysregulation of the immune system resulting in a loss of tolerance to skin self-antigen(s). The prolonged interaction between the bacterium and host immune mechanisms makes Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) a plausible infectious agent for triggering autoimmunity. Epidemiological and experimental data now point to a strong relation of H. pylori infection on the development of many extragastric diseases, including several allergic and autoimmune diseases. H. pylori antigens activate cross-reactive T cells and induce autoantibodies production. Microbial heat shock proteins (HSP) play an important role of in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases because of the high level of sequence homology with human HSP. Eradication of H. pylori infection has been shown to be effective in some patients with chronic autoimmune urticaria, psoriasis, alopecia areata and Schoenlein-Henoch purpura. There is conflicting and controversial data regarding the association of H. pylori infection with Behçet's disease, scleroderma and autoimmune bullous diseases. No data are available evaluating the association of H. pylori infection with other skin autoimmune diseases, such as vitiligo, cutaneous lupus erythematosus and dermatomyositis. The epidemiological and experimental evidence for a possible role of H. pylori infection in skin autoimmune diseases are the subject of this review. 10.3748/wjg.v20.i6.1510
    Imaging findings in systemic childhood diseases presenting with dermatologic manifestations. Fink Adam Z,Gittler Julia K,Nakrani Radhika N,Alis Jonathan,Blumfield Einat,Levin Terry L Clinical imaging PURPOSE:Many childhood diseases often present with skin abnormalities with which radiologists are largely unfamiliar. Knowledge of associated dermatologic manifestations may aid the radiologist in confirming the diagnosis and recommending targeted imaging of affected organs. METHODS:We review the imaging findings in childhood diseases associated with dermatologic manifestations. FINDINGS:Diseases include dermatologic findings which herald underlying malignancy (Neuroblastoma, leukemia/lymphoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis),are associated with risk of malignancy (Epidermolysis Bullosa, basal cell nevus syndrome, Cowden's syndrome, Tuberous Sclerosis),or indicate a systemic inflammatory/immune disorder (Kawasaki's disease, Henoch Schonlein Purpura, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, sarcoidosis, dermatomyositis and immune thrombocytopenic purpura). CONCLUSION:Familiarity with pertinent findings in childhood diseases presenting with dermatologic manifestations in childhood diseases aids the radiologist in confirming the diagnosis and guiding imaging workup. 10.1016/j.clinimag.2017.10.015
    Henoch-Schönlein purpura nephritis in children. Davin Jean-Claude,Coppo Rosanna Nature reviews. Nephrology Henoch-Schönlein purpura (HSP) is the most common vasculitis in children, in whom prognosis is mostly dependent upon the severity of renal involvement. Nephritis is observed in about 30% of children with HSP. Renal damage eventually leads to chronic kidney disease in up to 20% of children with HSP nephritis in tertiary care centres, but in less than 5% of unselected patients with HSP, by 20 years after diagnosis. HSP nephritis and IgA nephropathy are related diseases resulting from glomerular deposition of aberrantly glycosylated IgA1. Although both nephritides present with similar histological findings and IgA abnormalities, they display pathophysiological differences with important therapeutic implications. HSP nephritis is mainly characterized by acute episodes of glomerular inflammation with endocapillary and mesangial proliferation, fibrin deposits and epithelial crescents that can heal spontaneously or lead to chronic lesions. By contrast, IgA nephropathy normally presents with slowly progressive mesangial lesions resulting from continuous low-grade deposition of macromolecular IgA1. This Review highlights the variable evolution of similar clinical and histological presentations among paediatric patients with HSP nephritis, which constitutes a challenge for their management, and discusses the treatment of these patients in light of current guidelines based on clinical evidence from adults with IgA nephropathy. 10.1038/nrneph.2014.126
    From Schönlein-Henoch purpura to IgA-vasculitis: pathogenetic aspects of the disease. Guliaev S V,Strizhakov L A,Moiseev S V,Fomin V V Terapevticheskii arkhiv Investigation's history and nomenclature's evolution of the IgA-vasculitis are presented in the article. Pathogenesis of the renal and skin damages is discussed in details, particularly abnormalities of the IgA-immunity and systemic endotoxemia. Relevant world's literature is cited. 10.26442/terarkh20189010109-114
    IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Shönlein purpura) in adults: Diagnostic and therapeutic aspects. Audemard-Verger Alexandra,Pillebout Evangeline,Guillevin Loïc,Thervet Eric,Terrier Benjamin Autoimmunity reviews Immunoglobulin A (IgA) vasculitis, formerly called Henoch-Schönlein purpura, is an immune complex vasculitis affecting small vessels with dominant IgA deposits. Clinical manifestations mainly involve cutaneous purpura, arthralgias and/or arthritis, acute enteritis and glomerulonephritis. IgA vasculitis is more common among children than adults, with more severe disease in adults. Gastrointestinal and renal involvements represent the principal causes of morbidity and mortality in adults. Factors associated with long-term end-stage renal disease (ESRD) include baseline renal function impairment and baseline proteinuria >1 or 1.5 g/day, and on renal biopsy degree of interstitial fibrosis, sclerotic glomeruli and fibrinoid necrosis. Management of IgA vasculitis in adults is rendered difficult for clinicians because of the absence of correlation between initial presentation and long-term renal outcome, and the possible occurrence of spontaneous remission in patients with severe presentation or, in contrast, possible evolution to ESRD in patients with mild symptoms. Treatment is often symptomatic because disease course is usually benign. Treatment of severe involvement, including severe gastrointestinal complications or proliferative glomerulonephritis, remains controversial, with no evidence that corticosteroids or immunosuppressive agents improved long-term outcome. Prospective, randomized, controlled trials are thus needed to analyze the benefit-risk ratio of such treatments. 10.1016/j.autrev.2015.02.003
    Non-thrombocytopenic purpura in familial Mediterranean fever-comorbidity with Henoch-Schönlein purpura or an additional rare manifestation of familial Mediterranean fever? Ben-Chetrit Eldad,Yazici Hasan Rheumatology (Oxford, England) Henoch-Schönlein purpura is a relatively common vasculitis mainly affecting children. It is characterized by purpuric skin rash, abdominal cramping, and haematuria. Skin biopsies taken from Henoch-Schönlein purpura lesions disclose perivascular IgA deposits. FMF is an autoinflammatory disease characterized by recurrent attacks of fever lasting 2-3 days which resolve spontaneously. Typical manifestations of the disease are peritonitis, pleuritis, pericarditis, arthritis and erysipelas-like erythema usually affecting the lower limbs. Over the years many reviews emphasized the clinical impression that Henoch-Schönlein purpura is more common among FMF patients than in healthy control population. In this review we summarize these reports and show that sometimes Henoch-Schönlein purpura associated with FMF differs from typical isolated Henoch-Schönlein purpura, and this is also the case with polyarteritis nodosa and SpA associated with FMF. It is suggested that these clinical manifestations (polyarteritis nodosa, Henoch-Schönlein purpura and SpA) should be considered to be associated with FMF as part of what we call FMF rather than as co-existing additional separate clinical entities. 10.1093/rheumatology/kev378
    Henoch-Schönlein Purpura: A Literature Review. Hetland Liv Eline,Susrud Kjærsti Sørensen,Lindahl Kim Hein,Bygum Anette Acta dermato-venereologica Henoch-Schönlein purpura is the most common childhood vasculitis, but may also affect adults. This article reviews the literature since 2011 on advances in diagnosis, clinical disease manifestations, pathophysiology and treatment of Henoch-Schönlein purpura. The clinical manifestations are thought to arise from IgA depositions in blood vessel walls in the affected organs, mostly skin, gastrointestinal tract, joints and kidneys. Corticosteroids may be effective in rapid resolution of renal manifestations and treating joint and abdominal pain, but they are not proven effective for treating organ manifestations and complications, such as glomerulonephritis, bowel infarction or intussusception. Mycophenolate mofetil or cyclosporine A may be better treatment choices in case of renal involvement. Other immunosuppressive and immunomodulating drugs, such as rituximab and dapsone, are promising, but larger studies are needed to confirm these findings. Cancer screening should be considered in older males diagnosed with Henoch-Schönlein purpura. 10.2340/00015555-2733