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    Prevalence of urogenital, anal, and pharyngeal infections with Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Mycoplasma genitalium: a cross-sectional study in Reunion island. Calas A,Zemali N,Camuset G,Jaubert J,Manaquin R,Saint-Pastou C,Koumar Y,Poubeau P,Gerardin P,Bertolotti A BMC infectious diseases BACKGROUND:Recommendations for sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening vary significantly across countries. This study evaluated the prevalence of urogenital and extragenital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG) in patients visiting a French STI clinic in the Indian Ocean region to determine whether current STI screening practices should be updated. METHODS:This cross-sectional study examined all patients who visited the STI clinic between 2014 and 2015. Triplex polymerase chain reaction screening for CT, NG, and MG was performed on urine, vaginal, pharyngeal, and anal specimens (FTD Urethritis Basic Kit, Fast Track Diagnostics, Luxembourg). RESULTS:Of the 851 patients enrolled in the study, 367 were women (367/851, 43.2%) and 484 were men (484/851, 56.0%). Overall, 826 urogenital specimens (826/851, 97.1%), 606 pharyngeal specimens (606/851, 71.2%), and 127 anal specimens (127/851, 14.9%) were taken from enrolled patients. The prevalence of urogenital CT and MG was high in women ≤25 years (19/186, 10.21%; 5/186, 2.69%) and in men who have sex with women ≤30 years (16/212, 7.54%; 5/212, 2.36%). Among patients with urogenital CT infection, 13.7% (7/51) had urethritis. All patients with urogenital MG infection were asymptomatic. Men who have sex with men had a high prevalence of pharyngeal CT (2/45, 4.44%) and NG (3/44, 6.81%) and a high prevalence of anal CT (2/27, 7.41%), NG (2/27, 7.40%), and MG (1/27, 3.70%). After excluding patients with concomitant urogenital infection, extragenital infections with at least 1 of the 3 pathogens were found in 20 swabs (20/91, 21.9%) taken from 16 patients (16/81, 19.7%), all of them asymptomatic. CONCLUSIONS:Routine multisite screening for CT, NG, and MG should be performed to mitigate the transmission of STIs in high-risk sexually active populations. 10.1186/s12879-021-05801-9
    [Relations of human papillomavirus infection, vaginal micro-environmental disorder with cervical lesion]. Li X X,Ding L,Song L,Gao W,Li L,Lyu Y J,Wang M,Hao M,Wang Z L,Wang J T Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi To study the relations of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, vaginal micro-environmental disorder with cervical lesion. A total of 1 019 women including 623 with normal cervical (NC), 303 with low-grade cervical lesion (CIN Ⅰ) and 93 with high-grade cervical lesion (CIN Ⅱ/Ⅲ) were enrolled in this study from the communities in Shanxi province, China. Case-control method was adopted, with NC as the control group and CIN as the case group. Related information was collected including demographic characteristics and relevant factors related to cervical lesions. HPV genotypes were detected by flow-through hybridization technology. Vaginal pH was detected by the pH test paper. Vaginal H(2)O(2) was detected by the combined detection kit of aerobic vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis. Vaginal cleanliness was detected by smear method. Data from the unconditional logistic regression analysis showed that HPV infection (CINⅠ: a=1.39, 95: 1.01-1.90; CINⅡ/Ⅲ: a=11.74, 95: 6.96-19.80), H(2)O(2) (CINⅠ: a=2.09, 95: 1.47-2.98; CINⅡ/Ⅲ: a=4.12, 95: 2.01-8.43), cleanliness (CIN Ⅱ/Ⅲ: a=2.62, 95: 1.65-4.14), and composite indicators (CINⅠ: a=1.67, 95: 1.24-2.25; CINⅡ/Ⅲ: a=4.24, 95: 2.30-7.81) all had increased the risk of cervical lesion and the trend on the severity (<0.001) of cervical lesions. Additionally, we observed a synergic effect between HPV infection and vaginal micro-environmental composite indicator in CINⅡ/Ⅲ. With or without HPV infection, the s value of CINⅠ caused by vaginal micro-environment disorder remained close. Results from our study revealed that vaginal micro-environmental composite indicator could increase the risk for cervical lesion, in particular with the high-grade ones which all posed stronger risks when combined with HPV infection. However, the role of vaginal micro-environment disorder in the occurrence of CIN Ⅰ should not be ignored. 10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20191022-00753
    The characteristics and risk factors of human papillomavirus infection: an outpatient population-based study in Changsha, Hunan. Gao Bingsi,Liou Yu-Ligh,Yu Yang,Zou Lingxiao,Li Waixing,Huang Huan,Zhang Aiqian,Xu Dabao,Zhao Xingping Scientific reports This cross-sectional study investigated the characteristics of cervical HPV infection in Changsha area and explored the influence of Candida vaginitis on this infection. From 11 August 2017 to 11 September 2018, 12,628 outpatient participants ranged from 19 to 84 years old were enrolled and analyzed. HPV DNA was amplified and tested by HPV GenoArray Test Kit. The vaginal ecology was detected by microscopic and biochemistry examinations. The diagnosis of Candida vaginitis was based on microscopic examination (spores, and/or hypha) and biochemical testing (galactosidase) for vaginal discharge by experts. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS 9.4. Continuous and categorical variables were analyzed by t-tests and by Chi-square tests, respectively. HPV infection risk factors were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. Of the total number of participants, 1753 were infected with HPV (13.88%). Females aged ≥ 40 to < 50 years constituted the largest population of HPV-infected females (31.26%). The top 5 HPV subtypes affecting this population of 1753 infected females were the following: HPV-52 (28.01%), HPV-58 (14.83%), CP8304 (11.47%), HPV-53 (10.84%), and HPV-39 (9.64%). Age (OR 1.01; 95% CI 1-1.01; P < 0.05) and alcohol consumption (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.09-1.56; P < 0.01) were found to be risk factors for HPV infection. However, the presence of Candida in the vaginal flora was found to be a protective factor against HPV infection (OR 0.62; 95% CI 0.48-0.8; P < 0.001). Comparing with our previous study of 2016, we conclude that the subtype distribution of HPV infection is relatively constant in Changsha. Our data suggest a negative correlation between vaginal Candida and HPV, however, more radical HPV management is required in this area for perimenopausal women and those who regularly consume alcohol. 10.1038/s41598-021-94635-1
    [Prognosis of high-risk HPV infection and its influences by vaginal micro-environmental factors]. Meng D,Song L,Qi Z,Wang J,Liu H,Lyu Y J,Jia H X,Ding L,Hao M,Tian Z Q,Wang J T Zhonghua liu xing bing xue za zhi = Zhonghua liuxingbingxue zazhi To describe the characteristics of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infection and its influences by vaginal micro-environmental factors. A total of 421 women with HR-HPV infection and normal cervix diagnosed by pathology were selected from a community cohort established earlier by our research group for a 24-month follow-up. The baseline data were collected at enrollment. The vaginal micro-environmental factors were detected by using the combined detection kit of aerobic vaginitis and bacterial vaginosis. And the HPV was detected by using the flow-through hybridization technology. According to the HR-HPV infection status in baseline and 24 months of follow-up, with the prognosis characteristics of HR-HPV infection described, the impact of vaginal micro-environmental factors on the prognosis of HR-HPV infection was explored as well. Among 390 HR-HPV infected women who completed 24 months of follow-up, the top five types of persistent HR-HPV infection rate appeared as HPV16 (24.1%), HPV58 (22.2%), HPV53 (21.7%), HPV52 (20.0%), and HPV39 (11.8%), respectively. The results showed that women with abnormal vaginal pH (a=1.74, 95%: 1.08-2.80), abnormal neuraminidase (a=2.70, 95%: 1.52-4.83), or abnormal leucocyte esterase (a=3.41, 95%: 2.13-5.44), the risk of HR-HPV persistent infection increased. The abnormalities of neuraminidase and leukocyte esterase could increase the risk of persistent infection of homotype and heterotypic HR-HPV. HPV16 was prone to persistent infection. Abnormalities of vaginal pH, neuraminidase, and leukocyte esterase might increase the risk of HR-HPV persistent infection. Both the abnormalities of neuraminidase and leukocyte esterase play an essential role in the HR-HPV persistent infection. 10.3760/cma.j.cn112338-20200829-01107