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    Suspended fine particulate matter (PM), microplastics (MPs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air: Their possible relationships and health implications. Akhbarizadeh Razegheh,Dobaradaran Sina,Amouei Torkmahalleh Mehdi,Saeedi Reza,Aibaghi Roza,Faraji Ghasemi Fatemeh Environmental research Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) and their associated microcontaminants have been linked to increased harmful effects on the human health. In this study, the possible relationships between PM, microplastics (MPs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in an urban area of Bushehr port, in the northern part of the Persian Gulf. Presence, sources, and health risks of MPs and PAHs in both normal and dusty days were also investigated. The median of PM and ƩPAHs were 52.8 μg/m and 14.1 ng/m, respectively, indicating high pollution levels especially in dusty days. The mean level of MPs in urban suspended PM was 5.2 items/m. Fragments were the most abundant shape of identified MPs and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was the most plastic types in urban dust of Bushehr port. The results revealed that PM and MPs may possibly act as a carrier for airborne MPs and PAHs, respectively. In addition, the significant positive relationships between MPs, wind speed and wind direction, confirmed that the MPs transportation were highly controlled by atmospheric condition. Moreover, the source identification methods and trajectory analyses indicated that petrogenic sources from both proximal and distal origins play an important role in the level of PAHs. The results of chronic health risk evaluation via inhalation revealed that PM-bound PAHs had high potential cancer risk in winter, while, the estimated risks for non-carcinogenic PAHs were not considerable. In the case of MPs, the assessment of human intake of MPs via inhalation highlighted the possible risks for habitants. 10.1016/j.envres.2020.110339
    Polystyrene microplastics induce hepatotoxicity and disrupt lipid metabolism in the liver organoids. The Science of the total environment Microplastic particles (MP) has been detected in the environment widespread. Human beings are inevitably exposed to MP via multiple routines. However, the hazard identifications, as direct evidence of exposure and health risk, have not been fully characterized in human beings. Many studies suggest the liver is a potential target organ, but currently no study regarding the MP on human liver has been reported. In this study, we used a novel in vitro 3D model, the liver organoids (LOs) generated from human pluripotent stem cells, as an alternative model to the human liver, to explore the adverse biological effect of 1 μm polystyrene-MP (PS-MP) microbeads applying a non-static exposure approach. When the LOs were exposed to 0.25, 2.5 and 25 μg/mL PS-MP (the lowest one was relevant to the environmental concentrations, calculated to be 102 ± 7 items/mL). The potential mechanisms of PS-MP induced hepatotoxicity and lipotoxicity, in aspects of cytotoxicity, levels of key molecular markers, ATP production, alteration in lipid metabolism, ROS generation, oxidative stress and inflammation response, were determined. Specifically, it has been firstly observed that PS-MP could increase the expression of hepatic HNF4A and CYP2E1. Based on these findings, the potential adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) relevant to PS-MP were proposed, and the potential risks of PS-MP on liver steatosis, fibrosis and cancer were implicated. The combined application of novel LOs model and AOPs framework provides a new insight into the risk assessment of MP. Further studies are anticipated to validate the hepatotoxic molecular mechanism of PS-MP based on HNF4A or CYP2E1, and to investigate the MP-induced physical damage and its relationship to hepatic adverse effect for human beings. CAPSULE: Microplastics cause hepatotoxicity and disrupt lipid metabolism in the human pluripotent stem cells-derived liver organoids, providing evidence for human implication. 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150328