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    Strategies for the preparation of bifunctional gadolinium(III) chelators. Frullano Luca,Caravan Peter Current organic synthesis The development of gadolinium chelators that can be easily and readily linked to various substrates is of primary importance for the development high relaxation efficiency and/or targeted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Over the last 25 years a large number of bifunctional chelators have been prepared. For the most part, these compounds are based on ligands that are already used in clinically approved contrast agents. More recently, new bifunctional chelators have been reported based on complexes that show a more potent relaxation effect, faster complexation kinetics and in some cases simpler synthetic procedures. This review provides an overview of the synthetic strategies used for the preparation of bifunctional chelators for MRI applications. 10.2174/157017911796117250
    Yttrium-86 Is a Positron Emitting Surrogate of Gadolinium for Noninvasive Quantification of Whole-Body Distribution of Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agents. Le Fur Mariane,Rotile Nicholas J,Correcher Carlos,Clavijo Jordan Veronica,Ross Alana W,Catana Ciprian,Caravan Peter Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are used to provide diagnostic information in clinical magnetic resonance (MR) examinations. Gadolinium (Gd) has been detected in the brain, bone and skin of patients, months and years following GBCA administration, raising concerns about long term toxicity. Despite increased scrutiny, the concentration, chemical form and fate of the retained gadolinium species remain unknown. Importantly, the whole body biodistribution and organ clearance of GBCAs is poorly understood in humans. Gadolinium lacks suitable isotopes for nuclear imaging. We demonstrate that the yttrium-86 isotope can be used as a gadolinium surrogate. We show that Gd and their analogous Y complexes have similar properties both in solution and in vivo, and that yttrium-86 PET can be used to track the biodistribution of GBCAs over a two-day period. 10.1002/anie.201911858
    Gadolinium-Free Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Central Nervous System. Gale Eric M,Caravan Peter ACS chemical neuroscience We discuss how the recent revelation that gadolinium (Gd) from commercially available MRI contrast agents is irreversibly and cumulatively deposited in the central nervous system is driving innovation toward Gd-free contrast agents for neuroradiology. 10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00044
    Biodistribution of gadolinium-based contrast agents, including gadolinium deposition. Aime Silvio,Caravan Peter Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI The biodistribution of approved gadolinium (Gd)-based contrast agents (GBCAs) is reviewed. After intravenous injection GBCAs distribute in the blood and the extracellular space and transiently through the excretory organs. Preclinical animal studies and the available clinical literature indicate that all these compounds are excreted intact. Elimination tends to be rapid and, for the most part, complete. In renally insufficient patients the plasma elimination half-life increases substantially from hours to days depending on renal function. In patients with impaired renal function and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF), the agents gadodiamide, gadoversetamide, and gadopentetate dimeglumine have been shown to result in Gd deposition in the skin and internal organs. In these cases, it is likely that the Gd is no longer present as the GBCA, but this has still not been definitively shown. In preclinical models very small amounts of Gd are retained in the bone and liver, and the amount retained correlates with the kinetic and thermodynamic stability of the GBCA with respect to Gd release in vitro. The pattern of residual Gd deposition in NSF subjects may be different than that observed in preclinical rodent models. GBCAs are designed to be used via intravenous administration. Altering the route of administration and/or the formulation of the GBCA can dramatically alter the biodistribution of the GBCA and can increase the likelihood of Gd deposition. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;30:1259-1267. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. 10.1002/jmri.21969
    The biological fate of gadolinium-based MRI contrast agents: a call to action for bioinorganic chemists. Le Fur Mariane,Caravan Peter Metallomics : integrated biometal science Gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) are widely used with clinical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and 10 s of millions of doses of GBCAs are administered annually worldwide. GBCAs are hydrophilic, thermodynamically stable and kinetically inert gadolinium chelates. In clinical MRI, 5-10 millimoles of Gd ion is administered intravenously and the GBCA is rapidly eliminated intact primarily through the kidneys into the urine. It is now well-established that the Gd3+ ion, in some form(s), is partially retained in vivo. In patients with advanced kidney disease, there is an association of Gd retention with nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) disease. However Gd is also retained in the brain, bone, skin, and other tissues in patients with normal renal function, and the presence of Gd can persist months to years after the last administration of a GBCA. Regulatory agencies are restricting the use of specific GBCAs and inviting health care professionals to evaluate the risk/benefit ratio prior to using GBCAs. Despite the growing number of studies investigating this issue both in animals and humans, the biological distribution and the chemical speciation of the residual gadolinium are not fully understood. Is the GBCA retained in its intact form? Is the Gd3+ ion dissociated from its chelator, and if so, what is its chemical form? Here we discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the issue of Gd retention and describe the analytical and spectroscopic methods that can be used to investigate the Gd speciation. Many of the physical methods that could be brought to bear on this problem are in the domain of bioinorganic chemistry and we hope that this review will serve to inspire this community to take up this important problem. 10.1039/c8mt00302e
    Enzyme Control Over Ferric Iron Magnetostructural Properties. Wang Huan,Cleary Michael B,Lewis Luke C,Bacon Jeffrey W,Caravan Peter,Shafaat Hannah S,Gale Eric M Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) Fe complexes in aqueous solution can exist as discrete mononuclear species or multinuclear magnetically coupled species. Stimuli-driven change to Fe speciation represents a powerful mechanistic basis for magnetic resonance sensor technology, but ligand design strategies to exert precision control of aqueous Fe magnetostructural properties are entirely underexplored. In pursuit of this objective, we rationally designed a ligand to strongly favor a dinuclear μ-oxo-bridged and antiferromagnetically coupled complex, but which undergoes carboxylesterase mediated transformation to a mononuclear high-spin Fe chelate resulting in substantial T -relaxivity increase. The data communicated demonstrate proof of concept for a novel and effective strategy to exert biochemical control over aqueous Fe magnetic, structural, and relaxometric properties. 10.1002/anie.202114019
    Gadolinium-based contrast agents in pediatric magnetic resonance imaging. Gale Eric M,Caravan Peter,Rao Anil G,McDonald Robert J,Winfeld Matthew,Fleck Robert J,Gee Michael S Pediatric radiology Gadolinium-based contrast agents can increase the accuracy and expediency of an MRI examination. However the benefits of a contrast-enhanced scan must be carefully weighed against the well-documented risks associated with administration of exogenous contrast media. The purpose of this review is to discuss commercially available gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) in the context of pediatric radiology. We discuss the chemistry, regulatory status, safety and clinical applications, with particular emphasis on imaging of the blood vessels, heart, hepatobiliary tree and central nervous system. We also discuss non-GBCA MRI contrast agents that are less frequently used or not commercially available. 10.1007/s00247-017-3806-0
    Applications for Transition-Metal Chemistry in Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Gupta Abhishek,Caravan Peter,Price William S,Platas-Iglesias Carlos,Gale Eric M Inorganic chemistry Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an indispensable tool for diagnostic medicine. However, safety concerns related to gadolinium in commercial MRI contrast agents have emerged in recent years. For patients suffering from severe renal impairment, there is an important unmet medical need to perform contrast-enhanced MRI without gadolinium. There are also concerns over the long-term effects of retained gadolinium within the general patient population. Demand for gadolinium-free MRI contrast agents is driving a new wave of inorganic chemistry innovation as researchers explore paramagnetic transition-metal complexes as potential alternatives. Furthermore, advances in personalized care making use of molecular-level information have motivated inorganic chemists to develop MRI contrast agents that can detect pathologic changes at the molecular level. Recent studies have highlighted how reaction-based modulation of transition-metal paramagnetism offers a highly effective mechanism to achieve MRI contrast enhancement that is specific to biochemical processes. This Viewpoint highlights how recent advances in transition-metal chemistry are leading the way for a new generation of MRI contrast agents. 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c00510
    Targeted probes for cardiovascular MRI. Uppal Ritika,Caravan Peter Future medicinal chemistry Molecular MRI plays an important role in studying molecular and cellular processes associated with heart disease. Targeted probes that recognize important biomarkers of atherosclerosis, apoptosis, necrosis, angiogenesis, thrombosis and inflammation have been developed. This review discusses the properties of chemically different contrast agents including iron oxide nanoparticles, gadolinium-based nanoparticles or micelles, discrete peptide conjugates and activatable probes. Numerous examples of contrast agents based on these approaches have been used in preclinical MRI of cardiovascular diseases. Clinical applications are still under investigation for some selected agents with highly promising initial results. Molecular MRI shows great potential for the detection and characterization of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases, as well as for monitoring response to therapy. 10.4155/FMC.09.154
    Primer on gadolinium chemistry. Sherry A Dean,Caravan Peter,Lenkinski Robert E Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI Gadolinium is widely known by all practitioners of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) but few appreciate the basic solution chemistry of this trivalent lanthanide ion. Given the recent linkage between gadolinium contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, some basic chemistry of this ion must be more widely understood. This short primer on gadolinium chemistry is intended to provide the reader the background principles necessary to understand the basics of chelation chemistry, water hydration numbers, and the differences between thermodynamic stability and kinetic stability or inertness. We illustrate the fundamental importance of kinetic dissociation rates in determining gadolinium toxicity in vivo by presenting new data for a novel europium DOTA-tetraamide complex that is relatively unstable thermodynamically yet extraordinarily inert kinetically and also quite nontoxic. This, plus other literature evidence, forms the basis of the fundamental axiom that it is the kinetic stability of a gadolinium complex, not its thermodynamic stability, that determines its in vivo toxicity. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2009;30:1240-1248. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. 10.1002/jmri.21966
    Peptide-based fibrin-targeting probes for thrombus imaging. Oliveira Bruno L,Caravan Peter Dalton transactions (Cambridge, England : 2003) The development of new methods to image the onset and progression of thrombosis is an unmet need. Non-invasive molecular imaging techniques targeting specific key structures involved in the formation of thrombosis have demonstrated the ability to detect thrombus in different disease state models and in patients. Due to its high concentration in the thrombus and its essential role in thrombus formation, the detection of fibrin is an attractive strategy for identification of thrombosis. Herein we provide an overview of recent and selected fibrin-targeted probes for molecular imaging of thrombosis by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and optical techniques. Emphasis is placed on work that our lab has explored over the last 15 years that has resulted in the progression of the fibrin-binding PET probe [Cu]FBP8 from preclinical studies into human trials. 10.1039/c7dt02634j