The Gut-liver Axis in Immune Remodeling: New insight into Liver Diseases.
Yang Xinyu,Lu Di,Zhuo Jianyong,Lin Zuyuan,Yang Modan,Xu Xiao
International journal of biological sciences
The gut microbiota consists of a dynamic multispecies community of bacteria, fungi, archaea, and protozoans, playing a fundamental role in the induction, training, and function of the host immune system. The liver is anatomically and physiologically linked to the gut microbiota via enterohepatic circulation, specifically receiving intestine-derived blood through the portal vein. The gut microbiota is crucial for maintaining immune homeostasis of the gut-liver axis. A shift in gut microbiota composition can result in activation of the mucosal immune response causing homeostasis imbalance. This imbalance results in translocation of bacteria and migration of immune cells to the liver, which is related to inflammation-mediated liver injury and tumor progression. In this review, we outline the role of the gut microbiota in modulating host immunity and summarize novel findings and recent advances in immune-based therapeutics associated with the gut-liver axis. Moving forward, a deep understanding of the microbiome-immune-liver axis will provide insight into the basic mechanisms of gut microbiota dysbiosis affecting liver diseases.