The significance of exosomes in the development and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Li Xin,Li Chuanyun,Zhang Liping,Wu Min,Cao Ke,Jiang Feifei,Chen Dexi,Li Ning,Li Weihua
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most commonmalignancy. Exsome plays a significant role in the elucidation of signal transduction pathways between hepatoma cells, angiogenesis and early diagnosis of HCC. Exosomes are small vesicular structures that mediate interaction between different types of cells, and contain a variety of components (including DNA, RNA, and proteins). Numerous studies have shown that these substances in exosomes are involved in growth, metastasis and angiogenesis in liver cancer, and then inhibited the growth of liver cancer by blocking the signaling pathway of liver cancer cells. In addition, the exosomal substances could also be used as markers for screening early liver cancer. In this review, we summarized to reveal the significance of exosomes in the occurrence, development, diagnosis and treatment of HCC, which in turn might help us to further elucidate the mechanism of exosomes in HCC, and promote the use of exosomes in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of HCC.
Liver cancer stem cell markers: Progression and therapeutic implications.
Sun Jing-Hui,Luo Qing,Liu Ling-Ling,Song Guan-Bin
World journal of gastroenterology
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation in cancer, have been proposed to be cancer-initiating cells, and have been shown to be responsible for chemotherapy resistance and cancer recurrence. The identification of CSC subpopulations inside a tumor presents a new understanding of cancer development because it implies that tumors can only be eradicated by targeting CSCs. Although advances in liver cancer detection and treatment have increased the possibility of curing the disease at early stages, unfortunately, most patients will relapse and succumb to their disease. Strategies aimed at efficiently targeting liver CSCs are becoming important for monitoring the progress of liver cancer therapy and for evaluating new therapeutic approaches. Herein, we provide a critical discussion of biological markers described in the literature regarding liver cancer stem cells and the potential of these markers to serve as therapeutic targets.
Intestinal Promotes Hepatocarcinogenesis by Up-Regulating NLRP6.
Liu Zherui,Li Yinyin,Li Chen,Lei Guanglin,Zhou Lin,Chen Xiangling,Jia Xiaodong,Lu Yinying
Frontiers in microbiology
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a primary liver cancer, is closely associated with the gut microbiota. However, the role of gut fungi in the development of HCC remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the influence of intestinal on HCC. Here, We found that patients with HCC showed significantly decreased diversity of the gut mycobiome and increased abundance of , compared to the patients with liver cirrhosis. The gavage of in the WT models increased the tumor size and weight and influenced the plasma metabolome, which was indicated by alterations in 117 metabolites, such as L-carnitine and L-acetylcarnitine, and several KEGG enriched pathways, such as phenylalanine metabolism and citrate cycle. Moreover, the expression of nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 6 (NLRP6) in the intestinal tissues and primary intestinal epithelial cells of the WT mice interacted with increased. Notably, the colonization of had no effect on tumor growth in mice. In conclusion, the abnormal colonization of reprogrammed HCC metabolism and contributed to the progression of HCC dependent on NLRP6, which provided new targets for the treatment of HCC.
Acetylcarnitine Is a Candidate Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarker of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
Lu Yonghai,Li Ning,Gao Liang,Xu Yong-Jiang,Huang Chong,Yu Kangkang,Ling Qingxia,Cheng Qi,Chen Shengsen,Zhu Mengqi,Fang Jinling,Chen Mingquan,Ong Choon Nam
The identification of serum biomarkers to improve the diagnosis and prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma has been elusive to date. In this study, we took a mass spectroscopic approach to characterize metabolic features of the liver in hepatocellular carcinoma patients to discover more sensitive and specific biomarkers for diagnosis and progression. Global metabolic profiling of 50 pairs of matched liver tissue samples from hepatocellular carcinoma patients was performed. A series of 62 metabolites were found to be altered significantly in liver tumors; however, levels of acetylcarnitine correlated most strongly with tumor grade and could discriminate between hepatocellular carcinoma tumors and matched normal tissues. Post hoc analysis to evaluate serum diagnosis and progression potential further confirmed the diagnostic capability of serum acetylcarnitine. Finally, an external validation in an independent batch of 58 serum samples (18 hepatocellular carcinoma patients, 20 liver cirrhosis patients, and 20 healthy individuals) verified that serum acetylcarnitine was a meaningful biomarker reflecting hepatocellular carcinoma diagnosis and progression. These findings present a strong new candidate biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma with potentially significant diagnostic and prognostic capabilities. Cancer Res; 76(10); 2912-20. ©2016 AACR.
SIRT6 Promotes Hepatic Beta-Oxidation via Activation of PPARα.
Naiman Shoshana,Huynh Frank K,Gil Reuven,Glick Yair,Shahar Yael,Touitou Noga,Nahum Liat,Avivi Matan Y,Roichman Asael,Kanfi Yariv,Gertler Asaf A,Doniger Tirza,Ilkayeva Olga R,Abramovich Ifat,Yaron Orly,Lerrer Batia,Gottlieb Eyal,Harris Robert A,Gerber Doron,Hirschey Matthew D,Cohen Haim Y
The pro-longevity enzyme SIRT6 regulates various metabolic pathways. Gene expression analyses in SIRT6 heterozygotic mice identify significant decreases in PPARα signaling, known to regulate multiple metabolic pathways. SIRT6 binds PPARα and its response element within promoter regions and activates gene transcription. Sirt6 results in significantly reduced PPARα-induced β-oxidation and its metabolites and reduced alanine and lactate levels, while inducing pyruvate oxidation. Reciprocally, starved SIRT6 transgenic mice show increased pyruvate, acetylcarnitine, and glycerol levels and significantly induce β-oxidation genes in a PPARα-dependent manner. Furthermore, SIRT6 mediates PPARα inhibition of SREBP-dependent cholesterol and triglyceride synthesis. Mechanistically, SIRT6 binds PPARα coactivator NCOA2 and decreases liver NCOA2 K780 acetylation, which stimulates its activation of PPARα in a SIRT6-dependent manner. These coordinated SIRT6 activities lead to regulation of whole-body respiratory exchange ratio and liver fat content, revealing the interactions whereby SIRT6 synchronizes various metabolic pathways, and suggest a mechanism by which SIRT6 maintains healthy liver.
CRIP1 suppresses BBOX1-mediated carnitine metabolism to promote stemness in hepatocellular carcinoma.
The EMBO journal
Carnitine metabolism is thought to be negatively correlated with the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the specific molecular mechanism is yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we report that little characterized cysteine-rich protein 1 (CRIP1) is upregulated in HCC and associated with poor prognosis. Moreover, CRIP1 promoted HCC cancer stem-like properties by downregulating carnitine energy metabolism. Mechanistically, CRIP1 interacted with BBOX1 and the E3 ligase STUB1, promoting BBOX1 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, and leading to the downregulation of carnitine. BBOX1 ubiquitination at lysine 240 is required for CRIP1-mediated control of carnitine metabolism and cancer stem-like properties. Further, our data showed that acetylcarnitine downregulation in CRIP1-overexpressing cells decreased beta-catenin acetylation and promoted nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, thus facilitating cancer stem-like properties. Clinically, patients with higher CRIP1 protein levels had lower BBOX1 levels but higher nuclear beta-catenin levels in HCC tissues. Together, our findings identify CRIP1 as novel upstream control factor for carnitine metabolism and cancer stem-like properties, suggesting targeting of the CRIP1/BBOX1/β-catenin axis as a promising strategy for HCC treatment.