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    Reduced ABA Accumulation in the Root System is Caused by ABA Exudation in Upland Rice (Oryza sativa L. var. Gaoshan1) and this Enhanced Drought Adaptation. Shi Lu,Guo Miaomiao,Ye Nenghui,Liu Yinggao,Liu Rui,Xia Yiji,Cui Suxia,Zhang Jianhua Plant & cell physiology Lowland rice (Nipponbare) and upland rice (Gaoshan 1) that are comparable under normal and moderate drought conditions showed dramatic differences in severe drought conditions, both naturally occurring long-term drought and simulated rapid water deficits. We focused on their root response and found that enhanced tolerance of upland rice to severe drought conditions was mainly due to the lower level of ABA in its roots than in those of the lowland rice. We first excluded the effect of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism on root-accumulated ABA levels in both types of rice by monitoring the expression of four OsNCED genes and two OsABA8ox genes. Next, we excluded the impact of the aerial parts on roots by suppressing leaf-biosynthesized ABA with fluridone and NDGA (nordihydroguaiaretic acid), and measuring the ABA level in detached roots. Instead, we proved that upland rice had the ability to export considerably more root-sourced ABA than lowland rice under severe drought, which improved ABA-dependent drought adaptation. The investigation of apoplastic pH in root cells and root anatomy showed that ABA leakage in the root system of upland rice was related to high apoplastic pH and the absence of Casparian bands in the sclerenchyma layer. Finally, taking some genes as examples, we predicted that different ABA levels in rice roots stimulated distinct ABA perception and signaling cascades, which influenced its response to water stress. 10.1093/pcp/pcv022
    Expression of ABA Metabolism-Related Genes Suggests Similarities and Differences Between Seed Dormancy and Bud Dormancy of Peach (Prunus persica). Wang Dongling,Gao Zhenzhen,Du Peiyong,Xiao Wei,Tan Qiuping,Chen Xiude,Li Ling,Gao Dongsheng Frontiers in plant science Dormancy inhibits seed and bud growth of perennial plants until the environmental conditions are optimal for survival. Previous studies indicated that certain co-regulation pathways exist in seed and bud dormancy. In our study, we found that seed and bud dormancy are similar to some extent but show different reactions to chemical treatments that induce breaking of dormancy. Whether the abscisic acid (ABA) regulatory networks are similar in dormant peach seeds and buds is not well known; however, ABA is generally believed to play a critical role in seed and bud dormancy. In peach, some genes putatively involved in ABA synthesis and catabolism were identified and their expression patterns were studied to learn more about ABA homeostasis and the possible crosstalk between bud dormancy and seed dormancy mechanisms. The analysis demonstrated that two 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase-encoding genes seem to be key in regulating ABA biosynthesis to induce seed and bud dormancy. Three CYP707As play an overlapping role in controlling ABA inactivation, resulting in dormancy-release. In addition, Transcript analysis of ABA metabolism-related genes was much similar demonstrated that ABA pathways was similar in the regulation of vegetative and flower bud dormancy, whereas, expression patterns of ABA metabolism-related genes were different in seed dormancy showed that ABA pathway maybe different in regulating seed dormancy in peach. 10.3389/fpls.2015.01248
    Involvement of ABA in induction of secondary dormancy in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds. Leymarie Juliette,Robayo-Romero Maria Emilia,Gendreau Emmanuel,Benech-Arnold Roberto L,Corbineau Françoise Plant & cell physiology At harvest, barley seeds are dormant because their germination is difficult above 20 degrees C. Incubation of primary dormant seeds at 30 degrees C, a temperature at which they do not germinate, results in a loss of their ability to germinate at 20 degrees C. This phenomenon which corresponds to an induction of a secondary dormancy is already observed after a pre-treatment at 30 degrees C as short as 4-6 h, and is optimal after 24-48 h. It is associated with maintenance of a high level of embryo ABA content during seed incubation at 30 degrees C, and after seed transfer at 20 degrees C, while ABA content decreases rapidly in embryos of primary dormant seeds placed directly at 20 degrees C. Induction of secondary dormancy also results in an increase in embryo responsiveness to ABA at 20 degrees C. Application of ABA during seed treatment at 30 degrees C has no significant additive effect on the further germination at 20 degrees C. In contrast, incubation of primary dormant seeds at 20 degrees C for 48 and 72 h in the presence of ABA inhibits further germination on water similarly to 24-48 h incubation at 30 degrees C. However fluridone, an inhibitor of ABA synthesis, applied during incubation of the grains at 30 degrees C has only a slight effect on ABA content and secondary dormancy. Expression of genes involved in ABA metabolism (HvABA8'OH-1, HvNCED1 and HvNCED2) was studied in relation to the expression of primary and secondary dormancies. The results presented suggest a specific role for HvNCED1 and HvNCED2 in regulation of ABA synthesis in secondary seed dormancy. 10.1093/pcp/pcn164
    CYP707A3, a major ABA 8'-hydroxylase involved in dehydration and rehydration response in Arabidopsis thaliana. Umezawa Taishi,Okamoto Masanori,Kushiro Tetsuo,Nambara Eiji,Oono Youko,Seki Motoaki,Kobayashi Masatomo,Koshiba Tomokazu,Kamiya Yuji,Shinozaki Kazuo The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology Abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism is one of the determinants of endogenous ABA levels affecting numerous aspects of plant growth and abiotic stress responses. The major ABA catabolic pathway is triggered by ABA 8'-hydroxylation catalysed by the cytochrome P450 CYP707A family. Among four members of Arabidopsis CYP707As, the expression of CYP707A3 was most highly induced in response to both dehydration and subsequent rehydration. A T-DNA insertional cyp707a3-1 mutant contained higher ABA levels in turgid plants, which showed a reduced transpiration rate and hypersensitivity to exogenous ABA during early seedling growth. On dehydration, the cyp707a3-1 mutant accumulated a higher amount of stress-induced ABA than the wild type, an event that occurred relatively later and was coincident with slow drought induction of CYP707A3. The cyp707a3 mutant plants exhibited both exaggerated ABA-inducible gene expression and enhanced drought tolerance. Conversely, constitutive expression of CYP707A3 relieved growth retardation by ABA, increased transpiration, and a reduction of endogenous ABA in both turgid and dehydrated plants. Taken together, our results indicate that CYP707A3 plays an important role in determining threshold levels of ABA during dehydration and after rehydration. 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2006.02683.x
    Promoted ABA Hydroxylation by Overexpression Suppresses Pollen Maturation in . Kim Hyun Min,Park Se Hee,Ma Sang Hoon,Park Seo Young,Yun Chul-Ho,Jang Geupil,Joung Young Hee Frontiers in plant science Abscisic acid (ABA) is a key signaling molecule that mediates plant response to stress. Increasing evidence indicates that ABA also regulates many aspects of plant development, such as seed germination, leaf development, and ripening. ABA metabolism, including ABA biosynthesis and degradation, is an essential aspect of ABA response in plants. In this study, we identified four cytochrome P450 genes (, , , and ) that mediate ABA hydroxylation, which is required for ABA degradation in . We observed that CaCYP707A-mediated ABA hydroxylation promotes ABA degradation, leading to low levels of ABA and a dehydration phenotype in plants. Importantly, seed formation was strongly inhibited in plants, and a cross-pollination test suggested that the defect in seed formation is caused by improper pollen development. Phenotypic analysis showed that pollen maturation is suppressed in plants. Consequently, most pollen grains degenerated, unlike non-transgenic (NT) pollen, which developed into mature pollen grains. Together our results indicate that CaCYP707A mediates ABA hydroxylation and thereby influences pollen development, helping to elucidate the mechanism underlying ABA-regulated pollen development. 10.3389/fpls.2020.583767
    Overexpression of the Gene Confers Resistance to Salt Stress by the Induction of NCED3, an ABA Biosynthesis Enzyme. Truong Hai An,Lee Seokjin,Trịnh Cao Son,Lee Won Je,Chung Eui-Hwan,Hong Suk-Whan,Lee Hojoung Frontiers in plant science Salt stress constitutes a major form of abiotic stress in plants. Histone modification plays an important role in stress tolerance, with particular reference to salt stress resistance. In the current study, we found that HDA15 overexpression confers salt stress resistance to young seedling stages of transgenic plants. Furthermore, salt stress induces overexpression. Transcription levels of stress-responsive genes were increased in transgenic plants overexpressing (). , an abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthetic gene, which is highly upregulated in transgenic plants, enhanced the accumulation of ABA, which promotes adaptation to salt stress. ABA homeostasis in plants is maintained by the induction of CYP707As, which optimize endogenous ABA levels. Lastly, we found that the double-mutant plants are sensitive to salt stress, indicating that interaction between HDA15 and ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) is crucial to salt stress tolerance shown by plants. Thus, our findings indicate that is crucial to salt stress tolerance in . 10.3389/fpls.2021.640443
    Abscisic acid pathway involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening and quality trait evolution. Wang Yanping,Guo Shaogui,Tian Shouwei,Zhang Jie,Ren Yi,Sun Honghe,Gong Guoyi,Zhang Haiying,Xu Yong PloS one Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai) is a non-climacteric fruit. The modern sweet-dessert watermelon is the result of years of cultivation and selection for fruits with desirable qualities. To date, the mechanisms of watermelon fruit ripening, and the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in this process, has not been well understood. We quantified levels of free and conjugated ABA contents in the fruits of cultivated watermelon (97103; C. lanatus subsp. vulgaris), semi-wild germplasm (PI179878; C. lanatus subsp. mucosospermus), and wild germplasm (PI296341-FR; C. lanatus subsp. lanatus). Results showed that ABA content in the fruits of 97103 and PI179878 increased during fruit development and ripening, but maintained a low steady state in the center flesh of PI296341-FR fruits. ABA levels in fruits were highest in 97103 and lowest in PI296341-FR, but no obvious differences in ABA levels were observed in seeds of these lines. Examination of 31 representative watermelon accessions, including different C. lanatus subspecies and ancestral species, showed a correlation between soluble solids content (SSC) and ABA levels in ripening fruits. Furthermore, injection of exogenous ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) into 97103 fruits promoted or inhibited ripening, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses showed that the expression levels of several genes involved in ABA metabolism and signaling, including Cla009779 (NCED), Cla005404 (NCED), Cla020673 (CYP707A), Cla006655 (UGT) and Cla020180 (SnRK2), varied significantly in cultivated and wild watermelon center flesh. Three SNPs (-738, C/A; -1681, C/T; -1832, G/T) in the promoter region of Cla020673 (CYP707A) and one single SNP (-701, G/A) in the promoter of Cla020180 (SnRK2) exhibited a high level of correlation with SSC variation in the 100 tested accessions. Our results not only demonstrate for the first time that ABA is involved in the regulation of watermelon fruit ripening, but also provide insights into the evolutionary mechanisms of this phenomenon. 10.1371/journal.pone.0179944
    The Arabidopsis cytochrome P450 CYP707A encodes ABA 8'-hydroxylases: key enzymes in ABA catabolism. Kushiro Tetsuo,Okamoto Masanori,Nakabayashi Kazumi,Yamagishi Kazutoshi,Kitamura Sayaka,Asami Tadao,Hirai Nobuhiro,Koshiba Tomokazu,Kamiya Yuji,Nambara Eiji The EMBO journal The hormonal action of abscisic acid (ABA) in plants is controlled by the precise balance between its biosynthesis and catabolism. In plants, ABA 8'-hydroxylation is thought to play a predominant role in ABA catabolism. ABA 8'-hydroxylase was shown to be a cytochrome P450 (P450); however, its corresponding gene had not been identified. Through phylogenetic and DNA microarray analyses during seed imbibition, the candidate genes for this enzyme were narrowed down from 272 Arabidopsis P450 genes. These candidate genes were functionally expressed in yeast to reveal that members of the CYP707A family, CYP707A1-CYP707A4, encode ABA 8'-hydroxylases. Expression analyses revealed that CYP707A2 is responsible for the rapid decrease in ABA level during seed imbibition. During drought stress conditions, all CYP707A genes were upregulated, and upon rehydration a significant increase in mRNA level was observed. Consistent with the expression analyses, cyp707a2 mutants exhibited hyperdormancy in seeds and accumulated six-fold greater ABA content than wild type. These results demonstrate that CYP707A family genes play a major regulatory role in controlling the level of ABA in plants. 10.1038/sj.emboj.7600121
    Abscisic acid biosynthesis and catabolism. Nambara Eiji,Marion-Poll Annie Annual review of plant biology The level of abscisic acid (ABA) in any particular tissue in a plant is determined by the rate of biosynthesis and catabolism of the hormone. Therefore, identifying all the genes involved in the metabolism is essential for a complete understanding of how this hormone directs plant growth and development. To date, almost all the biosynthetic genes have been identified through the isolation of auxotrophic mutants. On the other hand, among several ABA catabolic pathways, current genomic approaches revealed that Arabidopsis CYP707A genes encode ABA 8'-hydroxylases, which catalyze the first committed step in the predominant ABA catabolic pathway. Identification of ABA metabolic genes has revealed that multiple metabolic steps are differentially regulated to fine-tune the ABA level at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Furthermore, recent ongoing studies have given new insights into the regulation and site of ABA metabolism in relation to its physiological roles. 10.1146/annurev.arplant.56.032604.144046
    1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid and abscisic acid during the germination of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.): a comparative study of fruits and seeds. Hermann Katrin,Meinhard Juliane,Dobrev Peter,Linkies Ada,Pesek Bedrich,Hess Barbara,Machácková Ivana,Fischer Uwe,Leubner-Metzger Gerhard Journal of experimental botany The control of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) germination by plant hormones was studied by comparing fruits and seeds. Treatment of sugar beet fruits and seeds with gibberellins, brassinosteroids, auxins, cytokinins, and jasmonates or corresponding hormone biosynthesis inhibitors did not appreciably affect radicle emergence of fruits or seeds. By contrast, treatment with ethylene or the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) promoted radicle emergence of fruits and seeds. Abscisic acid (ABA) acted as an antagonist of ethylene and inhibited radicle emergence of seeds, but not appreciably of fruits. High endogenous contents of ACC and of ABA were evident in seeds and pericarps of dry mature fruits, but declined early during imbibition. ABA-treatment of seeds and fruits induced seed ACC accumulation while ACC-treatment did not affect the seed ABA content. Transcripts of ACC oxidase (ACO, ethylene-forming enzyme) and ABA 8'-hydroxylase (CYP707A, ABA-degrading enzyme) accumulate in fruits and seeds upon imbibition. ABA and ACC and the pericarp did not affect the seed CYP707A transcript levels. By contrast, seed ACO transcript accumulation was promoted by ABA and by pericarp removal, but not by ACC. Quantification of the endogenous ABA and ACC contents, ABA and ACC leaching, and ethylene evolution, demonstrate that an embryo-mediated active ABA extrusion system is involved in keeping the endogenous seed ABA content low by 'active ABA leaching', while the pericarp restricts ACC leaching during imbibition. Sugar beet radicle emergence appears to be controlled by the pericarp, by ABA and ACC leaching, and by an ABA-ethylene antagonism that affects ACC biosynthesis and ACO gene expression. 10.1093/jxb/erm162
    Field studies on the regulation of abscisic acid content and germinability during grain development of barley: molecular and chemical analysis of pre-harvest sprouting. Chono Makiko,Honda Ichiro,Shinoda Shoko,Kushiro Tetsuo,Kamiya Yuji,Nambara Eiji,Kawakami Naoto,Kaneko Shigenobu,Watanabe Yoshiaki Journal of experimental botany To investigate whether the regulation of abscisic acid (ABA) content was related to germinability during grain development, two cDNAs for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (HvNCED1 and HvNCED2) and one cDNA for ABA 8'-hydroxylase (HvCYP707A1), which are enzymes thought to catalyse key regulatory steps in ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, respectively, were cloned from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Expression and ABA-quantification analysis in embryo revealed that HvNCED2 is responsible for a significant increase in ABA levels during the early to middle stages of grain development, and HvCYP707A1 is responsible for a rapid decrease in ABA level thereafter. The change in the embryonic ABA content of imbibing grains following dormancy release is likely to reflect changes in the expression patterns of HvNCEDs and HvCYP707A1. A major change between dormant and after-ripened grains occurred in HvCYP707A1; the increased expression of HvCYP707A1 in response to imbibition, followed by a rapid ABA decrease and a high germination percentage, was observed in the after-ripened grains, but not in the dormant grains. Under field conditions, HvNCED2 showed the same expression level and pattern during grain development in 2002, 2003, and 2004, indicating that HvNCED2 expression is regulated in a growth-dependent manner in the grains. By contrast, HvNCED1 and HvCYP707A1 showed a different expression pattern in each year, indicating that the expression of these genes is affected by environmental conditions during grain development. The varied expression levels of these genes during grain development and imbibition, which would have effects on the activity of ABA biosynthesis and catabolism, might be reflected, in part, in the germinability in field-grown barley. 10.1093/jxb/erj215
    Abscisic acid content and the expression of genes related to its metabolism during maturation of triticale grains of cultivars differing in pre-harvest sprouting susceptibility. Fidler Justyna,Zdunek-Zastocka Edyta,Prabucka Beata,Bielawski Wiesław Journal of plant physiology Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone that plays a predominant role in the onset and maintenance of primary dormancy. Peak ABA accumulation in embryos of triticale grains was observed before any significant loss of water and was higher in Fredro, a cultivar less susceptible to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS), than in Leontino, a cultivar more sensitive to PHS. At full maturity, embryonic ABA content in Fredro was twice as high as in Leontino. Two full-length cDNAs of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (TsNCED1, TsNCED2), an enzyme involved in ABA biosynthesis, and two full-length cDNAs of ABA 8'-hydroxylase (TsABA8'OH1 and TsABA8'OH2), an enzyme involved in ABA catabolism, were identified in triticale grains and characterized. The maximum transcript level of both TsNCED1 and TsNCED2 preceded the peak of ABA accumulation, suggesting that both TsNCEDs contribute to reach this peak, although the expression of TsNCED1 was significantly higher in Fredro than in Leontino. High expression of TsABA8'OH2 and TsABA8'OH1 was observed long before and at the end of the ABA accumulation peak, respectively, but no differences were observed between cultivars. The obtained results suggest that mainly TsNCED1 might be related to the higher ABA content and higher resistance of Fredro to PHS. However, Fredro embryos not only have higher ABA content, but also exhibit greater sensitivity to ABA, which may also have a significant effect on grain dormancy and lower susceptibility to PHS for grains of this cultivar. 10.1016/j.jplph.2016.09.009
    The varied ability of grains to synthesize and catabolize ABA is one of the factors affecting dormancy and its release by after-ripening in imbibed triticale grains of cultivars with different pre-harvest sprouting susceptibilities. Fidler Justyna,Grabowska Agnieszka,Prabucka Beata,Więsyk Aneta,Góra-Sochacka Anna,Bielawski Wiesław,Pojmaj Mirosław,Zdunek-Zastocka Edyta Journal of plant physiology Abscisic acid (ABA) is a phytohormone involved in the acquisition of primary dormancy during seeds maturation as well as dormancy maintenance in imbibed seeds. After imbibition, the ABA content decreased to a much lower level in embryos of freshly harvested triticale grains of the Leontino cultivar, which is more susceptible to pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) than embryos of the Fredro cultivar. Lower ABA content in the Leontino cultivar resulted from increased expression of TsABA8'OH1 and TsABA8'OH2, which encode ABA 8'-hydroxylase and are involved in ABA catabolism. Higher ABA content and maintenance of dormancy in Fredro grains were correlated with intensified ABA biosynthesis, which resulted from higher expression of TsNCED1, which encodes 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase. These results suggest that grains of triticale cultivars with different resistance to PHS vary in their ability to metabolize ABA after imbibition. After-ripening did not affect the ABA content in embryos of dry grains of either triticale cultivar. However, after-ripening caused dormancy release in Fredro grains and significantly affected the ABA content and the rate of its metabolism after imbibition. A more rapid decline in ABA content in imbibed Fredro grains was accompanied by decreased transcript levels of TsNCED1 as well as increased expression of TsABA8'OH1 and TsABA8'OH2. Thus, after-ripening may affect dormancy of grains through reduction of the ABA biosynthesis rate and intensified ABA catabolism. Overexpression of TsNCED1 in tobacco increases ABA content and delays germination, while overexpression of TsABA8'OH2 decreases ABA content, accelerates germination, and reduces the sensitivity to ABA of transgenic seeds compared to seeds of wild-type plants. Therefore, these genes might play an important role in the regulation of triticale grain dormancy, thus affecting susceptibility to PHS. 10.1016/j.jplph.2018.03.021
    Abscisic acid metabolic genes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): identification and insights into their functionality in seed dormancy and dehydration tolerance. Son SeungHyun,Chitnis Vijaya R,Liu Aihua,Gao Feng,Nguyen Tran-Nguyen,Ayele Belay T Planta MAIN CONCLUSION:The three homeologues of wheat NCED2 were identified; the wheat NCED2A and CYP707A1B affect seed ABA level and dormancy but not leaf ABA level and transpirational water loss in Arabidopsis. Biosynthesis and catabolism of abscisic acid (ABA) in plants are primarily regulated by 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenases (NCEDs) and ABA 8'-hydroxylase (ABA8'OH), respectively. The present study identified the complete coding sequences of a second NCED gene, designated as TaNCED2, and its homeologues (TaNCED2A, TaNCED2B and TaNCED2D) in hexaploid wheat, and characterized its functionality in seed dormancy and leaf dehydration tolerance using the TaNCED2A homeologue. The study also investigated the role of the B genome copy of the cytochrome P450 monooxygenase 707A1 (CYP707A1) gene of hexaploid wheat (TaCYP707A1B), which encodes ABA8'OH, in regulating the two traits as this has not been studied before. Ectopic expression of TaNCED2A and TaCYP707A1B in Arabidopsis resulted in altered seed ABA level and dormancy with no effect on leaf ABA content and transpirational water loss. To gain insights into the physiological roles of TaNCED2 and TaCYP707A1 in wheat, the study examined their spatiotemporal expression patterns and determined the genomic contributions of transcripts to their total expression. 10.1007/s00425-016-2518-2
    Involvement of the abscisic acid catabolic gene CYP707A2 in the glucose-induced delay in seed germination and post-germination growth of Arabidopsis. Zhu Guohui,Liu Yinggao,Ye Nenghui,Liu Rui,Zhang Jianhua Physiologia plantarum Earlier studies showed that sugars as signaling molecules play pivotal roles in the regulation of seed germination. ABA biosynthesis upregulation is suggested as one of the possible mechanisms mediating the glucose-induced delay in seed germination. In this study, the role of ABA catabolism in glucose-induced inhibition was investigated. Using Arabidopsis thaliana seeds, the results show that the repression of ABA catabolism by diniconazole aggravated the glucose-induced delay in seed germination. The transcript and protein profiles of CYP707A2, a key gene encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylase in ABA catabolism in Arabidopsis, were significantly decreased by exogenous glucose treatment. Transgenic experiments confirmed that the over-expression of the CYP707A2 gene alleviated the glucose-induced inhibition effect, whereas the cyp707a2 mutant seeds displayed a hypersensitivity to glucose during imbibition. Exogenous glucose also arrested the early seedling development of Arabidopsis. The CYP707A2 over-expression seedlings exhibited lower ABA levels and seemed less sensitive to exogenous glucose compared with wild type seedlings. In summary, the glucose-induced delay in seed germination and seedling development is directly related to the suppression of ABA catabolism through the repression of the CYP707A2 expression. 10.1111/j.1399-3054.2011.01510.x
    CYP707A1 and CYP707A2, which encode abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylases, are indispensable for proper control of seed dormancy and germination in Arabidopsis. Okamoto Masanori,Kuwahara Ayuko,Seo Mistunori,Kushiro Tetsuo,Asami Tadao,Hirai Nobuhiro,Kamiya Yuji,Koshiba Tomokazu,Nambara Eiji Plant physiology Endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) levels are regulated by both biosynthesis and catabolism of the hormone. ABA 8'-hydroxylase is considered to be the key catabolic enzyme in many physiological processes. We have previously identified that four members of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) CYP707A gene family (CYP707A1 to CYP707A4) encode ABA 8'-hydroxylases, and that the cyp707a2 mutants showed an increase in ABA levels in dry and imbibed seeds. In this study, we showed that the cyp707a1 mutant accumulated ABA to higher levels in dry seeds than the cyp707a2 mutant. Expression analysis showed that the CYP707A1 was expressed predominantly during mid-maturation and was down-regulated during late-maturation. Concomitantly, the CYP707A2 transcript levels increased from late-maturation to mature dry seed. Phenotypic analysis of single and double cyp707a mutants indicates that the CYP707A1 is important for reducing ABA levels during mid-maturation. On the other hand, CYP707A2 is responsible for the regulation of ABA levels from late-maturation to germination. Moreover, CYP707A1 and CYP707A3 were also shown to be involved in postgermination growth. Spatial expression analysis suggests that CYP707A1 was expressed predominantly in embryo during mid-maturation, whereas CYP707A2 expression was detected in both embryo and endosperm from late-maturation to germination. Our results demonstrate that each CYP707A gene plays a distinct role during seed development and postgermination growth. 10.1104/pp.106.079475
    ABA crosstalk with ethylene and nitric oxide in seed dormancy and germination. Arc Erwann,Sechet Julien,Corbineau Françoise,Rajjou Loïc,Marion-Poll Annie Frontiers in plant science Dormancy is an adaptive trait that enables seed germination to coincide with favorable environmental conditions. It has been clearly demonstrated that dormancy is induced by abscisic acid (ABA) during seed development on the mother plant. After seed dispersal, germination is preceded by a decline in ABA in imbibed seeds, which results from ABA catabolism through 8'-hydroxylation. The hormonal balance between ABA and gibberellins (GAs) has been shown to act as an integrator of environmental cues to maintain dormancy or activate germination. The interplay of ABA with other endogenous signals is however less documented. In numerous species, ethylene counteracts ABA signaling pathways and induces germination. In Brassicaceae seeds, ethylene prevents the inhibitory effects of ABA on endosperm cap weakening, thereby facilitating endosperm rupture and radicle emergence. Moreover, enhanced seed dormancy in Arabidopsis ethylene-insensitive mutants results from greater ABA sensitivity. Conversely, ABA limits ethylene action by down-regulating its biosynthesis. Nitric oxide (NO) has been proposed as a common actor in the ABA and ethylene crosstalk in seed. Indeed, convergent evidence indicates that NO is produced rapidly after seed imbibition and promotes germination by inducing the expression of the ABA 8'-hydroxylase gene, CYP707A2, and stimulating ethylene production. The role of NO and other nitrogen-containing compounds, such as nitrate, in seed dormancy breakage and germination stimulation has been reported in several species. This review will describe our current knowledge of ABA crosstalk with ethylene and NO, both volatile compounds that have been shown to counteract ABA action in seeds and to improve dormancy release and germination. 10.3389/fpls.2013.00063
    SlNCED1 and SlCYP707A2: key genes involved in ABA metabolism during tomato fruit ripening. Ji Kai,Kai Wenbin,Zhao Bo,Sun Yufei,Yuan Bing,Dai Shengjie,Li Qian,Chen Pei,Wang Ya,Pei Yuelin,Wang Hongqing,Guo Yangdong,Leng Ping Journal of experimental botany Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in fruit development and ripening. Here, three NCED genes encoding 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED, a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthetic pathway) and three CYP707A genes encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylase (a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA) were identified in tomato fruit by tobacco rattle virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). Quantitative real-time PCR showed that VIGS-treated tomato fruits had significant reductions in target gene transcripts. In SlNCED1-RNAi-treated fruits, ripening slowed down, and the entire fruit turned to orange instead of red as in the control. In comparison, the downregulation of SlCYP707A2 expression in SlCYP707A2-silenced fruit could promote ripening; for example, colouring was quicker than in the control. Silencing SlNCED2/3 or SlCYP707A1/3 made no significant difference to fruit ripening comparing RNAi-treated fruits with control fruits. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1transcript levels in the SlNCED1-RNAi-treated fruit were downregulated to 21% and 19% of those in control fruit, respectively, but upregulated in SlCYP707A2-RNAi-treated fruit. Silencing SlNCED1 or SlCYP707A2 by VIGS significantly altered the transcripts of a set of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes, including ABA-signalling genes (PYL1, PP2C1, and SnRK2.2), lycopene-synthesis genes (SlBcyc, SlPSY1 and SlPDS), and cell wall-degrading genes (SlPG1, SlEXP, and SlXET) during ripening. These data indicate that SlNCED1 and SlCYP707A2 are key genes in the regulation of ABA synthesis and catabolism, and are involved in fruit ripening as positive and negative regulators, respectively. 10.1093/jxb/eru288
    Dormancy-Associated MADS-Box (DAM) and the Abscisic Acid Pathway Regulate Pear Endodormancy Through a Feedback Mechanism. Tuan Pham Anh,Bai Songling,Saito Takanori,Ito Akiko,Moriguchi Takaya Plant & cell physiology In the pear 'Kosui' (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai), the dormancy-associated MADS-box (PpDAM1 = PpMADS13-1) gene has been reported to play an essential role in bud endodormancy. Here, we found that PpDAM1 up-regulated expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (PpNCED3), which is a rate-limiting gene for ABA biosynthesis. Transient assays with a dual luciferase reporter system (LUC assay) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that PpDAM1 activated PpNCED3 expression by binding to the CArG motif in the PpNCED3 promoter. PpNCED3 expression was increased toward endodormancy release in lateral flower buds of 'Kosui', which is consistent with the induced levels of ABA, its catabolism (ABA 8'-hydroxylase) and signaling genes (type 2C protein phosphatase genes and SNF1-related protein kinase 2 genes). In addition, we found that an ABA response element (ABRE)-binding transcription factor, PpAREB1, exhibiting high expression concomitant with endodormancy release, bound to three ABRE motifs in the promoter region of PpDAM1 and negatively regulated its activity. Taken together, our results suggested a feedback regulation between PpDAM1 and the ABA metabolism and signaling pathway during endodormancy of pear. This first evidence of an interaction between a DAM and ABA biosynthesis in vitro will provide further insights into bud endodormancy regulatory mechanisms of deciduous trees including pear. 10.1093/pcp/pcx074
    The interplay of PsABAUGT1 with other abscisic acid metabolic genes in the regulation of ABA homeostasis during the development of pea seeds and germination in the presence of HO. Zdunek-Zastocka Edyta,Grabowska Agnieszka Plant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology Inactivation of abscisic acid (ABA) in vitro may be catalyzed either by ABA 8'-hydroxylase (ABA8'OH) or by ABA uridine diphosphate glucosyltransferase (ABAUGT), which conjugates ABA with glucose. However, the involvement of these enzymes in the control of ABA content in vivo, especially ABAUGT, has not been fully elucidated. In pea seeds, both PsABAUGT1 and PsABA8'OH1 contribute to the reduction of ABA content during seed maturation and imbibition; however, during the first hours of imbibition, a high expression of only PsABAUGT1 was observed. Imbibition of seeds with HO increased the ABA content despite the oxygen availability and altered the expression of metabolic genes. The expression of the biosynthetic gene 9-cis-epoxycarotene dioxygenase (PsNCED2) was increased, while that of PsABAUGT1 was decreased in each HO experiment despite O availability. Under hypoxia, only seeds imbibed with HO germinated, while under nonlimiting oxygen conditions, the germination rate was not altered by HO. Under hypoxia, the germination rate of HO-imbibed seeds seemed to not depend on the absolute ABA content and rather on the balance between ABA and gibberellins (GA), as HO increased the expression of GA synthesis genes. Overexpression of PsABAUGT1 in Arabidopsis decreases seed ABA content, accelerates germination and reduces seed sensitivity to exogenously applied ABA, confirming the ability of PsABAUGT1 to inactivate ABA. Thus, PsABAUGT1 is a new player in the regulation of ABA content in maturating and imbibed pea seeds, both under standard conditions and in response to HO. 10.1016/j.plantsci.2019.05.005
    Rice transcription factor OsMYB102 delays leaf senescence by down-regulating abscisic acid accumulation and signaling. Piao Weilan,Kim Suk-Hwan,Lee Byoung-Doo,An Gynheung,Sakuraba Yasuhito,Paek Nam-Chon Journal of experimental botany MYB-type transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in plant growth and development, and in the responses to several abiotic stresses. In rice (Oryza sativa), the roles of MYB-related TFs in leaf senescence are not well documented. Here, we examined rice MYB TF gene OsMYB102 and found that an OsMYB102 T-DNA activation-tagged line (termed osmyb102-D), which constitutively expresses OsMYB102 under the control of four tandem repeats of the 35S promoter, and OsMYB102-overexpressing transgenic lines (35S:OsMYB102 and 35S:GFP-OsMYB102) maintain green leaves much longer than the wild-type under natural, dark-induced, and abscisic acid (ABA)-induced senescence conditions. Moreover, an osmyb102 knockout mutant showed an accelerated senescence phenotype under dark-induced and ABA-induced leaf senescence conditions. Microarray analysis showed that a variety of senescence-associated genes (SAGs) were down-regulated in the osmyb102-D line. Further studies demonstrated that overexpression of OsMYB102 controls the expression of SAGs, including genes associated with ABA degradation and ABA signaling (OsABF4, OsNAP, and OsCYP707A6), under dark-induced senescence conditions. OsMYB102 inhibits ABA accumulation by directly activating the transcription of OsCYP707A6, which encodes the ABA catabolic enzyme ABSCISIC ACID 8'-HYDROXYLASE. OsMYB102 also indirectly represses ABA-responsive genes, such as OsABF4 and OsNAP. Collectively, these results demonstrate that OsMYB102 plays a critical role in leaf senescence by down-regulating ABA accumulation and ABA signaling responses. 10.1093/jxb/erz095
    Molecular cloning and functional identification of (+)-delta-cadinene-8-hydroxylase, a cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase (CYP706B1) of cotton sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Luo P,Wang Y H,Wang G D,Essenberg M,Chen X Y The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology In cotton, gossypol and related sesquiterpene aldehydes are present in the glands of aerial tissues and in epidermal cells of roots. A cytochrome P450 was found to be expressed in aerial tissues of glanded cotton cultivars, but not or at an extremely low level in the aerial tissues of a glandless cultivar. Its cDNA was then isolated from Gossypium arboreum L. After expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the P450 was found to catalyse the hydroxylation of (+)-delta-cadinene, forming 8-hydroxy-(+)-delta-cadinene. This P450 mono-oxygenase has been classified as CYP706B1, and is the first member of the CYP706 family for which a function has been determined. Sesquiterpene aldehydes and CYP706B1 transcripts were detected in roots of both the glanded and glandless cultivars and in aerial tissues of the glanded cultivar. In suspension cultured cells of G. arboreum, elicitors prepared from the phytopathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae caused a dramatic induction of CYP706B1 expression. The expression pattern of CYP706B1 and the position at which it hydroxylates (+)-delta-cadinene suggest that it catalyses an early step in gossypol biosynthesis. Southern blotting revealed a single copy of CYP706B1 in the genome of G. arboreum. CYP706B1 holds good potential for manipulation of gossypol levels in cottonseed via genetic engineering.
    Exogenous melatonin improves seed germination in under salt stress. Li Junpeng,Zhao Chen,Zhang Mingjing,Yuan Fang,Chen Min Plant signaling & behavior Melatonin involves in improving tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses by regulating various biological processes. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous melatonin on seed germination in the halophyte under salt stress. Specifically, we examined the effect of salt stress on seed germination, melatonin concentration, and changes in the concentrations of nutrients, amylase activity, and hormones in seeds with and without pre-treatment with melatonin. Seed germination was significantly suppressed under a 200 mM NaCl treatment, but pre-treatment with melatonin significantly improved seed germination under salt stress. During seed germination, seeds pre-treated with melatonin contained high levels of melatonin and gibberellic acid (GA), low levels of abscisic acid (ABA), and high levels of amylase and alpha-amylase activity. Melatonin treatment upregulated the expression of key genes involved in GA biosynthesis ( and ), downregulated key genes involved in ABA biosynthesis ( and ), and upregulated ABA 8'-hydroxylase genes ( and ), which mediate the changes in GA and ABA levels in seeds during germination. A high melatonin concentration in seeds promotes the utilization of nutrients and the synthesis of new proteins to enhance seed germination. 10.1080/15592324.2019.1659705
    From epoxycarotenoids to ABA: the role of ABA 8'-hydroxylases in drought-stressed maize roots. Vallabhaneni Ratnakar,Wurtzel Eleanore T Archives of biochemistry and biophysics The ability of plants to withstand drought, a potentially major constraint to yield and production, is influenced by abscisic acid (ABA). ABA is synthesized in the cytosol from plastid carotenoid pathway derived precursors, and later inactivated by the action of ABA hydroxylases. Endogenous accumulation of ABA is controlled by both its synthesis and catabolism. Enzymatic activity of ABA 8'-hydroxylase (ABA8Ox), also referred to as CYP707A, is considered one of the key steps in modulating ABA levels that control numerous physiological processes. To investigate the role of this enzyme, maize ABA8Ox gene family members were identified. ABA8Ox gene expression was then analyzed in different tissues and roots during the drought-stress response in maize. These genes were found to be expressed in all tissues, with a high degree of specificity to each tissue and some degree of overlap. Maize ABA8Ox1a and ABA8Ox1b were shown to be the major transcript components for regulating ABA catabolism in drought-stressed roots. Phylogenetic and gene-structure analyses were performed to extend the implications and infer the cause of ABA catabolism in other cereal crops. 10.1016/j.abb.2010.07.005
    Cloning and expression analysis of cDNAs for ABA 8'-hydroxylase during sweet cherry fruit maturation and under stress conditions. Ren Jie,Sun Liang,Wu Jiefang,Zhao Shengli,Wang Canlei,Wang Yanping,Ji Kai,Leng Ping Journal of plant physiology Abscisic acid (ABA) plays a key role in various aspects of plant growth and development, including adaptation to environmental stress and fruit maturation in sweet cherry fruit. In higher plants, the level of ABA is determined by synthesis and catabolism. In order to gain insight into ABA synthesis and catabolism in sweet cherry fruit during maturation and under stress conditions, four cDNAs of PacCYP707A1 -PacCYP707A4 for 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA, and one cDNA of PacNCED1 for 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, a key enzyme in the ABA biosynthetic pathway, were isolated from sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium L.). The timing and pattern of PacNCED1 expression was coincident with that of ABA accumulation, which was correlated to maturation of sweet cherry fruit. All four PacCYP707As were expressed at varying intensities throughout fruit development and appeared to play overlapping roles in ABA catabolism throughout sweet cherry fruit development. The application of ABA enhanced the expression of PacCYP707A1 -PacCYP707A3 as well as PacNCED1, but downregulated the PacCYP707A4 transcript level. Expressions of PacCYP707A1, PacCYP707A3 and PacNCED1 were strongly increased by water stress. No significant differences in PacCYP707A2 and PacCYP707A4 expression were observed between dehydrated and control fruits. The results suggest that endogenous ABA content is modulated by a dynamic balance between biosynthesis and catabolism, which are regulated by PacNCED1 and PacCYP707As transcripts, respectively, during fruit maturation and under stress conditions. 10.1016/j.jplph.2010.05.027
    The role of abscisic acid in fruit ripening and responses to abiotic stress. Leng Ping,Yuan Bing,Guo Yangdong Journal of experimental botany The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role not only in fruit development and ripening, but also in adaptive responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. In these processes, the actions of ABA are under the control of complex regulatory mechanisms involving ABA metabolism, signal transduction, and transport. The endogenous ABA content is determined by the dynamic balance between biosynthesis and catabolism, processes which are regulated by 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) and ABA 8'-hydroxylase (CYP707A), respectively. ABA conjugation by cytosolic UDP-glucosyltransferases, or release by β-glucosidases, is also important for maintaining ABA homeostasis. Recently, multiple putative ABA receptors localized at different subcellular sites have been reported. Among these is a major breakthrough in the field of ABA signalling-the identification of a signalling cascade involving the PYR/PYL/RCAR protein family, the type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), and subfamily 2 of the SNF1-related kinases (SnRK2s). With regard to transport, two ATP-binding cassette (ABC) proteins and two ABA transporters in the nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter (NRT1/PTR) family have been identified. In this review, we summarize recent research progress on the role of ABA in fruit ripening, stress response, and transcriptional regulation, and also the functional verification of both ABA-responsive and ripening-related genes. In addition, we suggest possible commercial applications of genetic manipulation of ABA signalling to improve fruit quality and yields. 10.1093/jxb/eru204
    Cloning and expression analysis of cDNAs encoding ABA 8'-hydroxylase in peanut plants in response to osmotic stress. Liu Shuai,Lv Yan,Wan Xiao-Rong,Li Li-Mei,Hu Bo,Li Ling PloS one Abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism is one of the determinants of endogenous ABA levels affecting numerous aspects of plant growth and abiotic-stress responses. The major ABA catabolic pathway is triggered by ABA 8'-hydroxylation catalysed by ABA 8'-hydroxylase, the cytochrome P450 CYP707A family. In this study, the full-length cDNAs of AhCYP707A1 and AhCYP707A2 were cloned and characterized from peanut. Expression analyses showed that AhCYP707A1 and AhCYP707A2 were expressed ubiquitously in peanut roots, stems, and leaves with different transcript accumulation levels, including the higher expression of AhCYP707A1 in roots. The expression of AhCYP707A2 was significantly up-regulated by 20% PEG6000 or 250 mmol/L NaCl in peanut roots, stems, and leaves, whereas the up-regulation of AhCYP707A1 transcript level by PEG6000 or NaCl was observed only in roots instead of leaves and stems. Due to the osmotic and ionic stresses of high concentration of NaCl to plants simultaneously, low concentration of LiCl (30 mmol/L, at which concentration osmotic status of cells is not seriously affected, the toxicity of Li+ being higher than that of Na+) was used to examine whether the effect of NaCl might be related to osmotic or ionic stress. The results revealed visually the susceptibility to osmotic stress and the resistance to salt ions in peanut seedlings. The significant up-regulation of AhCYP707A1, AhCYP707A2 and AhNCED1 transcripts and endogenous ABA levels by PEG6000 or NaCl instead of LiCl, showed that the osmotic stress instead of ionic stress affected the expression of those genes and the biosynthesis of ABA in peanut. The functional expression of AhCYP707A1 cDNA in yeast showed that the microsomal fractions prepared from yeast cell expressing recombinant AhCYP707A1 protein exhibited the catalytic activity of ABA 8'-hydroxylase. These results demonstrate that the expressions of AhCYP707A1 and AhCYP707A2 play an important role in ABA catabolism in peanut, particularly in response to osmotic stress. 10.1371/journal.pone.0097025
    Seed dormancy and ABA metabolism in Arabidopsis and barley: the role of ABA 8'-hydroxylase. Millar Anthony A,Jacobsen John V,Ross John J,Helliwell Chris A,Poole Andrew T,Scofield Graham,Reid James B,Gubler Frank The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology We have investigated the relationship between seed dormancy and abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism in the monocot barley and the dicot Arabidopsis. Whether dormant (D) or non-dormant (ND), dry seed of Arabidopsis and embryos of dry barley grains all had similarly high levels of ABA. ABA levels decreased rapidly upon imbibition, although they fell further in ND than in D. Gene expression profiles were determined in Arabidopsis for key ABA biosynthetic [the 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenasegene family] and ABA catabolic [the ABA 8'-hydroxylase gene family (CYP707A)] genes. Of these, only the AtCYP707A2 gene was differentially expressed between D and ND seeds, being expressed to a much higher level in ND seeds. Similarly, a barley CYP707 homologue, (HvABA8'OH-1) was expressed to a much higher level in embryos from ND grains than from D grains. Consistent with this, in situ hybridization studies showed HvABA8'OH-1 mRNA expression was stronger in embryos from ND grains. Surprisingly, the signal was confined in the coleorhiza, suggesting that this tissue plays a key role in dormancy release. Constitutive expression of a CYP707A gene in transgenic Arabidopsis resulted in decreased ABA content in mature dry seeds and a much shorter after-ripening period to overcome dormancy. Conversely, mutating the CYP707A2 gene resulted in seeds that required longer after-ripening to break dormancy. Our results point to a pivotal role for the ABA 8'-hydroxylase gene in controlling dormancy and that the action of this enzyme may be confined to a particular organ as in the coleorhiza of cereals. 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2006.02659.x
    Arabidopsis CYP707As encode (+)-abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of abscisic acid. Saito Shigeki,Hirai Nobuhiro,Matsumoto Chiaki,Ohigashi Hajime,Ohta Daisaku,Sakata Kanzo,Mizutani Masaharu Plant physiology Abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in a number of critical processes in normal growth and development as well as in adaptive responses to environmental stresses. For correct and accurate actions, a physiologically active ABA level is controlled through fine-tuning of de novo biosynthesis and catabolism. The hydroxylation at the 8'-position of ABA is known as the key step of ABA catabolism, and this reaction is catalyzed by ABA 8'-hydroxylase, a cytochrome P450. Here, we demonstrate CYP707As as the P450 responsible for the 8'-hydroxylation of (+)-ABA. First, all four CYP707A cDNAs were cloned from Arabidopsis and used for the production of the recombinant proteins in insect cells using a baculovirus system. The insect cells expressing CYP707A3 efficiently metabolized (+)-ABA to yield phaseic acid, the isomerized form of 8'-hydroxy-ABA. The microsomes from the insect cells exhibited very strong activity of 8'-hydroxylation of (+)-ABA (K(m) = 1.3 microm and k(cat) = 15 min(-1)). The solubilized CYP707A3 protein bound (+)-ABA with the binding constant K(s) = 3.5 microm, but did not bind (-)-ABA. Detailed analyses of the reaction products confirmed that CYP707A3 does not have the isomerization activity of 8'-hydroxy-ABA to phaseic acid. Further experiments revealed that Arabidopsis CYP707A1 and CYP707A4 also encode ABA 8'-hydroxylase. The transcripts of the CYP707A genes increased in response to salt, osmotic, and dehydration stresses as well as ABA. These results establish that the CYP707A family plays a key role in regulating the ABA level through the 8'-hydroxylation of (+)-ABA. 10.1104/pp.103.037614
    Isolation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant in ABA 8'-hydroxylase gene: effect of reduced ABA catabolism on germination inhibition under field condition. Chono Makiko,Matsunaka Hitoshi,Seki Masako,Fujita Masaya,Kiribuchi-Otobe Chikako,Oda Shunsuke,Kojima Hisayo,Kobayashi Daisuke,Kawakami Naoto Breeding science Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8'-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8'OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8'OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8'OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including 'Tamaizumi'. However, a single mutation in TaABA8'OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8'OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8'OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of 'Tamaizumi'. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8'OH1-A and TaABA8'OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8'OH1 expression, higher ABA content in embryos during seed development under field condition and lower germination than those in 'Tamaizumi' (a single mutant in TaABA8'OH1-D). These results indicate that reduced ABA catabolism through mutations in TaABA8'OH1 may be effective in germination inhibition in field-grown wheat. 10.1270/jsbbs.63.104
    Functional analysis of abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase. Endo Akira,Kimura Mitsuhiro,Kawakami Naoto,Nambara Eiji Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.) Abscisic acid (ABA) plays an important role in the control of seed dormancy and germination. Identification of hormone metabolism genes from a particular plant species of interest is an essential step in hormone research. The function of these gene products is validated by biochemical analysis using heterologous expression systems, such as E. coli and yeast. ABA 8'-hydroxylase is a subfamily of P450 monooxygenases and is encoded by CYP707A genes. CYP707A catalyzes the committed step in the major ABA catabolic pathway. In this chapter, we describe the methods for RNA extraction from seeds, cloning the CYP707A cDNAs, protein expression in yeast, and biochemical analysis of their gene products. 10.1007/978-1-61779-231-1_9
    Ethylene promotes submergence-induced expression of OsABA8ox1, a gene that encodes ABA 8'-hydroxylase in rice. Saika Hiroaki,Okamoto Masanori,Miyoshi Kentaro,Kushiro Tetsuo,Shinoda Shoko,Jikumaru Yusuke,Fujimoto Masaru,Arikawa Taku,Takahashi Hirokazu,Ando Miho,Arimura Shin-Ichi,Miyao Akio,Hirochika Hirohiko,Kamiya Yuji,Tsutsumi Nobuhiro,Nambara Eiji,Nakazono Mikio Plant & cell physiology A rapid decrease of the plant hormone ABA under submergence is thought to be a prerequisite for the enhanced elongation of submerged shoots of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here, we report that the level of phaseic acid (PA), an oxidized form of ABA, increased with decreasing ABA level during submergence. The oxidation of ABA to PA is catalyzed by ABA 8'-hydroxylase, which is possibly encoded by three genes (OsABA8ox1, -2 and -3) in rice. The ABA 8'-hydroxylase activity was confirmed in microsomes from yeast expressing OsABA8ox1. OsABA8ox1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein in onion cells was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. The mRNA level of OsABA8ox1, but not the mRNA levels of other OsABA8ox genes, increased dramatically within 1 h after submergence. On the other hand, the mRNA levels of genes involved in ABA biosynthesis (OsZEP and OsNCEDs) decreased after 1-2 h of submergence. Treatment of aerobic seedlings with ethylene and its precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC), rapidly induced the expression of OsABA8ox1, but the ethylene treatment did not strongly affect the expression of ABA biosynthetic genes. Moreover, pre-treatment with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), a potent inhibitor of ethylene action, partially suppressed induction of OsABA8ox1 expression under submergence. The ABA level was found to be negatively correlated with OsABA8ox1 expression under ACC or 1-MCP treatment. Together, these results indicate that the rapid decrease in ABA levels in submerged rice shoots is controlled partly by ethylene-induced expression of OsABA8ox1 and partly by ethylene-independent suppression of genes involved in the biosynthesis of ABA. 10.1093/pcp/pcm003
    AtPER1 enhances primary seed dormancy and reduces seed germination by suppressing the ABA catabolism and GA biosynthesis in Arabidopsis seeds. Chen Huhui,Ruan Jiuxiao,Chu Pu,Fu Wei,Liang Zhenwei,Li Yin,Tong Jianhua,Xiao Langtao,Liu Jun,Li Chenlong,Huang Shangzhi The Plant journal : for cell and molecular biology Seed is vital to the conservation of germplasm and plant biodiversity. Seed dormancy is an adaptive trait in numerous seed-plant species, enabling plants to survive under stressful conditions. Seed dormancy is mainly controlled by abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) and can be classified as primary and secondary seed dormancy. The primary seed dormancy is induced by maternal ABA. Here we found that AtPER1, a seed-specific peroxiredoxin, is involved in enhancing primary seed dormancy. Two loss-of-function atper1 mutants, atper1-1 and atper1-2, displayed suppressed primary seed dormancy accompanied with reduced ABA and increased GA contents in seeds. Furthermore, atper1 mutant seeds were insensitive to abiotic stresses during seed germination. The expression of several ABA catabolism genes (CYP707A1, CYP707A2, and CYP707A3) and GA biosynthesis genes (GA20ox1, GA20ox3, and KAO3) in atper1 mutant seeds was increased compared to wild-type seeds. The suppressed primary seed dormancy of atper1-1 was completely reduced by deletion of CYP707A genes. Furthermore, loss-of-function of AtPER1 cannot enhance the seed germination ratio of aba2-1 or ga1-t, suggesting that AtPER1-enhanced primary seed dormancy is dependent on ABA and GA. Additionally, the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in atper1 mutant seeds was significantly higher than that in wild-type seeds. Taken together, our results demonstrate that AtPER1 eliminates ROS to suppress ABA catabolism and GA biosynthesis, and thus improves the primary seed dormancy and make the seeds less sensitive to adverse environmental conditions. 10.1111/tpj.14542