Ultralow-fouling, functionalizable, and hydrolyzable zwitterionic materials and their derivatives for biological applications.
Jiang Shaoyi,Cao Zhiqiang
Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.)
In recent years, zwitterionic materials such as poly(carboxybetaine) (pCB) and poly(sulfobetaine) (pSB) have been applied to a broad range of biomedical and engineering materials. Due to electrostatically induced hydration, surfaces coated with zwitterionic groups are highly resistant to nonspecific protein adsorption, bacterial adhesion, and biofilm formation. Among zwitterionic materials, pCB is unique due to its abundant functional groups for the convenient immobilization of biomolecules. pCB can also be prepared in a hydrolyzable form as cationic pCB esters, which can kill bacteria or condense DNA. The hydrolysis of cationic pCB esters into nonfouling zwitterionic groups will lead to the release of killed microbes or the irreversible unpackaging of DNA. Furthermore, mixed-charge materials have been shown to be equivalent to zwitterionic materials in resisting nonspecific protein adsorption when they are uniformly mixed at the molecular scale.
Metal-organic framework-based materials: superior adsorbents for the capture of toxic and radioactive metal ions.
Li Jie,Wang Xiangxue,Zhao Guixia,Chen Changlun,Chai Zhifang,Alsaedi Ahmed,Hayat Tasawar,Wang Xiangke
Chemical Society reviews
Highly efficient removal of metal ion pollutants, such as toxic and nuclear waste-related metal ions, remains a serious task from the biological and environmental standpoint because of their harmful effects on human health and the environment. Recently, highly porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), with excellent chemical stability and abundant functional groups, have represented a new addition to the area of capturing various types of hazardous metal ion pollutants. This review focuses on recent progress in reported MOFs and MOF-based composites as superior adsorbents for the efficient removal of toxic and nuclear waste-related metal ions. Aspects related to the interaction mechanisms between metal ions and MOF-based materials are systematically summarized, including macroscopic batch experiments, microscopic spectroscopy analysis, and theoretical calculations. The adsorption properties of various MOF-based materials are assessed and compared with those of other widely used adsorbents. Finally, we propose our personal insights into future research opportunities and challenges in the hope of stimulating more researchers to engage in this new field of MOF-based materials for environmental pollution management.
Nonporous Adaptive Crystals of Pillararenes.
Jie Kecheng,Zhou Yujuan,Li Errui,Huang Feihe
Accounts of chemical research
Porous materials with high surface areas have drawn more and more attention in recent years because of their wide applications in physical adsorption and energy-efficient adsorptive separation processes. Most of the reported porous materials are macromolecular porous materials, such as zeolites, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), or porous coordination polymers (PCPs), and porous organic polymers (POPs) or covalent organic frameworks (COFs), in which the building blocks are linked together by covalent or coordinative bonds. These materials are barely soluble and thus are not solution-processable. Furthermore, the relatively low chemical, moisture, and thermal stability of most MOFs and COFs cannot be neglected. On the other hand, molecular porous materials such as porous organic cages (POCs), which have been developed very recently, also show promising applications in adsorption and separation processes. They can be soluble in organic solvents, making them solution-processable materials. However, they are usually sensitive to acid/base and humid environments since most of them are based on dynamic covalent bonding. These macromolecular and molecular porous materials usually have two similar features: high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas and rigid pore structures, which are stable during adsorption and separation processes. In this Account, we describe a novel class of solid materials for adsorption and separation, nonporous adaptive crystals (NACs), which function at the supramolecular level. They are nonporous in the initial crystalline state, but the intrinsic or extrinsic porosity of the crystals along with a crystal structure transformation is induced by preferable guest molecules. Unlike solvent-induced crystal polymorphism phenomena of common organic crystals that occur at the solid-liquid phase, NACs capture vaporized guests at the solid-gas phase. Upon removal of guest molecules, the crystal structure transforms back to the original nonporous structure. Here we focus on the discussion of pillararene-based NACs for adsorption and separation and the crystal structure transformations from the initial nonporous crystalline state to new guest-loaded structures during the adsorption and separation processes. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction, powder X-ray diffraction, gas chromatography, and solution NMR spectroscopy are the main techniques to verify the adsorption and separation processes and the structural transformations. Compared with traditional porous materials, NACs of pillararenes have several advantages. First, their preparation is simple and cheap, and they can be synthesized on a large scale to meet practical demands. Second, pillararenes have better chemical, moisture, and thermal stability than crystalline MOFs, COFs, and POCs, which are usually constructed on the basis of reversible chemical bonds. Third, pillararenes are soluble in many common organic solvents, which means that they can be easily processed in solution. Fourth, their regeneration is simple and they can be reused many times with no decrease in performance. It is expected that this class of materials will not only exert a significant influence on scientific research but also show practical applications in chemical industry.
Porous Organic Polymers for Post-Combustion Carbon Capture.
Zou Lanfang,Sun Yujia,Che Sai,Yang Xinyu,Wang Xuan,Bosch Mathieu,Wang Qi,Li Hao,Smith Mallory,Yuan Shuai,Perry Zachary,Zhou Hong-Cai
Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.)
One of the most pressing environmental concerns of our age is the escalating level of atmospheric CO . Intensive efforts have been made to investigate advanced porous materials, especially porous organic polymers (POPs), as one type of the most promising candidates for carbon capture due to their extremely high porosity, structural diversity, and physicochemical stability. This review provides a critical and in-depth analysis of recent POP research as it pertains to carbon capture. The definitions and terminologies commonly used to evaluate the performance of POPs for carbon capture, including CO capacity, enthalpy, selectivity, and regeneration strategies, are summarized. A detailed correlation study between the structural and chemical features of POPs and their adsorption capacities is discussed, mainly focusing on the physical interactions and chemical reactions. Finally, a concise outlook for utilizing POPs for carbon capture is discussed, noting areas in which further work is needed to develop the next-generation POPs for practical applications.
Metal-Organic Frameworks for Separation.
Zhao Xiang,Wang Yanxiang,Li Dong-Sheng,Bu Xianhui,Feng Pingyun
Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.)
Separation is an important industrial step with critical roles in the chemical, petrochemical, pharmaceutical, and nuclear industries, as well as in many other fields. Although much progress has been made, the development of better separation technologies, especially through the discovery of high-performance separation materials, continues to attract increasing interest due to concerns over factors such as efficiency, health and environmental impacts, and the cost of existing methods. Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), a rapidly expanding family of crystalline porous materials, have shown great promise to address various separation challenges due to their well-defined pore size and unprecedented tunability in both composition and pore geometry. In the past decade, extensive research is performed on applications of MOF materials, including separation and capture of many gases and vapors, and liquid-phase separation involving both liquid mixtures and solutions. MOFs also bring new opportunities in enantioselective separation and are amenable to morphological control such as fabrication of membranes for enhanced separation outcomes. Here, some of the latest progress in the applications of MOFs for several key separation issues, with emphasis on newly synthesized MOF materials and the impact of their compositional and structural features on separation properties, are reviewed and highlighted.
Smart ion imprinted polymer for selective adsorption of Ru(Ⅲ) and simultaneously waste sample being transformed as a catalyst.
Zhang Xiaoyan,Ou Xiaojian,Zhang Jun,Chen Zhengcan,Liu Chunli,Li Hui,Li Xiaoming,Sun Yuan,Chen Zhenbin,Zhu Jinian,Lu Sujun,Zhang Peng
Journal of hazardous materials
In this work, a temperature-sensitive block polymer PDEA-b-P(DEA-co-AM) was synthesized and then introduced into the preparation of a smart Ru(Ⅲ) imprinted polymer (Ru-IIP) to selectively adsorption Ru(Ⅲ) first. Then the waste Ru-IIP was converted into a catalyst in-situ for recycle. The structure and morphology of the prepared polymer were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, Scanning electron microscope, BET surface area and Thermogravimetric analysis. The adsorption properties of the synthesized smart material were investigated in terms of adsorption pH, adsorption kinetics and adsorption isotherm. Results documented that the optimal adsorption temperature and pH were 35 °C and 1.5 respectively, the maximum adsorption capacity was 0.153 mmol/g, and the adsorption processes of Ru-IIP were more suitable to be expressed by pseudo-first-order kinetic and Langmuir model. The selectivity studied in different binary mixed solutions showed that Ru-IIP has good selectivity, and reusability results showed that Ru-IIP still maintains a good adsorption effect after 8 cycles. In addition, the waste Ru-IIP, a Ru(Ⅲ) remained waste sample was employed as the catalyst for the synthesis of imines, and result showed the mass of adsorbent would reduce after the completion of catalysis, which could not only catalyze the reaction but also reduce pollution.