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    Single-cell RNA-Seq analysis of diabetic wound macrophages in STZ-induced mice. Journal of cell communication and signaling The crucial role of macrophages in the healing of chronic diabetic wounds is widely known, but previous in vitro classification and marker genes of macrophages may not be fully applicable to cells in the microenvironment of chronic wounds. The heterogeneity of macrophages was studied and classified at the single-cell level in a chronic wound model. We performed single-cell sequencing of CD45 + immune cells within the wound edge and obtained 17 clusters of cells, including 4 clusters of macrophages. One of these clusters is a previously undescribed population of macrophages possessing osteoclast gene expression, for which analysis of differential genes revealed possible functions. We also analysed the differences in gene expression between groups of macrophages in the control and diabetic wound groups at different sampling times. We described the differentiation profile of mononuclear macrophages, which has provided an important reference for the study of immune-related mechanisms in diabetic chronic wounds. 10.1007/s12079-022-00707-w
    Integration of computational analysis and spatial transcriptomics in single-cell study. Genomics, proteomics & bioinformatics Recent advances of single-cell transcriptomics technologies and allied computational methodologies have revolutionized molecular cell biology. Meanwhile, pioneering explorations in spatial transcriptomics have opened avenues to address fundamental biological questions in health and diseases. Here, we reviewed the technical attributes of single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) and spatial transcriptomics, and the core concepts of computational data analysis. We further highlighted the challenges in the application of data integration methodologies and the interpretation of the biological context of the findings. 10.1016/j.gpb.2022.06.006
    An Early Islet Transcriptional Signature Is Associated With Local Inflammation in Autoimmune Diabetes. Diabetes Identifying the early islet cellular processes of autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in humans is challenging given the absence of symptoms during this period and the inaccessibility of the pancreas for sampling. In this article, we study temporal events in pancreatic islets in LEW.1WR1 rats, in which autoimmune diabetes can be induced with virus infection, by performing transcriptional analysis of islets harvested during the prediabetic period. Single-cell RNA-sequencing and differential expression analyses of islets from prediabetic rats reveal subsets of β- and α-cells under stress as evidenced by heightened expression, over time, of a transcriptional signature characterized by interferon-stimulated genes, chemokines including Cxcl10, major histocompatibility class I, and genes for the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Mononuclear phagocytes show increased expression of inflammatory markers. RNA-in situ hybridization of rat pancreatic tissue defines the spatial distribution of Cxcl10+ β- and α-cells and their association with CD8+ T cell infiltration, a hallmark of insulitis and islet destruction. Our studies define early islet transcriptional events during immune cell recruitment to islets and reveal spatial associations between stressed β- and α-cells and immune cells. Insights into such early processes can assist in the development of therapeutic and prevention strategies for T1D. 10.2337/db22-0521
    Microtubules regulate pancreatic β-cell heterogeneity via spatiotemporal control of insulin secretion hot spots. Trogden Kathryn P,Lee Justin,Bracey Kai M,Ho Kung-Hsien,McKinney Hudson,Zhu Xiaodong,Arpag Goker,Folland Thomas G,Osipovich Anna B,Magnuson Mark A,Zanic Marija,Gu Guoqiang,Holmes William R,Kaverina Irina eLife Heterogeneity of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic islets is physiologically important but poorly understood. Here, we utilize mouse islets to determine how microtubules (MTs) affect secretion toward the vascular extracellular matrix at single cell and subcellular levels. Our data indicate that MT stability in the β-cell population is heterogenous, and that GSIS is suppressed in cells with highly stable MTs. Consistently, MT hyper-stabilization prevents, and MT depolymerization promotes the capacity of single β-cell for GSIS. Analysis of spatiotemporal patterns of secretion events shows that MT depolymerization activates otherwise dormant β-cells via initiation of secretion clusters (hot spots). MT depolymerization also enhances secretion from individual cells, introducing both additional clusters and scattered events. Interestingly, without MTs, the timing of clustered secretion is dysregulated, extending the first phase of GSIS and causing oversecretion. In contrast, glucose-induced Ca influx was not affected by MT depolymerization yet required for secretion under these conditions, indicating that MT-dependent regulation of secretion hot spots acts in parallel with Ca signaling. Our findings uncover a novel MT function in tuning insulin secretion hot spots, which leads to accurately measured and timed response to glucose stimuli and promotes functional β-cell heterogeneity. 10.7554/eLife.59912
    Single Molecule-Based fliFISH Validates Radial and Heterogeneous Gene Expression Patterns in Pancreatic Islet β-Cells. Li Fangjia,Hu Dehong,Dieter Cailin,Ansong Charles,Sussel Lori,Orr Galya Diabetes Single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-Seq) technologies have greatly enhanced our understanding of islet cell transcriptomes and have revealed the existence of β-cell heterogeneity. However, comparison of scRNA-Seq data sets from different groups have highlighted inconsistencies in gene expression patterns, primarily due to variable detection of lower abundance transcripts. Furthermore, such analyses are unable to uncover the spatial organization of heterogeneous gene expression. In this study, we used fluctuation localization imaging-based fluorescence in situ hybridization (fliFISH) to quantify transcripts in single cells in mouse pancreatic islet sections. We compared the expression patterns of Insulin 2 () with and , two genes expressed in β-cells as they mature, as well as , a factor with variably reported expression in the islet. This approach accurately quantified transcripts across a wide range of expression levels, from single copies to >100 copies/cell in one islet. Importantly, fliFISH allowed evaluation of transcript heterogeneity in the spatial context of an intact islet. These studies confirm the existence of a high degree of heterogeneous gene expression levels within the islet and highlight relative and radial expression patterns that likely reflect distinct β-cell maturation states along the radial axis of the islet. 10.2337/db20-0802
    Spatial and transcriptional heterogeneity of pancreatic beta cell neogenesis revealed by a time-resolved reporter system. Diabetologia AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:While pancreatic beta cells have been shown to originate from endocrine progenitors in ductal regions, it remains unclear precisely where beta cells emerge from and which transcripts define newborn beta cells. We therefore investigated characteristics of newborn beta cells extracted by a time-resolved reporter system. METHODS:We established a mouse model, 'Ins1-GFP; Timer', which provides spatial information during beta cell neogenesis with high temporal resolution. Single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) was performed on mouse beta cells sorted by fluorescent reporter to uncover transcriptomic profiles of newborn beta cells. scRNA-seq of human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived beta-like cells was also performed to compare newborn beta cell features between mouse and human. RESULTS:Fluorescence imaging of Ins1-GFP; Timer mouse pancreas successfully dissected newly generated beta cells as green fluorescence-dominant cells. This reporter system revealed that, as expected, some newborn beta cells arise close to the ducts (β); unexpectedly, the others arise away from the ducts and adjacent to blood vessels (β). Single-cell transcriptomic analyses demonstrated five distinct populations among newborn beta cells, confirming spatial heterogeneity of beta cell neogenesis such as high probability of glucagon-positive β, musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family B (MafB)-positive β and musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family A (MafA)-positive β cells. Comparative analysis with scRNA-seq data of mouse newborn beta cells and hESC-derived beta-like cells uncovered transcriptional similarity between mouse and human beta cell neogenesis including microsomal glutathione S-transferase 1 (MGST1)- and synaptotagmin 13 (SYT13)-highly-expressing state. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:The combination of time-resolved histological imaging with single-cell transcriptional mapping demonstrated novel features of spatial and transcriptional heterogeneity in beta cell neogenesis, which will lead to a better understanding of beta cell differentiation for future cell therapy. DATA AVAILABILITY:Raw and processed single-cell RNA-sequencing data for this study has been deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus under accession number GSE155742. 10.1007/s00125-022-05662-0
    Analysis of Beta-cell Function Using Single-cell Resolution Calcium Imaging in Zebrafish Islets. Janjuha Sharan,Pal Singh Sumeet,Ninov Nikolay Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE Pancreatic beta-cells respond to increasing blood glucose concentrations by secreting the hormone insulin. The dysfunction of beta-cells leads to hyperglycemia and severe, life-threatening consequences. Understanding how the beta-cells operate under physiological conditions and what genetic and environmental factors might cause their dysfunction could lead to better treatment options for diabetic patients. The ability to measure calcium levels in beta-cells serves as an important indicator of beta-cell function, as the influx of calcium ions triggers insulin release. Here we describe a protocol for monitoring the glucose-stimulated calcium influx in zebrafish beta-cells by using GCaMP6s, a genetically encoded sensor of calcium. The method allows monitoring the intracellular calcium dynamics with single-cell resolution in ex vivo mounted islets. The glucose-responsiveness of beta-cells within the same islet can be captured simultaneously under different glucose concentrations, which suggests the presence of functional heterogeneity among zebrafish beta-cells. Furthermore, the technique provides high temporal and spatial resolution, which reveals the oscillatory nature of the calcium influx upon glucose stimulation. Our approach opens the doors to use the zebrafish as a model to investigate the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to beta-cell function and dysfunction. 10.3791/57851
    A Map of Human Type 1 Diabetes Progression by Imaging Mass Cytometry. Damond Nicolas,Engler Stefanie,Zanotelli Vito R T,Schapiro Denis,Wasserfall Clive H,Kusmartseva Irina,Nick Harry S,Thorel Fabrizio,Herrera Pedro L,Atkinson Mark A,Bodenmiller Bernd Cell metabolism Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from the autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing β cells. A comprehensive picture of the changes during T1D development is lacking due to limited sample availability, inability to sample longitudinally, and the paucity of technologies enabling comprehensive tissue profiling. Here, we analyzed 1,581 islets from 12 human donors, including eight with T1D, using imaging mass cytometry (IMC). IMC enabled simultaneous measurement of 35 biomarkers with single-cell and spatial resolution. We performed pseudotime analysis of islets through T1D progression from snapshot data to reconstruct the evolution of β cell loss and insulitis. Our analyses revealed that β cell destruction is preceded by a β cell marker loss and by recruitment of cytotoxic and helper T cells. The approaches described herein demonstrate the value of IMC for improving our understanding of T1D pathogenesis, and our data lay the foundation for hypothesis generation and follow-on experiments. 10.1016/j.cmet.2018.11.014
    Dissecting mammalian spermatogenesis using spatial transcriptomics. Cell reports Single-cell RNA sequencing has revealed extensive molecular diversity in gene programs governing mammalian spermatogenesis but fails to delineate their dynamics in the native context of seminiferous tubules, the spatially confined functional units of spermatogenesis. Here, we use Slide-seq, a spatial transcriptomics technology, to generate an atlas that captures the spatial gene expression patterns at near-single-cell resolution in the mouse and human testis. Using Slide-seq data, we devise a computational framework that accurately localizes testicular cell types in individual seminiferous tubules. Unbiased analysis systematically identifies spatially patterned genes and gene programs. Combining Slide-seq with targeted in situ RNA sequencing, we demonstrate significant differences in the cellular compositions of spermatogonial microenvironment between mouse and human testes. Finally, a comparison of the spatial atlas generated from the wild-type and diabetic mouse testis reveals a disruption in the spatial cellular organization of seminiferous tubules as a potential mechanism of diabetes-induced male infertility. 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109915
    Single cell transcriptomic landscape of diabetic foot ulcers. Nature communications Diabetic foot ulceration (DFU) is a devastating complication of diabetes whose pathogenesis remains incompletely understood. Here, we profile 174,962 single cells from the foot, forearm, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells using single-cell RNA sequencing. Our analysis shows enrichment of a unique population of fibroblasts overexpressing MMP1, MMP3, MMP11, HIF1A, CHI3L1, and TNFAIP6 and increased M1 macrophage polarization in the DFU patients with healing wounds. Further, analysis of spatially separated samples from the same patient and spatial transcriptomics reveal preferential localization of these healing associated fibroblasts toward the wound bed as compared to the wound edge or unwounded skin. Spatial transcriptomics also validates our findings of higher abundance of M1 macrophages in healers and M2 macrophages in non-healers. Our analysis provides deep insights into the wound healing microenvironment, identifying cell types that could be critical in promoting DFU healing, and may inform novel therapeutic approaches for DFU treatment. 10.1038/s41467-021-27801-8
    Lipid-Associated Macrophages Control Metabolic Homeostasis in a Trem2-Dependent Manner. Jaitin Diego Adhemar,Adlung Lorenz,Thaiss Christoph A,Weiner Assaf,Li Baoguo,Descamps Hélène,Lundgren Patrick,Bleriot Camille,Liu Zhaoyuan,Deczkowska Aleksandra,Keren-Shaul Hadas,David Eyal,Zmora Niv,Eldar Shai Meron,Lubezky Nir,Shibolet Oren,Hill David A,Lazar Mitchell A,Colonna Marco,Ginhoux Florent,Shapiro Hagit,Elinav Eran,Amit Ido Cell Immune cells residing in white adipose tissue have been highlighted as important factors contributing to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, but the molecular regulators that drive adipose tissue immune cell remodeling during obesity remain largely unknown. Using index and transcriptional single-cell sorting, we comprehensively map all adipose tissue immune populations in both mice and humans during obesity. We describe a novel and conserved Trem2 lipid-associated macrophage (LAM) subset and identify markers, spatial localization, origin, and functional pathways associated with these cells. Genetic ablation of Trem2 in mice globally inhibits the downstream molecular LAM program, leading to adipocyte hypertrophy as well as systemic hypercholesterolemia, body fat accumulation, and glucose intolerance. These findings identify Trem2 signaling as a major pathway by which macrophages respond to loss of tissue-level lipid homeostasis, highlighting Trem2 as a key sensor of metabolic pathologies across multiple tissues and a potential therapeutic target in metabolic diseases. 10.1016/j.cell.2019.05.054
    Single-cell analysis of the human pancreas in type 2 diabetes using multi-spectral imaging mass cytometry. Wu Minghui,Lee Michelle Y Y,Bahl Varun,Traum Daniel,Schug Jonathan,Kusmartseva Irina,Atkinson Mark A,Fan Guanjie, ,Kaestner Klaus H Cell reports Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a chronic age-related disorder characterized by hyperglycemia due to the failure of pancreatic beta cells to compensate for increased insulin demand. Despite decades of research, the pathogenic mechanisms underlying T2D remain poorly defined. Here, we use imaging mass cytometry (IMC) with a panel of 34 antibodies to simultaneously quantify markers of pancreatic exocrine, islet, and immune cells and stromal components. We analyze over 2 million cells from 16 pancreata obtained from donors with T2D and 13 pancreata from age-similar non-diabetic controls. In the T2D pancreata, we observe significant alterations in islet architecture, endocrine cell composition, and immune cell constituents. Thus, both HLA-DR-positive CD8 T cells and macrophages are enriched intra-islet in the T2D pancreas. These efforts demonstrate the utility of IMC for investigating complex events at the cellular level in order to provide insights into the pathophysiology of T2D. 10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109919