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Safety and Efficacy of a Monoclonal Antibody against Malaria in Mali. The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:CIS43LS is a monoclonal antibody that was shown to protect against controlled infection in a phase 1 clinical trial. Whether a monoclonal antibody can prevent infection in a region in which the infection is endemic is unknown. METHODS:We conducted a phase 2 trial to assess the safety and efficacy of a single intravenous infusion of CIS43LS against infection in healthy adults in Mali over a 6-month malaria season. In Part A, safety was assessed at three escalating dose levels. In Part B, participants were randomly assigned (in a 1:1:1 ratio) to receive 10 mg of CIS43LS per kilogram of body weight, 40 mg of CIS43LS per kilogram, or placebo. The primary efficacy end point, assessed in a time-to-event analysis, was the first infection detected on blood-smear examination, which was performed at least every 2 weeks for 24 weeks. At enrollment, all the participants received artemether-lumefantrine to clear possible infection. RESULTS:In Part B, 330 adults underwent randomization; 110 were assigned to each trial group. The risk of moderate headache was 3.3 times as high with 40 mg of CIS43LS per kilogram as with placebo. infections were detected on blood-smear examination in 39 participants (35.5%) who received 10 mg of CIS43LS per kilogram, 20 (18.2%) who received 40 mg of CIS43LS per kilogram, and 86 (78.2%) who received placebo. At 6 months, the efficacy of 40 mg of CIS43LS per kilogram as compared with placebo was 88.2% (adjusted 95% confidence interval [CI], 79.3 to 93.3; P<0.001), and the efficacy of 10 mg of CIS43LS per kilogram as compared with placebo was 75.0% (adjusted 95% CI, 61.0 to 84.0; P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:CIS43LS was protective against infection over a 6-month malaria season in Mali without evident safety concerns. (Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04329104.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2206966
Treatment for Mild Chronic Hypertension during Pregnancy. The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:The benefits and safety of the treatment of mild chronic hypertension (blood pressure, <160/100 mm Hg) during pregnancy are uncertain. Data are needed on whether a strategy of targeting a blood pressure of less than 140/90 mm Hg reduces the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes without compromising fetal growth. METHODS:In this open-label, multicenter, randomized trial, we assigned pregnant women with mild chronic hypertension and singleton fetuses at a gestational age of less than 23 weeks to receive antihypertensive medications recommended for use in pregnancy (active-treatment group) or to receive no such treatment unless severe hypertension (systolic pressure, ≥160 mm Hg; or diastolic pressure, ≥105 mm Hg) developed (control group). The primary outcome was a composite of preeclampsia with severe features, medically indicated preterm birth at less than 35 weeks' gestation, placental abruption, or fetal or neonatal death. The safety outcome was small-for-gestational-age birth weight below the 10th percentile for gestational age. Secondary outcomes included composites of serious neonatal or maternal complications, preeclampsia, and preterm birth. RESULTS:A total of 2408 women were enrolled in the trial. The incidence of a primary-outcome event was lower in the active-treatment group than in the control group (30.2% vs. 37.0%), for an adjusted risk ratio of 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 0.92; P<0.001). The percentage of small-for-gestational-age birth weights below the 10th percentile was 11.2% in the active-treatment group and 10.4% in the control group (adjusted risk ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.82 to 1.31; P = 0.76). The incidence of serious maternal complications was 2.1% and 2.8%, respectively (risk ratio, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.26), and the incidence of severe neonatal complications was 2.0% and 2.6% (risk ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.45 to 1.30). The incidence of any preeclampsia in the two groups was 24.4% and 31.1%, respectively (risk ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.89), and the incidence of preterm birth was 27.5% and 31.4% (risk ratio, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.99). CONCLUSIONS:In pregnant women with mild chronic hypertension, a strategy of targeting a blood pressure of less than 140/90 mm Hg was associated with better pregnancy outcomes than a strategy of reserving treatment only for severe hypertension, with no increase in the risk of small-for-gestational-age birth weight. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; CHAP ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02299414.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2201295
Biologic and Clinical Efficacy of LentiGlobin for Sickle Cell Disease. Kanter Julie,Walters Mark C,Krishnamurti Lakshmanan,Mapara Markus Y,Kwiatkowski Janet L,Rifkin-Zenenberg Stacey,Aygun Banu,Kasow Kimberly A,Pierciey Francis J,Bonner Melissa,Miller Alex,Zhang Xinyan,Lynch Jessie,Kim Dennis,Ribeil Jean-Antoine,Asmal Mohammed,Goyal Sunita,Thompson Alexis A,Tisdale John F The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Sickle cell disease is characterized by the painful recurrence of vaso-occlusive events. Gene therapy with the use of LentiGlobin for sickle cell disease (bb1111; lovotibeglogene autotemcel) consists of autologous transplantation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells transduced with the BB305 lentiviral vector encoding a modified β-globin gene, which produces an antisickling hemoglobin, HbA. METHODS:In this ongoing phase 1-2 study, we optimized the treatment process in the initial 7 patients in Group A and 2 patients in Group B with sickle cell disease. Group C was established for the pivotal evaluation of LentiGlobin for sickle cell disease, and we adopted a more stringent inclusion criterion that required a minimum of four severe vaso-occlusive events in the 24 months before enrollment. In this unprespecified interim analysis, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of LentiGlobin in 35 patients enrolled in Group C. Included in this analysis was the number of severe vaso-occlusive events after LentiGlobin infusion among patients with at least four vaso-occlusive events in the 24 months before enrollment and with at least 6 months of follow-up. RESULTS:As of February 2021, cell collection had been initiated in 43 patients in Group C; 35 received a LentiGlobin infusion, with a median follow-up of 17.3 months (range, 3.7 to 37.6). Engraftment occurred in all 35 patients. The median total hemoglobin level increased from 8.5 g per deciliter at baseline to 11 g or more per deciliter from 6 months through 36 months after infusion. HbA contributed at least 40% of total hemoglobin and was distributed across a mean (±SD) of 85±8% of red cells. Hemolysis markers were reduced. Among the 25 patients who could be evaluated, all had resolution of severe vaso-occlusive events, as compared with a median of 3.5 events per year (range, 2.0 to 13.5) in the 24 months before enrollment. Three patients had a nonserious adverse event related or possibly related to LentiGlobin that resolved within 1 week after onset. No cases of hematologic cancer were observed during up to 37.6 months of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS:One-time treatment with LentiGlobin resulted in sustained production of HbA in most red cells, leading to reduced hemolysis and complete resolution of severe vaso-occlusive events. (Funded by Bluebird Bio; HGB-206 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02140554.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2117175
Multicenter, Randomized Trial of a Bionic Pancreas in Type 1 Diabetes. The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Currently available semiautomated insulin-delivery systems require individualized insulin regimens for the initialization of therapy and meal doses based on carbohydrate counting for routine operation. In contrast, the bionic pancreas is initialized only on the basis of body weight, makes all dose decisions and delivers insulin autonomously, and uses meal announcements without carbohydrate counting. METHODS:In this 13-week, multicenter, randomized trial, we randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio persons at least 6 years of age with type 1 diabetes either to receive bionic pancreas treatment with insulin aspart or insulin lispro or to receive standard care (defined as any insulin-delivery method with unblinded, real-time continuous glucose monitoring). The primary outcome was the glycated hemoglobin level at 13 weeks. The key secondary outcome was the percentage of time that the glucose level as assessed by continuous glucose monitoring was below 54 mg per deciliter; the prespecified noninferiority limit for this outcome was 1 percentage point. Safety was also assessed. RESULTS:A total of 219 participants 6 to 79 years of age were assigned to the bionic-pancreas group, and 107 to the standard-care group. The glycated hemoglobin level decreased from 7.9% to 7.3% in the bionic-pancreas group and did not change (was at 7.7% at both time points) in the standard-care group (mean adjusted difference at 13 weeks, -0.5 percentage points; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.6 to -0.3; P<0.001). The percentage of time that the glucose level as assessed by continuous glucose monitoring was below 54 mg per deciliter did not differ significantly between the two groups (13-week adjusted difference, 0.0 percentage points; 95% CI, -0.1 to 0.04; P<0.001 for noninferiority). The rate of severe hypoglycemia was 17.7 events per 100 participant-years in the bionic-pancreas group and 10.8 events per 100 participant-years in the standard-care group (P = 0.39). No episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in either group. CONCLUSIONS:In this 13-week, randomized trial involving adults and children with type 1 diabetes, use of a bionic pancreas was associated with a greater reduction than standard care in the glycated hemoglobin level. (Funded by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04200313.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2205225
Tirzepatide Once Weekly for the Treatment of Obesity. The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Obesity is a chronic disease that results in substantial global morbidity and mortality. The efficacy and safety of tirzepatide, a novel glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, in people with obesity are not known. METHODS:In this phase 3 double-blind, randomized, controlled trial, we assigned 2539 adults with a body-mass index (BMI; the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 30 or more, or 27 or more and at least one weight-related complication, excluding diabetes, in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to receive once-weekly, subcutaneous tirzepatide (5 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg) or placebo for 72 weeks, including a 20-week dose-escalation period. Coprimary end points were the percentage change in weight from baseline and a weight reduction of 5% or more. The treatment-regimen estimand assessed effects regardless of treatment discontinuation in the intention-to-treat population. RESULTS:At baseline, the mean body weight was 104.8 kg, the mean BMI was 38.0, and 94.5% of participants had a BMI of 30 or higher. The mean percentage change in weight at week 72 was -15.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], -15.9 to -14.2) with 5-mg weekly doses of tirzepatide, -19.5% (95% CI, -20.4 to -18.5) with 10-mg doses, and -20.9% (95% CI, -21.8 to -19.9) with 15-mg doses and -3.1% (95% CI, -4.3 to -1.9) with placebo (P<0.001 for all comparisons with placebo). The percentage of participants who had weight reduction of 5% or more was 85% (95% CI, 82 to 89), 89% (95% CI, 86 to 92), and 91% (95% CI, 88 to 94) with 5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg of tirzepatide, respectively, and 35% (95% CI, 30 to 39) with placebo; 50% (95% CI, 46 to 54) and 57% (95% CI, 53 to 61) of participants in the 10-mg and 15-mg groups had a reduction in body weight of 20% or more, as compared with 3% (95% CI, 1 to 5) in the placebo group (P<0.001 for all comparisons with placebo). Improvements in all prespecified cardiometabolic measures were observed with tirzepatide. The most common adverse events with tirzepatide were gastrointestinal, and most were mild to moderate in severity, occurring primarily during dose escalation. Adverse events caused treatment discontinuation in 4.3%, 7.1%, 6.2%, and 2.6% of participants receiving 5-mg, 10-mg, and 15-mg tirzepatide doses and placebo, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:In this 72-week trial in participants with obesity, 5 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg of tirzepatide once weekly provided substantial and sustained reductions in body weight. (Supported by Eli Lilly; SURMOUNT-1 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04184622.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2206038
Calorie Restriction with or without Time-Restricted Eating in Weight Loss. The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:The long-term efficacy and safety of time-restricted eating for weight loss are not clear. METHODS:We randomly assigned 139 patients with obesity to time-restricted eating (eating only between 8:00 a.m. and 4:00 p.m.) with calorie restriction or daily calorie restriction alone. For 12 months, all the participants were instructed to follow a calorie-restricted diet that consisted of 1500 to 1800 kcal per day for men and 1200 to 1500 kcal per day for women. The primary outcome was the difference between the two groups in the change from baseline in body weight; secondary outcomes included changes in waist circumference, body-mass index (BMI), amount of body fat, and measures of metabolic risk factors. RESULTS:Of the total 139 participants who underwent randomization, 118 (84.9%) completed the 12-month follow-up visit. The mean weight loss from baseline at 12 months was -8.0 kg (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.6 to -6.4) in the time-restriction group and -6.3 kg (95% CI, -7.8 to -4.7) in the daily-calorie-restriction group. Changes in weight were not significantly different in the two groups at the 12-month assessment (net difference, -1.8 kg; 95% CI, -4.0 to 0.4; P = 0.11). Results of analyses of waist circumferences, BMI, body fat, body lean mass, blood pressure, and metabolic risk factors were consistent with the results of the primary outcome. In addition, there were no substantial differences between the groups in the numbers of adverse events. CONCLUSIONS:Among patients with obesity, a regimen of time-restricted eating was not more beneficial with regard to reduction in body weight, body fat, or metabolic risk factors than daily calorie restriction. (Funded by the National Key Research and Development Project [No. 2018YFA0800404] and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03745612.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2114833
PD-1 Blockade in Mismatch Repair-Deficient, Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer. The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation followed by surgical resection of the rectum is a standard treatment for locally advanced rectal cancer. A subset of rectal cancer is caused by a deficiency in mismatch repair. Because mismatch repair-deficient colorectal cancer is responsive to programmed death 1 (PD-1) blockade in the context of metastatic disease, it was hypothesized that checkpoint blockade could be effective in patients with mismatch repair-deficient, locally advanced rectal cancer. METHODS:We initiated a prospective phase 2 study in which single-agent dostarlimab, an anti-PD-1 monoclonal antibody, was administered every 3 weeks for 6 months in patients with mismatch repair-deficient stage II or III rectal adenocarcinoma. This treatment was to be followed by standard chemoradiotherapy and surgery. Patients who had a clinical complete response after completion of dostarlimab therapy would proceed without chemoradiotherapy and surgery. The primary end points are sustained clinical complete response 12 months after completion of dostarlimab therapy or pathological complete response after completion of dostarlimab therapy with or without chemoradiotherapy and overall response to neoadjuvant dostarlimab therapy with or without chemoradiotherapy. RESULTS:A total of 12 patients have completed treatment with dostarlimab and have undergone at least 6 months of follow-up. All 12 patients (100%; 95% confidence interval, 74 to 100) had a clinical complete response, with no evidence of tumor on magnetic resonance imaging, F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission tomography, endoscopic evaluation, digital rectal examination, or biopsy. At the time of this report, no patients had received chemoradiotherapy or undergone surgery, and no cases of progression or recurrence had been reported during follow-up (range, 6 to 25 months). No adverse events of grade 3 or higher have been reported. CONCLUSIONS:Mismatch repair-deficient, locally advanced rectal cancer was highly sensitive to single-agent PD-1 blockade. Longer follow-up is needed to assess the duration of response. (Funded by the Simon and Eve Colin Foundation and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04165772.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2201445
Two Phase 3 Trials of Baricitinib for Alopecia Areata. The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Alopecia areata is an autoimmune condition characterized by rapid hair loss in the scalp, eyebrows, and eyelashes, for which treatments are limited. Baricitinib, an oral, selective, reversible inhibitor of Janus kinases 1 and 2, may interrupt cytokine signaling implicated in the pathogenesis of alopecia areata. METHODS:We conducted two randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trials (BRAVE-AA1 and BRAVE-AA2) involving adults with severe alopecia areata with a Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) score of 50 or higher (range, 0 [no scalp hair loss] to 100 [complete scalp hair loss]). Patients were randomly assigned in a 3:2:2 ratio to receive once-daily baricitinib at a dose of 4 mg, baricitinib at a dose of 2 mg, or placebo. The primary outcome was a SALT score of 20 or less at week 36. RESULTS:We enrolled 654 patients in the BRAVE-AA1 trial and 546 in the BRAVE-AA2 trial. The estimated percentage of patients with a SALT score of 20 or less at week 36 was 38.8% with 4-mg baricitinib, 22.8% with 2-mg baricitinib, and 6.2% with placebo in BRAVE-AA1 and 35.9%, 19.4%, and 3.3%, respectively, in BRAVE-AA2. In BRAVE-AA1, the difference between 4-mg baricitinib and placebo was 32.6 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], 25.6 to 39.5), and the difference between 2-mg baricitinib and placebo was 16.6 percentage points (95% CI, 9.5 to 23.8) (P<0.001 for each dose vs. placebo). In BRAVE-AA2, the corresponding values were 32.6 percentage points (95% CI, 25.6 to 39.6) and 16.1 percentage points (95% CI, 9.1 to 23.2) (P<0.001 for each dose vs. placebo). Secondary outcomes for baricitinib at a dose of 4 mg but not at a dose of 2 mg generally favored baricitinib over placebo. Acne, elevated levels of creatine kinase, and increased levels of low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were more common with baricitinib than with placebo. CONCLUSIONS:In two phase 3 trials involving patients with severe alopecia areata, oral baricitinib was superior to placebo with respect to hair regrowth at 36 weeks. Longer trials are required to assess the efficacy and safety of baricitinib for alopecia areata. (Funded by Eli Lilly under license from Incyte; BRAVE-AA1 and BRAVE-AA2 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT03570749 and NCT03899259.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2110343
Oral Nirmatrelvir for High-Risk, Nonhospitalized Adults with Covid-19. The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Nirmatrelvir is an orally administered severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 main protease (M) inhibitor with potent pan-human-coronavirus activity in vitro. METHODS:We conducted a phase 2-3 double-blind, randomized, controlled trial in which symptomatic, unvaccinated, nonhospitalized adults at high risk for progression to severe coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) were assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 300 mg of nirmatrelvir plus 100 mg of ritonavir (a pharmacokinetic enhancer) or placebo every 12 hours for 5 days. Covid-19-related hospitalization or death from any cause through day 28, viral load, and safety were evaluated. RESULTS:A total of 2246 patients underwent randomization; 1120 patients received nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir (nirmatrelvir group) and 1126 received placebo (placebo group). In the planned interim analysis of patients treated within 3 days after symptom onset (modified intention-to treat population, comprising 774 of the 1361 patients in the full analysis population), the incidence of Covid-19-related hospitalization or death by day 28 was lower in the nirmatrelvir group than in the placebo group by 6.32 percentage points (95% confidence interval [CI], -9.04 to -3.59; P<0.001; relative risk reduction, 89.1%); the incidence was 0.77% (3 of 389 patients) in the nirmatrelvir group, with 0 deaths, as compared with 7.01% (27 of 385 patients) in the placebo group, with 7 deaths. Efficacy was maintained in the final analysis involving the 1379 patients in the modified intention-to-treat population, with a difference of -5.81 percentage points (95% CI, -7.78 to -3.84; P<0.001; relative risk reduction, 88.9%). All 13 deaths occurred in the placebo group. The viral load was lower with nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir than with placebo at day 5 of treatment, with an adjusted mean difference of -0.868 log copies per milliliter when treatment was initiated within 3 days after the onset of symptoms. The incidence of adverse events that emerged during the treatment period was similar in the two groups (any adverse event, 22.6% with nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir vs. 23.9% with placebo; serious adverse events, 1.6% vs. 6.6%; and adverse events leading to discontinuation of the drugs or placebo, 2.1% vs. 4.2%). Dysgeusia (5.6% vs. 0.3%) and diarrhea (3.1% vs. 1.6%) occurred more frequently with nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir than with placebo. CONCLUSIONS:Treatment of symptomatic Covid-19 with nirmatrelvir plus ritonavir resulted in a risk of progression to severe Covid-19 that was 89% lower than the risk with placebo, without evident safety concerns. (Supported by Pfizer; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04960202.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2118542
Endovascular Therapy for Acute Stroke with a Large Ischemic Region. The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Endovascular therapy for acute ischemic stroke is generally avoided when the infarction is large, but the effect of endovascular therapy with medical care as compared with medical care alone for large strokes has not been well studied. METHODS:We conducted a multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial in Japan involving patients with occlusion of large cerebral vessels and sizable strokes on imaging, as indicated by an Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomographic Score (ASPECTS) value of 3 to 5 (on a scale from 0 to 10, with lower values indicating larger infarction). Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive endovascular therapy with medical care or medical care alone within 6 hours after they were last known to be well or within 24 hours if there was no early change on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery images. Alteplase (0.6 mg per kilogram of body weight) was used when appropriate in both groups. The primary outcome was a modified Rankin scale score of 0 to 3 (on a scale from 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating greater disability) at 90 days. Secondary outcomes included a shift across the range of modified Rankin scale scores toward a better outcome at 90 days and an improvement of at least 8 points in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score (range, 0 to 42, with higher scores indicating greater deficit) at 48 hours. RESULTS:A total of 203 patients underwent randomization; 101 patients were assigned to the endovascular-therapy group and 102 to the medical-care group. Approximately 27% of patients in each group received alteplase. The percentage of patients with a modified Rankin scale score of 0 to 3 at 90 days was 31.0% in the endovascular-therapy group and 12.7% in the medical-care group (relative risk, 2.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35 to 4.37; P = 0.002). The ordinal shift across the range of modified Rankin scale scores generally favored endovascular therapy. An improvement of at least 8 points on the NIHSS score at 48 hours was observed in 31.0% of the patients in the endovascular-therapy group and 8.8% of those in the medical-care group (relative risk, 3.51; 95% CI, 1.76 to 7.00), and any intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 58.0% and 31.4%, respectively (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS:In a trial conducted in Japan, patients with large cerebral infarctions had better functional outcomes with endovascular therapy than with medical care alone but had more intracranial hemorrhages. (Funded by Mihara Cerebrovascular Disorder Research Promotion Fund and the Japanese Society for Neuroendovascular Therapy; RESCUE-Japan LIMIT ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT03702413.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2118191
Shorter Treatment for Nonsevere Tuberculosis in African and Indian Children. The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Two thirds of children with tuberculosis have nonsevere disease, which may be treatable with a shorter regimen than the current 6-month regimen. METHODS:We conducted an open-label, treatment-shortening, noninferiority trial involving children with nonsevere, symptomatic, presumably drug-susceptible, smear-negative tuberculosis in Uganda, Zambia, South Africa, and India. Children younger than 16 years of age were randomly assigned to 4 months (16 weeks) or 6 months (24 weeks) of standard first-line antituberculosis treatment with pediatric fixed-dose combinations as recommended by the World Health Organization. The primary efficacy outcome was unfavorable status (composite of treatment failure [extension, change, or restart of treatment or tuberculosis recurrence], loss to follow-up during treatment, or death) by 72 weeks, with the exclusion of participants who did not complete 4 months of treatment (modified intention-to-treat population). A noninferiority margin of 6 percentage points was used. The primary safety outcome was an adverse event of grade 3 or higher during treatment and up to 30 days after treatment. RESULTS:From July 2016 through July 2018, a total of 1204 children underwent randomization (602 in each group). The median age of the participants was 3.5 years (range, 2 months to 15 years), 52% were male, 11% had human immunodeficiency virus infection, and 14% had bacteriologically confirmed tuberculosis. Retention by 72 weeks was 95%, and adherence to the assigned treatment was 94%. A total of 16 participants (3%) in the 4-month group had a primary-outcome event, as compared with 18 (3%) in the 6-month group (adjusted difference, -0.4 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -2.2 to 1.5). The noninferiority of 4 months of treatment was consistent across the intention-to-treat, per-protocol, and key secondary analyses, including when the analysis was restricted to the 958 participants (80%) independently adjudicated to have tuberculosis at baseline. A total of 95 participants (8%) had an adverse event of grade 3 or higher, including 15 adverse drug reactions (11 hepatic events, all but 2 of which occurred within the first 8 weeks, when the treatments were the same in the two groups). CONCLUSIONS:Four months of antituberculosis treatment was noninferior to 6 months of treatment in children with drug-susceptible, nonsevere, smear-negative tuberculosis. (Funded by the U.K. Medical Research Council and others; SHINE ISRCTN number, ISRCTN63579542.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2104535
Betibeglogene Autotemcel Gene Therapy for Non-β/β Genotype β-Thalassemia. Locatelli Franco,Thompson Alexis A,Kwiatkowski Janet L,Porter John B,Thrasher Adrian J,Hongeng Suradej,Sauer Martin G,Thuret Isabelle,Lal Ashutosh,Algeri Mattia,Schneiderman Jennifer,Olson Timothy S,Carpenter Ben,Amrolia Persis J,Anurathapan Usanarat,Schambach Axel,Chabannon Christian,Schmidt Manfred,Labik Ivan,Elliot Heidi,Guo Ruiting,Asmal Mohammed,Colvin Richard A,Walters Mark C The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Betibeglogene autotemcel (beti-cel) gene therapy for transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia contains autologous CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells transduced with the BB305 lentiviral vector encoding the β-globin (β) gene. METHODS:In this open-label, phase 3 study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of beti-cel in adult and pediatric patients with transfusion-dependent β-thalassemia and a non-β/β genotype. Patients underwent myeloablation with busulfan (with doses adjusted on the basis of pharmacokinetic analysis) and received beti-cel intravenously. The primary end point was transfusion independence (i.e., a weighted average hemoglobin level of ≥9 g per deciliter without red-cell transfusions for ≥12 months). RESULTS:A total of 23 patients were enrolled and received treatment, with a median follow-up of 29.5 months (range, 13.0 to 48.2). Transfusion independence occurred in 20 of 22 patients who could be evaluated (91%), including 6 of 7 patients (86%) who were younger than 12 years of age. The average hemoglobin level during transfusion independence was 11.7 g per deciliter (range, 9.5 to 12.8). Twelve months after beti-cel infusion, the median level of gene therapy-derived adult hemoglobin (HbA) with a T87Q amino acid substitution (HbA) was 8.7 g per deciliter (range, 5.2 to 10.6) in patients who had transfusion independence. The safety profile of beti-cel was consistent with that of busulfan-based myeloablation. Four patients had at least one adverse event that was considered by the investigators to be related or possibly related to beti-cel; all events were nonserious except for thrombocytopenia (in 1 patient). No cases of cancer were observed. CONCLUSIONS:Treatment with beti-cel resulted in a sustained HbA level and a total hemoglobin level that was high enough to enable transfusion independence in most patients with a non-β/β genotype, including those younger than 12 years of age. (Funded by Bluebird Bio; HGB-207 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02906202.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2113206