Imaging the Cerebral Veins in Pediatric Patients: Beyond Dural Venous Sinus Thrombosis.
Radiographics : a review publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
The range of intracranial venous anomalies in children differs from that in adults. As a commonly encountered highly morbid disease, sinovenous thrombosis has been discussed extensively in the literature, and the associated imaging considerations are similar in pediatric and adult patients. The authors shift the focus to less frequently discussed cerebral venous diseases in pediatric patients. First, the practical embryology pertinent to malformations, syndromes, and variants such as vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation, Sturge-Weber syndrome, and developmental venous anomalies are discussed. Second, anatomic considerations that are applicable to neuroimaging in pediatric patients with cerebral venous anomalies are reviewed. In the discussion of anatomy, special attention is given to the medullary venous system that serves the cerebral white matter, superficial cortical veins (tributaries of the dural venous sinuses), and bridging veins, which carry blood from the superficial cortical veins through the potential subdural space into the dural venous sinuses. Third, the selection of imaging modalities (US, CT and CT venography, and MRI) is addressed, and various MR venographic pulse sequences (time-of-flight, phase-contrast, and contrast-enhanced sequences) are compared. Finally, a broad variety of congenital and acquired superficial and deep venous diseases in children are reviewed, with emphasis on less frequently discussed entities involving the medullary (eg, deep medullary venous engorgement and thrombosis, periventricular hemorrhagic venous infarction due to germinal matrix hemorrhage), cortical (eg, cortical venous thrombosis), and bridging (eg, acute and chronic manifestations of injury in abusive head trauma) veins, as well as the deep veins and dural venous sinuses (eg, varix). RSNA, 2023 Quiz questions for this article are available through the Online Learning Center. and