Viral Respiratory Pathogens and Lung Injury.
Clementi Nicola,Ghosh Sreya,De Santis Maria,Castelli Matteo,Criscuolo Elena,Zanoni Ivan,Clementi Massimo,Mancini Nicasio
Clinical microbiology reviews
Several viruses target the human respiratory tract, causing different clinical manifestations spanning from mild upper airway involvement to life-threatening acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). As dramatically evident in the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the clinical picture is not always easily predictable due to the combined effect of direct viral and indirect patient-specific immune-mediated damage. In this review, we discuss the main RNA (orthomyxoviruses, paramyxoviruses, and coronaviruses) and DNA (adenoviruses, herpesviruses, and bocaviruses) viruses with respiratory tropism and their mechanisms of direct and indirect cell damage. We analyze the thin line existing between a protective immune response, capable of limiting viral replication, and an unbalanced, dysregulated immune activation often leading to the most severe complication. Our comprehension of the molecular mechanisms involved is increasing and this should pave the way for the development and clinical use of new tailored immune-based antiviral strategies.
Epidemiological characteristics of four common respiratory viral infections in children.
Zhu Guohong,Xu Dan,Zhang Yuanyuan,Wang Tianlin,Zhang Lingyan,Gu Weizhong,Shen Meiping
BACKGROUND:Viruses are the main infectious agents of acute respiratory infections in children. We aim to describe the epidemiological characteristics of viral pathogens of acute respiratory tract infections in outpatient children. METHODS:From April 2018 to March 2019, the results of viral detection using oral pharyngeal swabs from 103,210 children with acute respiratory tract infection in the outpatient department of the Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, were retrospectively analyzed. Viral antigens, including adenovirus (ADV), influenza A (FLUA), influenza B (FLUB) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), were detected by the colloidal gold method. RESULTS:At least one virus was detected in 38,355 cases; the positivity rate was 37.2%. A total of 1910 cases of mixed infection with two or more viruses were detected, and the positivity rate of multiple infection was 1.9%. The ADV positivity rate was highest in the 3-6-year-old group (18.7%), the FLUA positivity rate was highest in the > 6-year-old group (21.6%), the FLUB positivity rate was highest in the > 6-year-old group (6.6%), and the RSV positivity rate was highest in the < 1-year-old group (10.6%). There was a significant difference in the positivity rate of viral infection among different age groups (χ = 1280.7, P < 0.001). The rate of positive viral infection was highest in winter (47.1%). The ADV infection rate was highest in spring (18.2%). The rates of FLUA and FLUB positivity were highest in winter (28.8% and 3.6%, respectively). The rate of RSV positivity was highest in autumn (17.4%). The rate of positive viral infection in different seasons was significantly different (χ = 6459.1, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Viral infection rates in children differ for different ages and seasons. The positivity rate of ADV is highest in the preschool period and that of RSV is highest in infants; that of FLU increases with age. The total positive rate of viral infection in different seasons is highest in winter, as is the rate of FLU positivity.
Etiology and Clinical Characteristics of Single and Multiple Respiratory Virus Infections Diagnosed in Croatian Children in Two Respiratory Seasons.
Ljubin-Sternak Sunčanica,Marijan Tatjana,Ivković-Jureković Irena,Čepin-Bogović Jasna,Gagro Alenka,Vraneš Jasmina
Journal of pathogens
The aim of this study was to determine the causative agent of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in hospitalized children, as well as investigate the characteristics of ARIs with single and multiple virus detection in two respiratory seasons. In 2010 and 2015, nasopharyngeal and pharyngeal swabs from a total of 134 children, admitted to the hospital due to ARI, were tested using multiplex PCR. Viral etiology was established in 81.3% of the patients. Coinfection with two viruses was diagnosed in 27.6% of the patients, and concurrent detection of three or more viruses was diagnosed in 12.8% of the patients. The most commonly diagnosed virus in both seasons combined was respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (28.6%), followed by parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) types 1-3 (18.4%), rhinovirus (HRV) (14.3%), human metapneumovirus (10.1%), adenovirus (AdV) (7.1%), influenza viruses types A and B (4.8%), and coronaviruses (4.2%). In 2015, additional pathogens were investigated with the following detection rate: enterovirus (13.2%), bocavirus (HBoV) (10.5%), PIV-4 (2.6%), and parechovirus (1.3%). There were no statistical differences between single and multiple virus infection regarding patients age, localization of infection, and severity of disease (P > 0.05). AdV, HRV, HBoV, and PIVs were significantly more often detected in multiple virus infections compared to the other respiratory viruses (P < 0.001).
Comparison of Clinical Characteristics of Human Metapneumovirus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections in Hospitalized Young Children.
Taniguchi Akinobu,Kawada Jun-Ichi,Go Kiyotaka,Fujishiro Naozumi,Hosokawa Yosuke,Maki Yuki,Sugiyama Yuichiro,Suzuki Michio,Tsuji Takeshi,Hoshino Shin,Muramatsu Hideki,Kidokoro Hiroyuki,Kinoshita Fumie,Hirakawa Akihiro,Takahashi Yoshiyuki,Sato Yoshiaki,Natsume Jun,
Japanese journal of infectious diseases
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are the leading causes of acute respiratory tract infection in children, and clinical manifestations of these virus infections are considered similar. To investigate the differences in clinical characteristics between HMPV and RSV infections in young children, we prospectively enrolled children ＜ 3 years old who required hospitalization with acute respiratory tract infection due to HMPV or RSV at 10 hospitals in Japan. We enrolled 48 children with HMPV infection and 141 with RSV infection. Patients with HMPV infection were older than those with RSV infection. High-grade fever was more frequently observed in patients with HMPV infection, whereas no significant differences in respiratory symptoms were apparent. Abnormal serum lactate dehydrogenase values and consolidation shadows on chest X-ray were more frequently observed in patients with HMPV infection. During hospitalization, nasal mucus suction was more frequently required in patients with RSV infection. On the other hand, β2-adrenergic agonists, corticosteroids, and leukotriene receptor antagonists were more frequently used in patients with HMPV infection. These findings suggest that HMPV and RSV infections show similar respiratory symptoms, but HMPV infection is more likely to lead to the development of pneumonia, at least among hospitalized young children.