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    Clinical findings in a group of patients infected with the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-Cov-2) outside of Wuhan, China: retrospective case series. Xu Xiao-Wei,Wu Xiao-Xin,Jiang Xian-Gao,Xu Kai-Jin,Ying Ling-Jun,Ma Chun-Lian,Li Shi-Bo,Wang Hua-Ying,Zhang Sheng,Gao Hai-Nv,Sheng Ji-Fang,Cai Hong-Liu,Qiu Yun-Qing,Li Lan-Juan BMJ (Clinical research ed.) OBJECTIVE:To study the clinical characteristics of patients in Zhejiang province, China, infected with the 2019 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-Cov-2) responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-2019). DESIGN:Retrospective case series. SETTING:Seven hospitals in Zhejiang province, China. PARTICIPANTS:62 patients admitted to hospital with laboratory confirmed SARS-Cov-2 infection. Data were collected from 10 January 2020 to 26 January 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Clinical data, collected using a standardised case report form, such as temperature, history of exposure, incubation period. If information was not clear, the working group in Hangzhou contacted the doctor responsible for treating the patient for clarification. RESULTS:Of the 62 patients studied (median age 41 years), only one was admitted to an intensive care unit, and no patients died during the study. According to research, none of the infected patients in Zhejiang province were ever exposed to the Huanan seafood market, the original source of the virus; all studied cases were infected by human to human transmission. The most common symptoms at onset of illness were fever in 48 (77%) patients, cough in 50 (81%), expectoration in 35 (56%), headache in 21 (34%), myalgia or fatigue in 32 (52%), diarrhoea in 3 (8%), and haemoptysis in 2 (3%). Only two patients (3%) developed shortness of breath on admission. The median time from exposure to onset of illness was 4 days (interquartile range 3-5 days), and from onset of symptoms to first hospital admission was 2 (1-4) days. CONCLUSION:As of early February 2020, compared with patients initially infected with SARS-Cov-2 in Wuhan, the symptoms of patients in Zhejiang province are relatively mild. 10.1136/bmj.m606
    Clinical Characteristics of Coronavirus Disease 2019 in China. Guan Wei-Jie,Ni Zheng-Yi,Hu Yu,Liang Wen-Hua,Ou Chun-Quan,He Jian-Xing,Liu Lei,Shan Hong,Lei Chun-Liang,Hui David S C,Du Bin,Li Lan-Juan,Zeng Guang,Yuen Kwok-Yung,Chen Ru-Chong,Tang Chun-Li,Wang Tao,Chen Ping-Yan,Xiang Jie,Li Shi-Yue,Wang Jin-Lin,Liang Zi-Jing,Peng Yi-Xiang,Wei Li,Liu Yong,Hu Ya-Hua,Peng Peng,Wang Jian-Ming,Liu Ji-Yang,Chen Zhong,Li Gang,Zheng Zhi-Jian,Qiu Shao-Qin,Luo Jie,Ye Chang-Jiang,Zhu Shao-Yong,Zhong Nan-Shan, The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of the affected patients. METHODS:We extracted data regarding 1099 patients with laboratory-confirmed Covid-19 from 552 hospitals in 30 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in mainland China through January 29, 2020. The primary composite end point was admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), the use of mechanical ventilation, or death. RESULTS:The median age of the patients was 47 years; 41.9% of the patients were female. The primary composite end point occurred in 67 patients (6.1%), including 5.0% who were admitted to the ICU, 2.3% who underwent invasive mechanical ventilation, and 1.4% who died. Only 1.9% of the patients had a history of direct contact with wildlife. Among nonresidents of Wuhan, 72.3% had contact with residents of Wuhan, including 31.3% who had visited the city. The most common symptoms were fever (43.8% on admission and 88.7% during hospitalization) and cough (67.8%). Diarrhea was uncommon (3.8%). The median incubation period was 4 days (interquartile range, 2 to 7). On admission, ground-glass opacity was the most common radiologic finding on chest computed tomography (CT) (56.4%). No radiographic or CT abnormality was found in 157 of 877 patients (17.9%) with nonsevere disease and in 5 of 173 patients (2.9%) with severe disease. Lymphocytopenia was present in 83.2% of the patients on admission. CONCLUSIONS:During the first 2 months of the current outbreak, Covid-19 spread rapidly throughout China and caused varying degrees of illness. Patients often presented without fever, and many did not have abnormal radiologic findings. (Funded by the National Health Commission of China and others.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2002032
    Clinical Characteristics of Imported Cases of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Jiangsu Province: A Multicenter Descriptive Study. Wu Jian,Liu Jun,Zhao Xinguo,Liu Chengyuan,Wang Wei,Wang Dawei,Xu Wei,Zhang Chunyu,Yu Jiong,Jiang Bin,Cao Hongcui,Li Lanjuan Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America BACKGROUND:We aimed to report the clinical characteristics of imported cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Jiangsu Province. METHODS:We retrospectively investigated the clinical, imaging, and laboratory characteristics of confirmed cases of COVID-19 with World Health Organization interim guidance in 3 grade IIIA hospitals of Jiangsu from 22 January to 14 February 2020. Real-time RT-PCR was used to detect the new coronavirus in respiratory samples. RESULTS:Of the 80 patients infected with COVID-19, 41 were female, with a median age of 46.1 years. Except for 3 severe patients, the rest of the 77 patients exhibited mild or moderate symptoms. Nine patients were unconfirmed until a third nucleic acid test; 38 cases had a history of chronic diseases. The main clinical manifestations of the patients were fever and cough, which accounted for 63 (78.75%) and 51 (63.75%) cases, respectively. Only 3 patients (3.75%) showed liver dysfunction. Imaging examination showed that 55 patients (68.75%) showed abnormal density shadow and 25 cases (31.25%) had no abnormal density shadow in the parenchyma of both lungs. Currently, 21 cases have been discharged from the hospital, and no patient died. The average length of stay for discharged patients was 8 days. CONCLUSIONS:Compared with the cases in Wuhan, the cases in Jiangsu exhibited mild or moderate symptoms and no obvious gender susceptibility. The proportion of patients having liver dysfunction and abnormal CT imaging was relatively lower than that in Wuhan. Notably, infected patients may be falsely excluded based on 2 consecutively negative respiratory pathogenic nucleic acid test results. 10.1093/cid/ciaa199
    Open access epidemiological data from the COVID-19 outbreak. Xu Bo,Kraemer Moritz U G, The Lancet. Infectious diseases 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30119-5
    Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Shi Heshui,Han Xiaoyu,Jiang Nanchuan,Cao Yukun,Alwalid Osamah,Gu Jin,Fan Yanqing,Zheng Chuansheng The Lancet. Infectious diseases BACKGROUND:A cluster of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were successively reported in Wuhan, China. We aimed to describe the CT findings across different timepoints throughout the disease course. METHODS:Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (confirmed by next-generation sequencing or RT-PCR) who were admitted to one of two hospitals in Wuhan and who underwent serial chest CT scans were retrospectively enrolled. Patients were grouped on the basis of the interval between symptom onset and the first CT scan: group 1 (subclinical patients; scans done before symptom onset), group 2 (scans done ≤1 week after symptom onset), group 3 (>1 week to 2 weeks), and group 4 (>2 weeks to 3 weeks). Imaging features and their distribution were analysed and compared across the four groups. FINDINGS:81 patients admitted to hospital between Dec 20, 2019, and Jan 23, 2020, were retrospectively enrolled. The cohort included 42 (52%) men and 39 (48%) women, and the mean age was 49·5 years (SD 11·0). The mean number of involved lung segments was 10·5 (SD 6·4) overall, 2·8 (3·3) in group 1, 11·1 (5·4) in group 2, 13·0 (5·7) in group 3, and 12·1 (5·9) in group 4. The predominant pattern of abnormality observed was bilateral (64 [79%] patients), peripheral (44 [54%]), ill-defined (66 [81%]), and ground-glass opacification (53 [65%]), mainly involving the right lower lobes (225 [27%] of 849 affected segments). In group 1 (n=15), the predominant pattern was unilateral (nine [60%]) and multifocal (eight [53%]) ground-glass opacities (14 [93%]). Lesions quickly evolved to bilateral (19 [90%]), diffuse (11 [52%]) ground-glass opacity predominance (17 [81%]) in group 2 (n=21). Thereafter, the prevalence of ground-glass opacities continued to decrease (17 [57%] of 30 patients in group 3, and five [33%] of 15 in group 4), and consolidation and mixed patterns became more frequent (12 [40%] in group 3, eight [53%] in group 4). INTERPRETATION:COVID-19 pneumonia manifests with chest CT imaging abnormalities, even in asymptomatic patients, with rapid evolution from focal unilateral to diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities that progressed to or co-existed with consolidations within 1-3 weeks. Combining assessment of imaging features with clinical and laboratory findings could facilitate early diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. FUNDING:None. 10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30086-4
    Clinical characteristics and therapeutic procedure for four cases with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia receiving combined Chinese and Western medicine treatment. Wang Zhenwei,Chen Xiaorong,Lu Yunfei,Chen Feifei,Zhang Wei Bioscience trends Pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is continuously and rapidly circulating at present. No effective antiviral treatment has been verified thus far. We report here the clinical characteristics and therapeutic procedure for four patients with mild or severe 2019-nCoV pneumonia admitted to Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center. All the patients were given antiviral treatment including lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra), arbidol, and Shufeng Jiedu Capsule (SFJDC, a traditional Chinese medicine) and other necessary support care. After treatment, three patients gained significant improvement in pneumonia associated symptoms, two of whom were confirmed 2019-nCoV negative and discharged, and one of whom was virus negative at the first test. The remaining patient with severe pneumonia had shown signs of improvement by the cutoff date for data collection. Results obtained in the current study may provide clues for treatment of 2019-nCoV pneumonia. The efficacy of antiviral treatment including lopinavir/ritonavir, arbidol, and SFJDC warrants further verification in future study. 10.5582/bst.2020.01030
    A meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of real-time PCR for diagnosing novel coronavirus infections. Lin C,Ye R,Xia Y L Genetics and molecular research : GMR Novel coronavirus (nCoV) belongs to the Coronaviridae family, which includes the virus that causes SARS, or severe acute respiratory syndrome. However, infection source, transmission route, and host of nCoV have not yet been thoroughly characterized. In some cases, nCoV presented a limited person-to-person transmission. Therefore, early diagnosis of nCoV may be of importance for reducing the spread of disease in public. Methods for nCoV diagnosis involve smear dyeing inspection, culture identification, and real-time PCR detection, all of which are proved highly effective. Here, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of real-time PCR for diagnosing nCoV infection. Fifteen articles conformed to the inclusion and exclusion criteria for further meta-analysis on the basis of a wide range of publications searched from databases involving PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Medline, ISI. We analyzed the stability and publication bias as well as examined the heterogeneity inspection of real-time PCR detection in contrast to smear staining and culture identification. The fixed-effect model was adopted in our meta-analysis. Our result demonstrated that the combination of real-time PCR and smear diagnostics yielded an odds ratio (OR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.51-2.41, Z = 5.43, P < 0.05, while the combination of real-time PCR and culture identification yielded OR = 2.44, 95%CI = 1.77-3.37, Z = 5.41, P < 0.05. Therefore, we propose real-time PCR as an efficient method that offers an auxiliary support for future nCoV diagnosis. 10.4238/2015.December.1.15
    [Analysis of CT features of 15 Children with 2019 novel coronavirus infection]. Feng K,Yun Y X,Wang X F,Yang G D,Zheng Y J,Lin C M,Wang L F Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics To explore imaging characteristics of children with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection. A retrospective analysis was performed on clinical data and chest CT images of 15 children diagnosed with 2019-nCoV. They were admitted to the third people's Hospital of Shenzhen from January 16 to February 6, 2020. The distribution and morphology of pulmonary lesions on chest CT images were analyzed. Among the 15 children, there were 5 males and 10 females, aged from 4 to 14 years old. Five of the 15 children were febrile and 10 were asymptomatic on first visit. The first nasal or pharyngeal swab samples in all the 15 cases were positive for 2019-nCoV nucleic acid. For their first chest CT images, 6 patients had no lesions, while 9 patients had pulmonary inflammation lesions. Seven cases of small nodular ground glass opacities and 2 cases of speckled ground glass opacities were found. After 3 to 5 days of treatment, 2019-nCoV nucleic acid in a second respiratory sample turned negative in 6 cases. Among them, chest CT images showed less lesions in 2 cases, no lesion in 3 cases, and no improvement in 1 case. Other 9 cases were still positive in a second nucleic acid test. Six patients showed similar chest CT inflammation, while 3 patients had new lesions, which were all small nodular ground glass opacities. The early chest CT images of children with 2019-nCoV infection are mostly small nodular ground glass opacities. The clinical symptoms of children with 2019-nCoV infection are nonspecific. Dynamic reexamination of chest CT and nucleic acid are important. 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2020.0007
    Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Chen Nanshan,Zhou Min,Dong Xuan,Qu Jieming,Gong Fengyun,Han Yang,Qiu Yang,Wang Jingli,Liu Ying,Wei Yuan,Xia Jia'an,Yu Ting,Zhang Xinxin,Zhang Li Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:In December, 2019, a pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) emerged in Wuhan, China. We aimed to further clarify the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV pneumonia. METHODS:In this retrospective, single-centre study, we included all confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV in Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital from Jan 1 to Jan 20, 2020. Cases were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR and were analysed for epidemiological, demographic, clinical, and radiological features and laboratory data. Outcomes were followed up until Jan 25, 2020. FINDINGS:Of the 99 patients with 2019-nCoV pneumonia, 49 (49%) had a history of exposure to the Huanan seafood market. The average age of the patients was 55·5 years (SD 13·1), including 67 men and 32 women. 2019-nCoV was detected in all patients by real-time RT-PCR. 50 (51%) patients had chronic diseases. Patients had clinical manifestations of fever (82 [83%] patients), cough (81 [82%] patients), shortness of breath (31 [31%] patients), muscle ache (11 [11%] patients), confusion (nine [9%] patients), headache (eight [8%] patients), sore throat (five [5%] patients), rhinorrhoea (four [4%] patients), chest pain (two [2%] patients), diarrhoea (two [2%] patients), and nausea and vomiting (one [1%] patient). According to imaging examination, 74 (75%) patients showed bilateral pneumonia, 14 (14%) patients showed multiple mottling and ground-glass opacity, and one (1%) patient had pneumothorax. 17 (17%) patients developed acute respiratory distress syndrome and, among them, 11 (11%) patients worsened in a short period of time and died of multiple organ failure. INTERPRETATION:The 2019-nCoV infection was of clustering onset, is more likely to affect older males with comorbidities, and can result in severe and even fatal respiratory diseases such as acute respiratory distress syndrome. In general, characteristics of patients who died were in line with the MuLBSTA score, an early warning model for predicting mortality in viral pneumonia. Further investigation is needed to explore the applicability of the MuLBSTA score in predicting the risk of mortality in 2019-nCoV infection. FUNDING:National Key R&D Program of China. 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7
    Initial CT findings and temporal changes in patients with the novel coronavirus pneumonia (2019-nCoV): a study of 63 patients in Wuhan, China. Pan Yueying,Guan Hanxiong,Zhou Shuchang,Wang Yujin,Li Qian,Zhu Tingting,Hu Qiongjie,Xia Liming European radiology OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to observe the imaging characteristics of the novel coronavirus pneumonia. METHODS:Sixty-three confirmed patients were enrolled from December 30, 2019 to January 31, 2020. High-resolution CT (HRCT) of the chest was performed. The number of affected lobes, ground glass nodules (GGO), patchy/punctate ground glass opacities, patchy consolidation, fibrous stripes and irregular solid nodules in each patient's chest CT image were recorded. Additionally, we performed imaging follow-up of these patients. RESULTS:CT images of 63 confirmed patients were collected. M/F ratio: 33/30. The mean age was 44.9 ± 15.2 years. The mean number of affected lobes was 3.3 ± 1.8. Nineteen (30.2%) patients had one affected lobe, five (7.9%) patients had two affected lobes, four (6.3%) patients had three affected lobes, seven (11.1%) patients had four affected lobes while 28 (44.4%) patients had 5 affected lobes. Fifty-four (85.7%) patients had patchy/punctate ground glass opacities, 14 (22.2%) patients had GGO, 12 (19.0%) patients had patchy consolidation, 11 (17.5%) patients had fibrous stripes and 8 (12.7%) patients had irregular solid nodules. Fifty-four (85.7%) patients progressed, including single GGO increased, enlarged and consolidated; fibrous stripe enlarged, while solid nodules increased and enlarged. CONCLUSIONS:Imaging changes in novel viral pneumonia are rapid. The manifestations of the novel coronavirus pneumonia are diverse. Imaging changes of typical viral pneumonia and some specific imaging features were observed. Therefore, we need to strengthen the recognition of image changes to help clinicians to diagnose quickly and accurately. KEY POINTS:• High-resolution CT (HRCT) of the chest is critical for early detection, evaluation of disease severity and follow-up of patients with the novel coronavirus pneumonia. • The manifestations of the novel coronavirus pneumonia are diverse and change rapidly. • Radiologists should be aware of the various features of the disease and temporal changes. 10.1007/s00330-020-06731-x
    Clinical trial analysis of 2019-nCoV therapy registered in China. Zhang Qi,Wang Yakun,Qi Changsong,Shen Lin,Li Jian Journal of medical virology So far, there is a lack of effective drugs for the new coronavirus pneumonia. With more and more patients diagnosed, China has carried out more than 100 clinical studies of new coronavirus infection, including antiviral drugs, antimalarial drugs, glucocorticoids, plasma therapy, virus vaccine, and other Western drugs, while Chinese medicine research accounted for half of the studies. Most of the trials were initiated by investigators and the study period would last for 1 to 11 months. The primary endpoints included symptom improvement and virus nucleic acid turning negative, but the optimal endpoint has not been determined. Although the final results of studies will take a long time to complete, the interim research data may provide some help for the current urgent demand for drug treatment. Compared with that of during SARS period in 2003, China has the stronger capability to carry out clinical trials of new drugs in emergency period. 10.1002/jmv.25733
    CT Imaging Features of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Chung Michael,Bernheim Adam,Mei Xueyan,Zhang Ning,Huang Mingqian,Zeng Xianjun,Cui Jiufa,Xu Wenjian,Yang Yang,Fayad Zahi A,Jacobi Adam,Li Kunwei,Li Shaolin,Shan Hong Radiology In this retrospective case series, chest CT scans of 21 symptomatic patients from China infected with the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) were reviewed, with emphasis on identifying and characterizing the most common findings. Typical CT findings included bilateral pulmonary parenchymal ground-glass and consolidative pulmonary opacities, sometimes with a rounded morphology and a peripheral lung distribution. Notably, lung cavitation, discrete pulmonary nodules, pleural effusions, and lymphadenopathy were absent. Follow-up imaging in a subset of patients during the study time window often demonstrated mild or moderate progression of disease, as manifested by increasing extent and density of lung opacities. 10.1148/radiol.2020200230
    Incubation period of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections among travellers from Wuhan, China, 20-28 January 2020. Backer Jantien A,Klinkenberg Don,Wallinga Jacco Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) is causing an outbreak of viral pneumonia that started in Wuhan, China. Using the travel history and symptom onset of 88 confirmed cases that were detected outside Wuhan in the early outbreak phase, we estimate the mean incubation period to be 6.4 days (95% credible interval: 5.6-7.7), ranging from 2.1 to 11.1 days (2.5th to 97.5th percentile). These values should help inform 2019-nCoV case definitions and appropriate quarantine durations. 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.5.2000062
    Detectable 2019-nCoV viral RNA in blood is a strong indicator for the further clinical severity. Chen Weilie,Lan Yun,Yuan Xiaozhen,Deng Xilong,Li Yueping,Cai Xiaoli,Li Liya,He Ruiying,Tan Yizhou,Deng Xizi,Gao Ming,Tang Guofang,Zhao Lingzhai,Wang Jinlin,Fan Qinghong,Wen Chunyan,Tong Yuwei,Tang Yangbo,Hu Fengyu,Li Feng,Tang Xiaoping Emerging microbes & infections The novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection caused pneumonia. we retrospectively analyzed the virus presence in the pharyngeal swab, blood, and the anal swab detected by real-time PCR in the clinical lab. Unexpectedly, the 2109-nCoV RNA was readily detected in the blood (6 of 57 patients) and the anal swabs (11 of 28 patients). Importantly, all of the 6 patients with detectable viral RNA in the blood cohort progressed to severe symptom stage, indicating a strong correlation of serum viral RNA with the disease severity (-value = 0.0001). Meanwhile, 8 of the 11 patients with annal swab virus-positive was in severe clinical stage. However, the concentration of viral RNA in the anal swab (Ct value = 24 + 39) was higher than in the blood (Ct value = 34 + 39) from patient 2, suggesting that the virus might replicate in the digestive tract. Altogether, our results confirmed the presence of virus RNA in extra-pulmonary sites. 10.1080/22221751.2020.1732837
    Chest CT for Typical Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pneumonia: Relationship to Negative RT-PCR Testing. Xie Xingzhi,Zhong Zheng,Zhao Wei,Zheng Chao,Wang Fei,Liu Jun Radiology Some patients with positive chest CT findings may present with negative results of real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, the authors present chest CT findings from five patients with COVID-19 infection who had initial negative RT-PCR results. All five patients had typical imaging findings, including ground-glass opacity (five patients) and/or mixed ground-glass opacity and mixed consolidation (two patients). After isolation for presumed COVID-19 pneumonia, all patients were eventually confirmed to have COVID-19 infection by means of repeated swab tests. A combination of repeated swab tests and CT scanning may be helpful for individuals with a high clinical suspicion of COVID-19 infection but negative findings at RT-PCR screening. 10.1148/radiol.2020200343
    Emerging 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia. Song Fengxiang,Shi Nannan,Shan Fei,Zhang Zhiyong,Shen Jie,Lu Hongzhou,Ling Yun,Jiang Yebin,Shi Yuxin Radiology BackgroundThe chest CT findings of patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia have not previously been described in detail.PurposeTo investigate the clinical, laboratory, and imaging findings of emerging 2019-nCoV pneumonia in humans.Materials and MethodsFifty-one patients (25 men and 26 women; age range 16-76 years) with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction underwent thin-section CT. The imaging findings, clinical data, and laboratory data were evaluated.ResultsFifty of 51 patients (98%) had a history of contact with individuals from the endemic center in Wuhan, China. Fever (49 of 51, 96%) and cough (24 of 51, 47%) were the most common symptoms. Most patients had a normal white blood cell count (37 of 51, 73%), neutrophil count (44 of 51, 86%), and either normal (17 of 51, 35%) or reduced (33 of 51, 65%) lymphocyte count. CT images showed pure ground-glass opacity (GGO) in 39 of 51 (77%) patients and GGO with reticular and/or interlobular septal thickening in 38 of 51 (75%) patients. GGO with consolidation was present in 30 of 51 (59%) patients, and pure consolidation was present in 28 of 51 (55%) patients. Forty-four of 51 (86%) patients had bilateral lung involvement, while 41 of 51 (80%) involved the posterior part of the lungs and 44 of 51 (86%) were peripheral. There were more consolidated lung lesions in patients 5 days or more from disease onset to CT scan versus 4 days or fewer (431 of 712 lesions vs 129 of 612 lesions; < .001). Patients older than 50 years had more consolidated lung lesions than did those aged 50 years or younger (212 of 470 vs 198 of 854; < .001). Follow-up CT in 13 patients showed improvement in seven (54%) patients and progression in four (31%) patients.ConclusionPatients with fever and/or cough and with conspicuous ground-glass opacity lesions in the peripheral and posterior lungs on CT images, combined with normal or decreased white blood cells and a history of epidemic exposure, are highly suspected of having 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia.© RSNA, 2020. 10.1148/radiol.2020200274
    Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Lu Hongzhou Bioscience trends As of January 22, 2020, a total of 571 cases of the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV) have been reported in 25 provinces (districts and cities) in China. At present, there is no vaccine or antiviral treatment for human and animal coronavirus, so that identifying the drug treatment options as soon as possible is critical for the response to the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Three general methods, which include existing broad-spectrum antiviral drugs using standard assays, screening of a chemical library containing many existing compounds or databases, and the redevelopment of new specific drugs based on the genome and biophysical understanding of individual coronaviruses, are used to discover the potential antiviral treatment of human pathogen coronavirus. Lopinavir /Ritonavir, Nucleoside analogues, Neuraminidase inhibitors, Remdesivir, peptide (EK1), abidol, RNA synthesis inhibitors (such as TDF, 3TC), anti-inflammatory drugs (such as hormones and other molecules), Chinese traditional medicine, such ShuFengJieDu Capsules and Lianhuaqingwen Capsule, could be the drug treatment options for 2019-nCoV. However, the efficacy and safety of these drugs for 2019- nCoV still need to be further confirmed by clinical experiments. 10.5582/bst.2020.01020
    Coronavirus 2019-nCoV: A brief perspective from the front line. Han Qingmei,Lin Qingqing,Jin Shenhe,You Liangshun The Journal of infection A novel coronavirus, designated as 2019-nCoV, hit the central Chinese city of Wuhan in late December 2019, and subsequently spread rapidly to all provinces of China and multiple countries. As of 0:00 am February 9, 2020, a total of 37,287 cases have been confirmed infection of 2019-nCoV in China mainland, and 302 cases have also been cumulatively reported from 24 countries. According to the latest data, a total of 813 deaths occurred in China mainland, with the mortality reaching approximately 2.2%. At present, there is no vaccine or specific drugs for the human coronavirus. Therefore, it is critical to understand the nature of the virus and its clinical characteristics, in order to respond to the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Thus, the present study briefly but comprehensively summarizes the not much but timely reports on the 2019-nCoV. 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.02.010
    Clinical and biochemical indexes from 2019-nCoV infected patients linked to viral loads and lung injury. Liu Yingxia,Yang Yang,Zhang Cong,Huang Fengming,Wang Fuxiang,Yuan Jing,Wang Zhaoqin,Li Jinxiu,Li Jianming,Feng Cheng,Zhang Zheng,Wang Lifei,Peng Ling,Chen Li,Qin Yuhao,Zhao Dandan,Tan Shuguang,Yin Lu,Xu Jun,Zhou Congzhao,Jiang Chengyu,Liu Lei Science China. Life sciences The outbreak of the 2019-nCoV infection began in December 2019 in Wuhan, Hubei province, and rapidly spread to many provinces in China as well as other countries. Here we report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics, as well as potential biomarkers for predicting disease severity in 2019-nCoV-infected patients in Shenzhen, China. All 12 cases of the 2019-nCoV-infected patients developed pneumonia and half of them developed acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The most common laboratory abnormalities were hypoalbuminemia, lymphopenia, decreased percentage of lymphocytes (LYM) and neutrophils (NEU), elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and decreased CD8 count. The viral load of 2019-nCoV detected from patient respiratory tracts was positively linked to lung disease severity. ALB, LYM, LYM (%), LDH, NEU (%), and CRP were highly correlated to the acute lung injury. Age, viral load, lung injury score, and blood biochemistry indexes, albumin (ALB), CRP, LDH, LYM (%), LYM, and NEU (%), may be predictors of disease severity. Moreover, the Angiotensin II level in the plasma sample from 2019-nCoV infected patients was markedly elevated and linearly associated to viral load and lung injury. Our results suggest a number of potential diagnosis biomarkers and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) drugs for potential repurposing treatment of 2019-nCoV infection. 10.1007/s11427-020-1643-8
    Clinical characteristics of hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection: A single arm meta-analysis. Sun Pengfei,Qie Shuyan,Liu Zongjian,Ren Jizhen,Li Kun,Xi Jianing Journal of medical virology OBJECTIVE:We aim to summarize reliable evidence of evidence-based medicine for the treatment and prevention of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) by analyzing all the published studies on the clinical characteristics of patients with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS:PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, and other databases were searched. Several studies on the clinical characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 infection were collected for meta-analysis. RESULTS:Ten studies were included in Meta-analysis, including a total number of 50466 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Meta-analysis shows that, among these patients, the incidence of fever was 0.891 (95% CI: 0.818, 0.945), the incidence of cough was 0.722 (95% CI: 0.657, 0.782), and the incidence of muscle soreness or fatigue was 0.425 (95% CI: 0.213, 0.652). The incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) was 0.148 (95% CI: 0.046, 0.296), the incidence of abnormal chest computer tomography (CT) was 0.966 (95% CI: 0.921, 0.993), the percentage of severe cases in all infected cases was 0.181 (95% CI: 0.127, 0.243), and the case fatality rate of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection was 0.043 (95% CI: 0.027, 0.061). CONCLUSION:Fever and cough are the most common symptoms in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and most of these patients have abnormal chest CT examination. Several people have muscle soreness or fatigue as well as ARDS. Diarrhea, hemoptysis, headache, sore throat, shock, and other symptoms are rare. The case fatality rate of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection is lower than that of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). This meta-analysis also has limitations, so the conclusions of this Meta-analysis still need to be verified by more relevant studies with more careful design, more rigorous execution, and larger sample size. 10.1002/jmv.25735
    Epidemiologic characteristics of early cases with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) disease in Korea. Ki Moran, Epidemiology and health In about 20 days since the diagnosis of the first case of the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Korea on January 20, 2020, 28 cases have been confirmed. Fifteen patients (53.6%) of them were male and median age of was 42 years (range, 20-73). Of the confirmed cases, 16, 9, and 3 were index (57.2%), first-generation (32.1%), and second-generation (10.7%) cases, respectively. All first-generation and second-generation patients were family members or intimate acquaintances of the index cases with close contacts. Fifteen among 16 index patients had entered Korea from January 19 to 24, 2020 while 1 patient had entered Korea on January 31, 2020. The average incubation period was 3.9 days (median, 3.0), and the reproduction number was estimated as 0.48. Three of the confirmed patients were asymptomatic when they were diagnosed. Epidemiological indicators will be revised with the availability of additional data in the future. Sharing epidemiological information among researchers worldwide is essential for efficient preparation and response in tackling this new infectious disease. 10.4178/epih.e2020007
    Early Transmission Dynamics in Wuhan, China, of Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia. Li Qun,Guan Xuhua,Wu Peng,Wang Xiaoye,Zhou Lei,Tong Yeqing,Ren Ruiqi,Leung Kathy S M,Lau Eric H Y,Wong Jessica Y,Xing Xuesen,Xiang Nijuan,Wu Yang,Li Chao,Chen Qi,Li Dan,Liu Tian,Zhao Jing,Liu Man,Tu Wenxiao,Chen Chuding,Jin Lianmei,Yang Rui,Wang Qi,Zhou Suhua,Wang Rui,Liu Hui,Luo Yinbo,Liu Yuan,Shao Ge,Li Huan,Tao Zhongfa,Yang Yang,Deng Zhiqiang,Liu Boxi,Ma Zhitao,Zhang Yanping,Shi Guoqing,Lam Tommy T Y,Wu Joseph T,Gao George F,Cowling Benjamin J,Yang Bo,Leung Gabriel M,Feng Zijian The New England journal of medicine BACKGROUND:The initial cases of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019 and January 2020. We analyzed data on the first 425 confirmed cases in Wuhan to determine the epidemiologic characteristics of NCIP. METHODS:We collected information on demographic characteristics, exposure history, and illness timelines of laboratory-confirmed cases of NCIP that had been reported by January 22, 2020. We described characteristics of the cases and estimated the key epidemiologic time-delay distributions. In the early period of exponential growth, we estimated the epidemic doubling time and the basic reproductive number. RESULTS:Among the first 425 patients with confirmed NCIP, the median age was 59 years and 56% were male. The majority of cases (55%) with onset before January 1, 2020, were linked to the Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market, as compared with 8.6% of the subsequent cases. The mean incubation period was 5.2 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.1 to 7.0), with the 95th percentile of the distribution at 12.5 days. In its early stages, the epidemic doubled in size every 7.4 days. With a mean serial interval of 7.5 days (95% CI, 5.3 to 19), the basic reproductive number was estimated to be 2.2 (95% CI, 1.4 to 3.9). CONCLUSIONS:On the basis of this information, there is evidence that human-to-human transmission has occurred among close contacts since the middle of December 2019. Considerable efforts to reduce transmission will be required to control outbreaks if similar dynamics apply elsewhere. Measures to prevent or reduce transmission should be implemented in populations at risk. (Funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China and others.). 10.1056/NEJMoa2001316
    Imaging and clinical features of patients with 2019 novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Xu Xi,Yu Chengcheng,Qu Jing,Zhang Lieguang,Jiang Songfeng,Huang Deyang,Chen Bihua,Zhang Zhiping,Guan Wanhua,Ling Zhoukun,Jiang Rui,Hu Tianli,Ding Yan,Lin Lin,Gan Qingxin,Luo Liangping,Tang Xiaoping,Liu Jinxin European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging BACKGROUND:The pneumonia caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2, also called 2019-nCoV) recently break out in Wuhan, China, and was named as COVID-19. With the spread of the disease, similar cases have also been confirmed in other regions of China. We aimed to report the imaging and clinical characteristics of these patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 in Guangzhou, China. METHODS:All patients with laboratory-identified SARS-CoV-2 infection by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were collected between January 23, 2020, and February 4, 2020, in a designated hospital (Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital). This analysis included 90 patients (39 men and 51 women; median age, 50 years (age range, 18-86 years). All the included SARS-CoV-2-infected patients underwent non-contrast enhanced chest computed tomography (CT). We analyzed the clinical characteristics of the patients, as well as the distribution characteristics, pattern, morphology, and accompanying manifestations of lung lesions. In addition, after 1-6 days (mean 3.5 days), follow-up chest CT images were evaluated to assess radiological evolution. FINDINGS:The majority of infected patients had a history of exposure in Wuhan or to infected patients and mostly presented with fever and cough. More than half of the patients presented bilateral, multifocal lung lesions, with peripheral distribution, and 53 (59%) patients had more than two lobes involved. Of all included patients, COVID-19 pneumonia presented with ground glass opacities in 65 (72%), consolidation in 12 (13%), crazy paving pattern in 11 (12%), interlobular thickening in 33 (37%), adjacent pleura thickening in 50 (56%), and linear opacities combined in 55 (61%). Pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and lymphadenopathy were uncommon findings. In addition, baseline chest CT did not show any abnormalities in 21 patients (23%), but 3 patients presented bilateral ground glass opacities on the second CT after 3-4 days. CONCLUSION:SARS-CoV-2 infection can be confirmed based on the patient's history, clinical manifestations, imaging characteristics, and laboratory tests. Chest CT examination plays an important role in the initial diagnosis of the novel coronavirus pneumonia. Multiple patchy ground glass opacities in bilateral multiple lobular with periphery distribution are typical chest CT imaging features of the COVID-19 pneumonia. 10.1007/s00259-020-04735-9
    [Exploring the mechanism of liver enzyme abnormalities in patients with novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia]. Guan G W,Gao L,Wang J W,Wen X J,Mao T H,Peng S W,Zhang T,Chen X M,Lu F M Zhonghua gan zang bing za zhi = Zhonghua ganzangbing zazhi = Chinese journal of hepatology To explore and analyze the possible mechanism of liver injury in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (novel coronavirus pneumonia, NCP). The correlation between ALT, AST and other liver enzyme changes condition and NCP patients' disease status reported in the literature was comprehensively analyzed. ACE2 expression in liver tissue for novel coronavirus was analyzed based on single cell sequencing (GSE115469) data. RNA-Seq method was used to analyze Ace2 expression and transcription factors related to its expression in liver tissues at various time-points after hepatectomy in mouse model of acute liver injury with partial hepatectomy. -test or Spearman rank correlation analysis was used for statistical analysis. ALT and AST were abnormally elevated in some patients with novel coronavirus infection, and the rate and extent of ALT and AST elevation in severe NCP patients were higher than those in non-severe patients. Liver tissue results of single cell sequencing and immunohistochemistry showed that ACE2 was only expressed in bile duct epithelial cells of normal liver tissues, and very low in hepatocytes. In a mouse model of acute liver injury with partial hepatectomy, Ace2 expression was down-regulated on the first day, but it was elevated up to twice of the normal level on the third day, and returned to normal level on seventh day when the liver recovered and hepatocyte proliferation stopped. Whether this phenomenon suggests that the bile duct epithelial cells with positive expression of Ace2 participate in the process of liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy deserves further study. In RNA-Seq data, 77 transcription factors were positively correlated with the expression of Ace2 ( > 0.2, FDR < 0.05), which were mainly enriched in the development, differentiation, morphogenesis and cell proliferation of glandular epithelial cells. We assumed that in addition to the over activated inflammatory response in patients with NCP, the up-regulation of ACE2 expression in liver tissue caused by compensatory proliferation of hepatocytes derived from bile duct epithelial cells may also be the possible mechanism of liver tissue injury caused by 2019 novel coronavirus infection. 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1007-3418.2020.02.002
    Correlation of Chest CT and RT-PCR Testing for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in China: A Report of 1014 Cases. Ai Tao,Yang Zhenlu,Hou Hongyan,Zhan Chenao,Chen Chong,Lv Wenzhi,Tao Qian,Sun Ziyong,Xia Liming Radiology Background Chest CT is used in the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and is an important complement to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests. Purpose To investigate the diagnostic value and consistency of chest CT as compared with RT-PCR assay in COVID-19. Materials and Methods This study included 1014 patients in Wuhan, China, who underwent both chest CT and RT-PCR tests between January 6 and February 6, 2020. With use of RT-PCR as the reference standard, the performance of chest CT in the diagnosis of COVID-19 was assessed. In addition, for patients with multiple RT-PCR assays, the dynamic conversion of RT-PCR results (negative to positive, positive to negative) was analyzed as compared with serial chest CT scans for those with a time interval between RT-PCR tests of 4 days or more. Results Of the 1014 patients, 601 of 1014 (59%) had positive RT-PCR results and 888 of 1014 (88%) had positive chest CT scans. The sensitivity of chest CT in suggesting COVID-19 was 97% (95% confidence interval: 95%, 98%; 580 of 601 patients) based on positive RT-PCR results. In the 413 patients with negative RT-PCR results, 308 of 413 (75%) had positive chest CT findings. Of those 308 patients, 48% (103 of 308) were considered as highly likely cases and 33% (103 of 308) as probable cases. At analysis of serial RT-PCR assays and CT scans, the mean interval between the initial negative to positive RT-PCR results was 5.1 days ± 1.5; the mean interval between initial positive to subsequent negative RT-PCR results was 6.9 days ± 2.3. Of the 1014 patients, 60% (34 of 57) to 93% (14 of 15) had initial positive CT scans consistent with COVID-19 before (or parallel to) the initial positive RT-PCR results. Twenty-four of 57 patients (42%) showed improvement on follow-up chest CT scans before the RT-PCR results turned negative. Conclusion Chest CT has a high sensitivity for diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Chest CT may be considered as a primary tool for the current COVID-19 detection in epidemic areas. © RSNA, 2020 ترجمه چکیده این مقاله به فارسی، در ضمیمه موجود است. 10.1148/radiol.2020200642
    Nepal's first case of COVID-19 and public health response. Shrestha Ranish,Shrestha Sunil,Khanal Pratik,Kc Bhuvan Journal of travel medicine 10.1093/jtm/taaa024
    First cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in France: surveillance, investigations and control measures, January 2020. Bernard Stoecklin Sibylle,Rolland Patrick,Silue Yassoungo,Mailles Alexandra,Campese Christine,Simondon Anne,Mechain Matthieu,Meurice Laure,Nguyen Mathieu,Bassi Clément,Yamani Estelle,Behillil Sylvie,Ismael Sophie,Nguyen Duc,Malvy Denis,Lescure François Xavier,Georges Scarlett,Lazarus Clément,Tabaï Anouk,Stempfelet Morgane,Enouf Vincent,Coignard Bruno,Levy-Bruhl Daniel, Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin A novel coronavirus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2) causing a cluster of respiratory infections (coronavirus disease 2019, COVID-19) in Wuhan, China, was identified on 7 January 2020. The epidemic quickly disseminated from Wuhan and as at 12 February 2020, 45,179 cases have been confirmed in 25 countries, including 1,116 deaths. Strengthened surveillance was implemented in France on 10 January 2020 in order to identify imported cases early and prevent secondary transmission. Three categories of risk exposure and follow-up procedure were defined for contacts. Three cases of COVID-19 were confirmed on 24 January, the first cases in Europe. Contact tracing was immediately initiated. Five contacts were evaluated as at low risk of exposure and 18 at moderate/high risk. As at 12 February 2020, two cases have been discharged and the third one remains symptomatic with a persistent cough, and no secondary transmission has been identified. Effective collaboration between all parties involved in the surveillance and response to emerging threats is required to detect imported cases early and to implement adequate control measures. 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.6.2000094
    Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Outbreak in 2019: Computed Tomographic Findings in Two Cases. Lin Xiaoqi,Gong Zhenyu,Xiao Zuke,Xiong Jingliang,Fan Bing,Liu Jiaqi Korean journal of radiology Since the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV or officially named by the World Health Organization as COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China in 2019, there have been a few reports of its imaging findings. Here, we report two confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV pneumonia with chest computed tomography findings of multiple regions of patchy consolidation and ground-glass opacities in both lungs. These findings were characteristically located along the bronchial bundle or subpleural lungs. 10.3348/kjr.2020.0078
    [Comparison of the clinical characteristics between RNA positive and negative patients clinically diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019]. Li Y Y,Wang W N,Lei Y,Zhang B,Yang J,Hu J W,Ren Y L,Lu Q F Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases To raise awareness about 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia (NCP) and reduce missed diagnosis rate and misdiagnosis rate by comparing the clinical characteristics between RNA positive and negative patients clinically diagnosed with NCP. From January 2020 to February 2020, 54 patients who were newly diagnosed with NCP in Wuhan Fourth Hospital were included in this study. RT-PCR method was used to measure the level of 2019-nCov RNA in pharyngeal swab samples of these patients. The patients were divided into RNA positive and negative group, and the differences of clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics were compared. There were 31 RNA of 2019-nCov positive cases, and 23 negative cases. Common clinical symptoms of two groups were fever (80.64% vs. 86.96%) , chills (61.29% vs. 52.17%) , cough (80.64% vs. 95.65%) , fatigue (61.30% vs. 56.52%) , chest distress (77.42% vs.73.91%) . Some other symptoms were headache, myalgia, dyspnea, diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. The laboratory and radiological characteristics of two groups mainly were lymphopenia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, increased C-reactive protein, increased lactate dehydrogenase, decreased oxygenation index, normal white blood cell count and bilateral chest CT involvement. There was no statistically significant difference in other clinical characteristics except for dyspnea between two groups. RNA positive and negative NCP patients shared similar clinical symptoms, while RNA positive NCP patients tended to have dyspnea. Therefore, we should improve the understanding of NCP to prevent missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis; In addition, more rapid and accurate NCP diagnostic approaches should be further developed. 10.3760/cma.j.cn112147-20200214-00095
    Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Wang Dawei,Hu Bo,Hu Chang,Zhu Fangfang,Liu Xing,Zhang Jing,Wang Binbin,Xiang Hui,Cheng Zhenshun,Xiong Yong,Zhao Yan,Li Yirong,Wang Xinghuan,Peng Zhiyong JAMA Importance:In December 2019, novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)-infected pneumonia (NCIP) occurred in Wuhan, China. The number of cases has increased rapidly but information on the clinical characteristics of affected patients is limited. Objective:To describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of NCIP. Design, Setting, and Participants:Retrospective, single-center case series of the 138 consecutive hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP at Zhongnan Hospital of Wuhan University in Wuhan, China, from January 1 to January 28, 2020; final date of follow-up was February 3, 2020. Exposures:Documented NCIP. Main Outcomes and Measures:Epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory, radiological, and treatment data were collected and analyzed. Outcomes of critically ill patients and noncritically ill patients were compared. Presumed hospital-related transmission was suspected if a cluster of health professionals or hospitalized patients in the same wards became infected and a possible source of infection could be tracked. Results:Of 138 hospitalized patients with NCIP, the median age was 56 years (interquartile range, 42-68; range, 22-92 years) and 75 (54.3%) were men. Hospital-associated transmission was suspected as the presumed mechanism of infection for affected health professionals (40 [29%]) and hospitalized patients (17 [12.3%]). Common symptoms included fever (136 [98.6%]), fatigue (96 [69.6%]), and dry cough (82 [59.4%]). Lymphopenia (lymphocyte count, 0.8 × 109/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 0.6-1.1]) occurred in 97 patients (70.3%), prolonged prothrombin time (13.0 seconds [IQR, 12.3-13.7]) in 80 patients (58%), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (261 U/L [IQR, 182-403]) in 55 patients (39.9%). Chest computed tomographic scans showed bilateral patchy shadows or ground glass opacity in the lungs of all patients. Most patients received antiviral therapy (oseltamivir, 124 [89.9%]), and many received antibacterial therapy (moxifloxacin, 89 [64.4%]; ceftriaxone, 34 [24.6%]; azithromycin, 25 [18.1%]) and glucocorticoid therapy (62 [44.9%]). Thirty-six patients (26.1%) were transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) because of complications, including acute respiratory distress syndrome (22 [61.1%]), arrhythmia (16 [44.4%]), and shock (11 [30.6%]). The median time from first symptom to dyspnea was 5.0 days, to hospital admission was 7.0 days, and to ARDS was 8.0 days. Patients treated in the ICU (n = 36), compared with patients not treated in the ICU (n = 102), were older (median age, 66 years vs 51 years), were more likely to have underlying comorbidities (26 [72.2%] vs 38 [37.3%]), and were more likely to have dyspnea (23 [63.9%] vs 20 [19.6%]), and anorexia (24 [66.7%] vs 31 [30.4%]). Of the 36 cases in the ICU, 4 (11.1%) received high-flow oxygen therapy, 15 (41.7%) received noninvasive ventilation, and 17 (47.2%) received invasive ventilation (4 were switched to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation). As of February 3, 47 patients (34.1%) were discharged and 6 died (overall mortality, 4.3%), but the remaining patients are still hospitalized. Among those discharged alive (n = 47), the median hospital stay was 10 days (IQR, 7.0-14.0). Conclusions and Relevance:In this single-center case series of 138 hospitalized patients with confirmed NCIP in Wuhan, China, presumed hospital-related transmission of 2019-nCoV was suspected in 41% of patients, 26% of patients received ICU care, and mortality was 4.3%. 10.1001/jama.2020.1585
    First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. Holshue Michelle L,DeBolt Chas,Lindquist Scott,Lofy Kathy H,Wiesman John,Bruce Hollianne,Spitters Christopher,Ericson Keith,Wilkerson Sara,Tural Ahmet,Diaz George,Cohn Amanda,Fox LeAnne,Patel Anita,Gerber Susan I,Kim Lindsay,Tong Suxiang,Lu Xiaoyan,Lindstrom Steve,Pallansch Mark A,Weldon William C,Biggs Holly M,Uyeki Timothy M,Pillai Satish K, The New England journal of medicine An outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) that began in Wuhan, China, has spread rapidly, with cases now confirmed in multiple countries. We report the first case of 2019-nCoV infection confirmed in the United States and describe the identification, diagnosis, clinical course, and management of the case, including the patient's initial mild symptoms at presentation with progression to pneumonia on day 9 of illness. This case highlights the importance of close coordination between clinicians and public health authorities at the local, state, and federal levels, as well as the need for rapid dissemination of clinical information related to the care of patients with this emerging infection. 10.1056/NEJMoa2001191
    Clinical characteristics of novel coronavirus cases in tertiary hospitals in Hubei Province. Liu Kui,Fang Yuan-Yuan,Deng Yan,Liu Wei,Wang Mei-Fang,Ma Jing-Ping,Xiao Wei,Wang Ying-Nan,Zhong Min-Hua,Li Cheng-Hong,Li Guang-Cai,Liu Hui-Guo Chinese medical journal BACKGROUND:The 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) causing an outbreak of pneumonia in Wuhan, Hubei province of China was isolated in January 2020. This study aims to investigate its epidemiologic history, and analyze the clinical characteristics, treatment regimens, and prognosis of patients infected with 2019-nCoV during this outbreak. METHODS:Clinical data from 137 2019-nCoV-infected patients admitted to the respiratory departments of nine tertiary hospitals in Hubei province from December 30, 2019 to January 24, 2020 were retrospectively collected, including general status, clinical manifestations, laboratory test results, imaging characteristics, and treatment regimens. RESULTS:None of the 137 patients (61 males, 76 females, aged 20-83 years, median age 57 years) had a definite history of exposure to Huanan Seafood Wholesale Market. Major initial symptoms included fever (112/137, 81.8%), coughing (66/137, 48.2%), and muscle pain or fatigue (44/137, 32.1%), with other, less typical initial symptoms observed at low frequency, including heart palpitations, diarrhea, and headache. Nearly 80% of the patients had normal or decreased white blood cell counts, and 72.3% (99/137) had lymphocytopenia. Lung involvement was present in all cases, with most chest computed tomography scans showing lesions in multiple lung lobes, some of which were dense; ground-glass opacity co-existed with consolidation shadows or cord-like shadows. Given the lack of effective drugs, treatment focused on symptomatic and respiratory support. Immunoglobulin G was delivered to some critically ill patients according to their conditions. Systemic corticosteroid treatment did not show significant benefits. Notably, early respiratory support facilitated disease recovery and improved prognosis. The risk of death was primarily associated with age, underlying chronic diseases, and median interval from the appearance of initial symptoms to dyspnea. CONCLUSIONS:The majority of patients with 2019-nCoV pneumonia present with fever as the first symptom, and most of them still showed typical manifestations of viral pneumonia on chest imaging. Middle-aged and elderly patients with underlying comorbidities are susceptible to respiratory failure and may have a poorer prognosis. 10.1097/CM9.0000000000000744
    [Retracted: Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 34 children with 2019 novel coronavirus infection in Shenzhen]. Wang X F,Yuan J,Zheng Y J,Chen J,Bao Y M,Wang Y R,Wang L F,Li H,Zeng J X,Zhang Y H,Liu Y X,Liu L Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics To describe the characteristics of clinical manifestations and epidemiology of children with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infection. All 34 children with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR through nasopharyngeal swab specimens were admitted to the Third People's Hospital of Shenzhen from January 19 to Febuary 7, 2020. Clinical data and epidemiological history of these patients were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Among the 34 cases, 14 were males, and 20 were females. The median age was 8 years and 11 months. No patients had underlying diseases. There were 28 children (82%) related with a family cluster outbreak. There were 26 children (76%) with a travel or residence history in Hubei Province. These patients could be categorized into different clinical types, including 22 (65%) common cases, 9 (26%) mild cases and 3 (8.8%) asymptomatic cases. No severe or critical cases were identified. The most common symptoms were fever (17 cases, 50%) and cough (13 cases, 38% ). In the 34 cases, the white blood cell counts of 28 cases (82%) were normal. Five cases had white blood cell counts more than 10×10(9)/L. One case had white blood cell counts less than 4×10(9)/L. Neutropenia and lymphopenia was found in one case, respectively. C-reactive protein levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rates were elevated in 1 and 5 case, respectively. Elevated procalcitonin was found in 1 case and D-Dimer in 3 cases. The levels of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) were more than 400 U/L in 10 cases. The CT images of these patients showed bilateral multiple patchy or nodular ground-glass opacities and/or infiltrating shadows in middle and outer zone of the lung or under the pleura. Twenty patients were treated with lopinavir and ritonavir. Glucocorticoids and immunoglobulin were not used in any cases. All the cases improved and were discharged from hospital. Further following up was need. The clinical manifestations in children with 2019-nCoV infection are non-specific and are milder than that in adults. Chest CT scanning is heplful for early diagnosis. Children's infection is mainly caused by family cluster outbreak and imported cases. Family daily prevention is the main way to prevent 2019-nCoV infection. 10.3760/cma.j.issn.0578-1310.2020.0008
    Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Huang Chaolin,Wang Yeming,Li Xingwang,Ren Lili,Zhao Jianping,Hu Yi,Zhang Li,Fan Guohui,Xu Jiuyang,Gu Xiaoying,Cheng Zhenshun,Yu Ting,Xia Jiaan,Wei Yuan,Wu Wenjuan,Xie Xuelei,Yin Wen,Li Hui,Liu Min,Xiao Yan,Gao Hong,Guo Li,Xie Jungang,Wang Guangfa,Jiang Rongmeng,Gao Zhancheng,Jin Qi,Wang Jianwei,Cao Bin Lancet (London, England) BACKGROUND:A recent cluster of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China, was caused by a novel betacoronavirus, the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). We report the epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, and radiological characteristics and treatment and clinical outcomes of these patients. METHODS:All patients with suspected 2019-nCoV were admitted to a designated hospital in Wuhan. We prospectively collected and analysed data on patients with laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection by real-time RT-PCR and next-generation sequencing. Data were obtained with standardised data collection forms shared by WHO and the International Severe Acute Respiratory and Emerging Infection Consortium from electronic medical records. Researchers also directly communicated with patients or their families to ascertain epidemiological and symptom data. Outcomes were also compared between patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and those who had not. FINDINGS:By Jan 2, 2020, 41 admitted hospital patients had been identified as having laboratory-confirmed 2019-nCoV infection. Most of the infected patients were men (30 [73%] of 41); less than half had underlying diseases (13 [32%]), including diabetes (eight [20%]), hypertension (six [15%]), and cardiovascular disease (six [15%]). Median age was 49·0 years (IQR 41·0-58·0). 27 (66%) of 41 patients had been exposed to Huanan seafood market. One family cluster was found. Common symptoms at onset of illness were fever (40 [98%] of 41 patients), cough (31 [76%]), and myalgia or fatigue (18 [44%]); less common symptoms were sputum production (11 [28%] of 39), headache (three [8%] of 38), haemoptysis (two [5%] of 39), and diarrhoea (one [3%] of 38). Dyspnoea developed in 22 (55%) of 40 patients (median time from illness onset to dyspnoea 8·0 days [IQR 5·0-13·0]). 26 (63%) of 41 patients had lymphopenia. All 41 patients had pneumonia with abnormal findings on chest CT. Complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (12 [29%]), RNAaemia (six [15%]), acute cardiac injury (five [12%]) and secondary infection (four [10%]). 13 (32%) patients were admitted to an ICU and six (15%) died. Compared with non-ICU patients, ICU patients had higher plasma levels of IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα. INTERPRETATION:The 2019-nCoV infection caused clusters of severe respiratory illness similar to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and was associated with ICU admission and high mortality. Major gaps in our knowledge of the origin, epidemiology, duration of human transmission, and clinical spectrum of disease need fulfilment by future studies. FUNDING:Ministry of Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation of China, and Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission. 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
    [Analysis of clinical features of 29 patients with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia]. Chen L,Liu H G,Liu W,Liu J,Liu K,Shang J,Deng Y,Wei S Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases To analyze the clinical characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia and to investigate the correlation between serum inflammatory cytokines and severity of the disease. 29 patients with 2019-ncov admitted to the isolation ward of Tongji hospital affiliated to Tongji medical college of Huazhong University of Science and Technology in January 2020 were selected as the study subjects. Clinical data were collected and the general information, clinical symptoms, blood test and CT imaging characteristics were analyzed. According to the relevant diagnostic criteria, the patients were divided into three groups: mild (15 cases), severe (9 cases) and critical (5 cases). The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and other markers in the serum of each group were detected, and the changes of these indicators of the three groups were compared and analyzed, as well as their relationship with the clinical classification of the disease. (1) The main symptoms of 2019-nCoV pneumonia was fever (28/29) with or without respiratory and other systemic symptoms. Two patients died with underlying disease and co-bacterial infection, respectively. (2) The blood test of the patients showed normal or decreased white blood cell count (23/29), decreased lymphocyte count (20/29), increased hypersensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) (27/29), and normal procalcitonin. In most patients,serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was significantly increased (20/29), while albumin was decreased(15/29). Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin (Tbil), serum creatinine (Scr) and other items showed no significant changes. (3) CT findings of typical cases were single or multiple patchy ground glass shadows accompanied by septal thickening. When the disease progresses, the lesion increases and the scope expands, and the ground glass shadow coexists with the solid shadow or the stripe shadow. (4) There were statistically significant differences in the expression levels of interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) and IL-6 in the serum of the three groups (P<0.05), among which the critical group was higher than the severe group and the severe group was higher than the mildgroup. However, there were no statistically significant differences in serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), IL-1, IL-8, IL-10, hs-CRP, lymphocyte count and LDH among the three groups (P>0.05). The clinical characteristics of 2019-nCoV pneumonia are similar to those of common viral pneumonia. High resolution CT is of great value in the differential diagnosis of this disease. The increased expression of IL-2R and IL-6 in serum is expected to predict the severity of the 2019-nCoV pneumonia and the prognosis of patients. 10.3760/cma.j.issn.1001-0939.2020.0005