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Data-driven subgroups of type 2 diabetes, metabolic response, and renal risk profile after bariatric surgery: a retrospective cohort study. The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:A novel data-driven classification of type 2 diabetes has been proposed to personalise anti-diabetic treatment according to phenotype. One subgroup, severe insulin-resistant diabetes (SIRD), is characterised by mild hyperglycaemia but marked hyperinsulinaemia, and presents an increased risk of diabetic nephropathy. We hypothesised that patients with SIRD could particularly benefit from metabolic surgery. METHODS:We retrospectively related the newly defined clusters with the response to metabolic surgery in participants with type 2 diabetes from independent cohorts in France (the Atlas Biologique de l'Obésite Sévère [ABOS] cohort, n=368; participants underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or sleeve gastrectomy between Jan 1, 2006, and Dec 12, 2017) and Brazil (the metabolic surgery cohort of the German Hospital of San Paulo, n=121; participants underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass between April 1, 2008, and March 20, 2016). The study outcomes were type 2 diabetes remission and improvement of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). FINDINGS:At baseline, 34 (9%) of 368 patients, 314 (85%) of 368 patients, and 17 (5%) of 368 patients were classified as having SIRD, mild obesity-related diabetes (MOD), and severe insulin deficient diabetes (SIDD) in the ABOS cohort, respectively, and in the São Paulo cohort, ten (8%) of 121 patients, 83 (69%) of 121 patients, and 25 (21%) of 121 patients were classified as having SIRD, MOD, and SIDD, respectively. At 1 year, type 2 diabetes remission was reported in 26 (81%) of 32 and nine (90%) of ten patients with SIRD, 167 (55%) of 306 and 42 (51%) of 83 patients with MOD, and two (13%) of 16 and nine (36%) of 25 patients with SIDD, in the ABOS and São Paulo cohorts, respectively. The mean eGFR was lower in patients with SIRD at baseline and increased postoperatively in these patients in both cohorts. In multivariable analysis, SIRD was associated with more frequent type 2 diabetes remission (odds ratio 4·3, 95% CI 1·8-11·2; p=0·0015), and an increase in eGFR (mean effect size 13·1 ml/min per 1·73 m, 95% CI 3·6-22·7; p=0·0070). INTERPRETATION:Patients in the SIRD subgroup had better outcomes after metabolic surgery, both in terms of type 2 diabetes remission and renal function, with no additional surgical risk. Data-driven classification might help to refine the indications for metabolic surgery. FUNDING:Agence Nationale de la Recherche, Investissement d'Avenir, Innovative Medecines Initiative, Fondation Cœur et Artères, and Fondation Francophone pour la Recherche sur le Diabète. 10.1016/S2213-8587(22)00005-5
Cardiometabolic outcomes and mortality in medically treated primary aldosteronism: a retrospective cohort study. The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonists are the recommended medical therapy for primary aldosteronism. Whether this recommendation effectively reduces cardiometabolic risk is not well understood. We aimed to investigate the risk of incident cardiovascular events in patients with primary aldosteronism treated with MR antagonists compared with patients with essential hypertension. METHODS:We did a cohort study using patients from a research registry from Brigham and Women's Hospital, Massachusetts General Hospital, and their affiliated partner hospitals. We identified patients with primary aldosteronism using International Classification of Disease, 9th and 10th Revision codes, who were assessed between the years 1991-2016 and were at least 18 years of age. We excluded patients who underwent surgical adrenalectomy, had a previous cardiovascular event, were not treated with MR antagonists, or had no follow-up visits after study entry. From the same registry, we identified a population with essential hypertension that was frequency matched by decade of age at study entry. We extracted patient cohort data and collated it into a de-identified database. The primary outcome was an incident cardiovascular event, defined as a composite of incident myocardial infarction or coronary revascularisation, hospital admission with congestive heart failure, or stroke, which was assessed using adjusted Cox regression models. Secondary outcomes were the individual components of the composite cardiovascular outcome, as well as incident atrial fibrillation, incident diabetes, and death. FINDINGS:We identified 602 eligible patients with primary aldosteronism treated with MR antagonists and 41 853 age-matched patients with essential hypertension from the registry. The two groups of patients had comparable cardiovascular risk profiles and blood pressure throughout the study. The incidence of cardiovascular events was higher in patients with primary aldosteronism on MR antagonists than in patients with essential hypertension (56·3 [95% CI 48·8-64·7] vs 26·6 [26·1-27·2] events per 1000 person-years, adjusted hazard ratio 1·91 [95% CI 1·63-2·25]; adjusted 10-year cumulative incidence difference 14·1 [95% CI 10·1-18·0] excess events per 100 people). Patients with primary aldosteronism also had higher adjusted risks for incident mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1·34 [95% CI 1·06-1·71]), diabetes (1·26 [1·01-1·57]), and atrial fibrillation (1·93 [1·54-2·42]). Compared with essential hypertension, the excess risk for cardiovascular events and mortality was limited to patients with primary aldosteronism whose renin activity remained suppressed (<1 μg/L per h) on MR antagonists (adjusted HR [2·83 [95% CI 2·11-3·80], and 1·79 [1·14-2·80], respectively) whereas patients who were treated with higher MR antagonist doses and had unsuppressed renin (≥1 μg/L per h) had no significant excess risk. INTERPRETATION:The current practice of MR antagonist therapy in primary aldosteronism is associated with significantly higher risk for incident cardiometabolic events and death, independent of blood pressure control, than for patients with essential hypertension. Titration of MR antagonist therapy to raise renin might mitigate this excess risk. FUNDING:US National Institutes of Health. 10.1016/S2213-8587(17)30367-4
Identification of a cytokine-dominated immunosuppressive class in squamous cell lung carcinoma with implications for immunotherapy resistance. Genome medicine BACKGROUND:Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) therapy has revolutionized the treatment of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). However, a significant proportion of patients with high tumour PD-L1 expression remain resistant to immune checkpoint inhibitors. To understand the underlying resistance mechanisms, characterization of the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment and identification of biomarkers to predict resistance in patients are urgently needed. METHODS:Our study retrospectively analysed RNA sequencing data of 624 LUSC samples. We analysed gene expression patterns from tumour microenvironment by unsupervised clustering. We correlated the expression patterns with a set of T cell exhaustion signatures, immunosuppressive cells, clinical characteristics, and immunotherapeutic responses. Internal and external testing datasets were used to validate the presence of exhausted immune status. RESULTS:Approximately 28 to 36% of LUSC patients were found to exhibit significant enrichments of T cell exhaustion signatures, high fraction of immunosuppressive cells (M2 macrophage and CD4 Treg), co-upregulation of 9 inhibitory checkpoints (CTLA4, PDCD1, LAG3, BTLA, TIGIT, HAVCR2, IDO1, SIGLEC7, and VISTA), and enhanced expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g. TGFβ and CCL18). We defined this immunosuppressive group of patients as exhausted immune class (EIC). Although EIC showed a high density of tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes, these were associated with poor prognosis. EIC had relatively elevated PD-L1 expression, but showed potential resistance to ICB therapy. The signature of 167 genes for EIC prediction was significantly enriched in melanoma patients with ICB therapy resistance. EIC was characterized by a lower chromosomal alteration burden and a unique methylation pattern. We developed a web application ( http://lilab2.sysu.edu.cn/tex & http://liwzlab.cn/tex ) for researchers to further investigate potential association of ICB resistance based on our multi-omics analysis data. CONCLUSIONS:We introduced a novel LUSC immunosuppressive class which expressed high PD-L1 but showed potential resistance to ICB therapy. This comprehensive characterization of immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment in LUSC provided new insights for further exploration of resistance mechanisms and optimization of immunotherapy strategies. 10.1186/s13073-022-01079-x
Efficacy and Safety of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brainstem Metastases: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA oncology IMPORTANCE:Owing to the proximity to critical neurologic structures, treatment options for brainstem metastases (BSM) are limited, and BSM growth can cause acute morbidity or death. Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is the only local therapy for BSM, but efficacy and safety of this approach are incompletely understood because patients with BSM are excluded from most clinical trials. OBJECTIVE:To perform a systematic review and comparative meta-analysis of SRS studies for BSM in the context of prospective trials of SRS or molecular therapy for nonbrainstem brain metastases (BM). DATA SOURCES:A comprehensive search of Pubmed/MEDLINE and Embase was performed on December 6, 2019. STUDY SELECTION:English-language studies of SRS for BSM with at least 10 patients and reporting 1 or more outcomes of interest were included. Duplicate studies or studies with overlapping data sets were excluded. Studies were independently evaluated by 2 reviewers, and discrepancies were resolved by consensus. A total of 32 retrospective studies published between 1999 and 2019 were included in the analysis. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were followed to identify studies. Study quality was assessed using Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies criteria. Fixed and random-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions were performed for the outcomes of interest. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Primary study outcomes included 1-year and 2-year local control and overall survival, objective response rate, symptom response rate, neurological death rate, and rate of grade 3 to 5 toxic effects as described in Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. RESULTS:The 32 retrospective studies included in the analysis comprised 1446 patients with 1590 BSM that were treated with SRS (median [range] dose, 16 [11-39] Gy; median [range] fractions, 1 [1-13]). Local control at 1 year was 86% (95% CI, 83%-88%; I2 = 38%) in 1410 patients across 31 studies, objective response rate was 59% (95% CI, 47%-71%; I2 = 88%) in 642 patients across 17 studies, and symptom improvement was 55% (95% CI, 47%-63%; I2 = 41%) in 323 patients across 13 studies. Deaths from BSM progression after SRS were rare (19 of 703 [2.7%] deaths across 19 studies), and the neurologic death rate in patients with BSM (24%; 95% CI, 19%-31%; I2 = 62%) was equivalent to the neurologic death rate in patients with BM who were treated on prospective trials. The rate of treatment-related grade 3 to 5 toxic effects was 2.4% (95% CI, 1.5%-3.7%; I2 = 33%) in 1421 patients across 31 studies. These results compared favorably to trials of targeted or immunotherapy for BM, which had a wide objective response rate range from 17% to 56%. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Results of this systematic review and meta-analysis show that SRS for BSM was associated with effectiveness and safety and was comparable to SRS for nonbrainstem BM, suggesting that patients with BSM should be eligible for clinical trials of SRS. In this analysis, patients treated with SRS for BSM rarely died from BSM progression and often experienced symptomatic improvement. Given the apparent safety and efficacy of SRS for BSM in the context of acute morbidity or death from BSM growth, consideration of SRS at the time of enrollment on emerging trials of targeted therapy for BM should be considered. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.1262
Diagnostic accuracy of the Salzburg EEG criteria for non-convulsive status epilepticus: a retrospective study. Leitinger Markus,Trinka Eugen,Gardella Elena,Rohracher Alexandra,Kalss Gudrun,Qerama Erisela,Höfler Julia,Hess Alexander,Zimmermann Georg,Kuchukhidze Giorgi,Dobesberger Judith,Langthaler Patrick B,Beniczky Sándor The Lancet. Neurology BACKGROUND:Several EEG criteria have been proposed for diagnosis of non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE), but none have been clinically validated. We aimed to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the EEG criteria proposed by a panel of experts at the fourth London-Innsbruck Colloquium on Status Epilepticus in Salzburg, 2013 (henceforth called the Salzburg criteria). METHODS:We did a retrospective, diagnostic accuracy study using EEG recordings from patients admitted for neurological symptoms or signs to three centres in two countries (Danish Epilepsy Centre, Dianalund, Denmark; Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark; and Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria). Participants were included from the Danish centres if they were aged 4 months or older, and from the Austrian centre if aged 18 years or older. Participants were sorted into two groups: consecutive patients under clinical suspicion of having NCSE (the clinical validation group) or consecutive patients with abnormal EEG findings but no clinical suspicion of NCSE (the control group). Two raters blinded to all other patient data retrospectively analysed the EEG recordings and, using the Salzburg criteria, categorised patients as in NCSE or not in NCSE. By comparing with a reference standard inferred from all clinical and para-clinical data, therapeutic response, and the final outcome, we calculated sensitivity, specificity, overall diagnostic accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and inter-rater agreement for the Salzburg criteria. The reference standard was inferred by two raters who were blinded to the scorings of the Salzburg criteria. FINDINGS:We retrospectively reviewed EEG data from 220 patients. EEGs in the clinical validation group were recorded in 120 patients between Jan 1, and Feb 28, 2014 (Austria), and Aug 1, 2014, and Jan 31, 2015 (Denmark). EEGs in the control group were recorded in 100 patients between Jan 13 and Jan 22, 2014 (Austria) and Jan 12 and Jan 26, 2015 (Denmark). According to the reference standard, 43 (36%) of the 120 patients in the validation group had NCSE. In the validation cohort sensitivity was 97·7% (95% CI 87·9-99·6) and specificity was 89·6% (80·8-94·6); overall accuracy was 92·5% (88·3-97·5). Positive predictive value was 84·0% (95% CI 74·1-91·5) and negative predictive value was 98·6% (94·4-100). Three people in the control group (n=100) fulfilled the Salzburg criteria and were therefore false positives (specificity 97·0%, 95% CI 91·5-99·0; sensitivity not calculable). Inter-rater agreement was high for both the Salzburg criteria (k=0·87) and for the reference standard (k=0·95). Therapeutic changes occurred significantly more often in the group of patients fulfilling Salzburg criteria (42 [84%] of 50 patients) than in those who did not (11 [16%] of 70; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION:The Salzburg criteria for diagnosis of NCSE have high diagnostic accuracy and excellent inter-rater agreement, making them suitable for implementation in clinical practice. FUNDING:None. 10.1016/S1474-4422(16)30137-5
Bidirectional associations between COVID-19 and psychiatric disorder: retrospective cohort studies of 62 354 COVID-19 cases in the USA. Taquet Maxime,Luciano Sierra,Geddes John R,Harrison Paul J The lancet. Psychiatry BACKGROUND:Adverse mental health consequences of COVID-19, including anxiety and depression, have been widely predicted but not yet accurately measured. There are a range of physical health risk factors for COVID-19, but it is not known if there are also psychiatric risk factors. In this electronic health record network cohort study using data from 69 million individuals, 62 354 of whom had a diagnosis of COVID-19, we assessed whether a diagnosis of COVID-19 (compared with other health events) was associated with increased rates of subsequent psychiatric diagnoses, and whether patients with a history of psychiatric illness are at a higher risk of being diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS:We used the TriNetX Analytics Network, a global federated network that captures anonymised data from electronic health records in 54 health-care organisations in the USA, totalling 69·8 million patients. TriNetX included 62 354 patients diagnosed with COVID-19 between Jan 20, and Aug 1, 2020. We created cohorts of patients who had been diagnosed with COVID-19 or a range of other health events. We used propensity score matching to control for confounding by risk factors for COVID-19 and for severity of illness. We measured the incidence of and hazard ratios (HRs) for psychiatric disorders, dementia, and insomnia, during the first 14 to 90 days after a diagnosis of COVID-19. FINDINGS:In patients with no previous psychiatric history, a diagnosis of COVID-19 was associated with increased incidence of a first psychiatric diagnosis in the following 14 to 90 days compared with six other health events (HR 2·1, 95% CI 1·8-2·5 vs influenza; 1·7, 1·5-1·9 vs other respiratory tract infections; 1·6, 1·4-1·9 vs skin infection; 1·6, 1·3-1·9 vs cholelithiasis; 2·2, 1·9-2·6 vs urolithiasis, and 2·1, 1·9-2·5 vs fracture of a large bone; all p<0·0001). The HR was greatest for anxiety disorders, insomnia, and dementia. We observed similar findings, although with smaller HRs, when relapses and new diagnoses were measured. The incidence of any psychiatric diagnosis in the 14 to 90 days after COVID-19 diagnosis was 18·1% (95% CI 17·6-18·6), including 5·8% (5·2-6·4) that were a first diagnosis. The incidence of a first diagnosis of dementia in the 14 to 90 days after COVID-19 diagnosis was 1·6% (95% CI 1·2-2·1) in people older than 65 years. A psychiatric diagnosis in the previous year was associated with a higher incidence of COVID-19 diagnosis (relative risk 1·65, 95% CI 1·59-1·71; p<0·0001). This risk was independent of known physical health risk factors for COVID-19, but we cannot exclude possible residual confounding by socioeconomic factors. INTERPRETATION:Survivors of COVID-19 appear to be at increased risk of psychiatric sequelae, and a psychiatric diagnosis might be an independent risk factor for COVID-19. Although preliminary, our findings have implications for clinical services, and prospective cohort studies are warranted. FUNDING:National Institute for Health Research. 10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30462-4
Neurological and psychiatric risk trajectories after SARS-CoV-2 infection: an analysis of 2-year retrospective cohort studies including 1 284 437 patients. The lancet. Psychiatry BACKGROUND:COVID-19 is associated with increased risks of neurological and psychiatric sequelae in the weeks and months thereafter. How long these risks remain, whether they affect children and adults similarly, and whether SARS-CoV-2 variants differ in their risk profiles remains unclear. METHODS:In this analysis of 2-year retrospective cohort studies, we extracted data from the TriNetX electronic health records network, an international network of de-identified data from health-care records of approximately 89 million patients collected from hospital, primary care, and specialist providers (mostly from the USA, but also from Australia, the UK, Spain, Bulgaria, India, Malaysia, and Taiwan). A cohort of patients of any age with COVID-19 diagnosed between Jan 20, 2020, and April 13, 2022, was identified and propensity-score matched (1:1) to a contemporaneous cohort of patients with any other respiratory infection. Matching was done on the basis of demographic factors, risk factors for COVID-19 and severe COVID-19 illness, and vaccination status. Analyses were stratified by age group (age <18 years [children], 18-64 years [adults], and ≥65 years [older adults]) and date of diagnosis. We assessed the risks of 14 neurological and psychiatric diagnoses after SARS-CoV-2 infection and compared these risks with the matched comparator cohort. The 2-year risk trajectories were represented by time-varying hazard ratios (HRs) and summarised using the 6-month constant HRs (representing the risks in the earlier phase of follow-up, which have not yet been well characterised in children), the risk horizon for each outcome (ie, the time at which the HR returns to 1), and the time to equal incidence in the two cohorts. We also estimated how many people died after a neurological or psychiatric diagnosis during follow-up in each age group. Finally, we compared matched cohorts of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 directly before and after the emergence of the alpha (B.1.1.7), delta (B.1.617.2), and omicron (B.1.1.529) variants. FINDINGS:We identified 1 487 712 patients with a recorded diagnosis of COVID-19 during the study period, of whom 1 284 437 (185 748 children, 856 588 adults, and 242 101 older adults; overall mean age 42·5 years [SD 21·9]; 741 806 [57·8%] were female and 542 192 [42·2%] were male) were adequately matched with an equal number of patients with another respiratory infection. The risk trajectories of outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection in the whole cohort differed substantially. While most outcomes had HRs significantly greater than 1 after 6 months (with the exception of encephalitis; Guillain-Barré syndrome; nerve, nerve root, and plexus disorder; and parkinsonism), their risk horizons and time to equal incidence varied greatly. Risks of the common psychiatric disorders returned to baseline after 1-2 months (mood disorders at 43 days, anxiety disorders at 58 days) and subsequently reached an equal overall incidence to the matched comparison group (mood disorders at 457 days, anxiety disorders at 417 days). By contrast, risks of cognitive deficit (known as brain fog), dementia, psychotic disorders, and epilepsy or seizures were still increased at the end of the 2-year follow-up period. Post-COVID-19 risk trajectories differed in children compared with adults: in the 6 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection, children were not at an increased risk of mood (HR 1·02 [95% CI 0·94-1·10) or anxiety (1·00 [0·94-1·06]) disorders, but did have an increased risk of cognitive deficit, insomnia, intracranial haemorrhage, ischaemic stroke, nerve, nerve root, and plexus disorders, psychotic disorders, and epilepsy or seizures (HRs ranging from 1·20 [1·09-1·33] to 2·16 [1·46-3·19]). Unlike adults, cognitive deficit in children had a finite risk horizon (75 days) and a finite time to equal incidence (491 days). A sizeable proportion of older adults who received a neurological or psychiatric diagnosis, in either cohort, subsequently died, especially those diagnosed with dementia or epilepsy or seizures. Risk profiles were similar just before versus just after the emergence of the alpha variant (n=47 675 in each cohort). Just after (vs just before) the emergence of the delta variant (n=44 835 in each cohort), increased risks of ischaemic stroke, epilepsy or seizures, cognitive deficit, insomnia, and anxiety disorders were observed, compounded by an increased death rate. With omicron (n=39 845 in each cohort), there was a lower death rate than just before emergence of the variant, but the risks of neurological and psychiatric outcomes remained similar. INTERPRETATION:This analysis of 2-year retrospective cohort studies of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 showed that the increased incidence of mood and anxiety disorders was transient, with no overall excess of these diagnoses compared with other respiratory infections. In contrast, the increased risk of psychotic disorder, cognitive deficit, dementia, and epilepsy or seizures persisted throughout. The differing trajectories suggest a different pathogenesis for these outcomes. Children have a more benign overall profile of psychiatric risk than do adults and older adults, but their sustained higher risk of some diagnoses is of concern. The fact that neurological and psychiatric outcomes were similar during the delta and omicron waves indicates that the burden on the health-care system might continue even with variants that are less severe in other respects. Our findings are relevant to understanding individual-level and population-level risks of neurological and psychiatric disorders after SARS-CoV-2 infection and can help inform our responses to them. FUNDING:National Institute for Health and Care Research Oxford Health Biomedical Research Centre, The Wolfson Foundation, and MQ Mental Health Research. 10.1016/S2215-0366(22)00260-7
Maternal and fetal outcomes in phaeochromocytoma and pregnancy: a multicentre retrospective cohort study and systematic review of literature. Bancos Irina,Atkinson Elizabeth,Eng Charis,Young William F,Neumann Hartmut P H, The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:Phaeochromocytoma or paraganglioma (collectively known as PPGL) in pregnant women can lead to severe complications and death due to associated catecholamine excess. We aimed to identify factors associated with maternal and fetal outcomes in women with PPGL during pregnancy. METHODS:We did a multicentre, retrospective study of patients with PPGL and pregnancy between Jan 1, 1980, and Dec 31, 2019, in the International Pheochromocytoma and Pregnancy Registry and a systematic review of studies published between Jan 1, 2005, and Dec 27, 2019 reporting on at least five cases. The inclusion criteria were pregnancy after 1980 and PPGL before or during pregnancy or within 12 months post partum. Eligible patients from the retrospective study and systematic review were included in the analysis. Outcomes of interest were maternal or fetal death and maternal severe cardiovascular complications of catecholamine excess. Potential variables associated with these outcomes were evaluated by logistic regression. FINDINGS:The systematic review identified seven studies (reporting on 63 pregnancies in 55 patients) that met the eligibility criteria and were of adequate quality. A further 197 pregnancies in 186 patients were identified in the International Pheochromocytoma and Pregnancy Registry. After excluding 11 pregnancies due to potential overlap, the final cohort included 249 pregnancies in 232 patients with PPGL. The diagnosis of PPGL was made before pregnancy in 37 (15%) pregnancies, during pregnancy in 134 (54%), and after delivery in 78 (31%). Of 144 patients evaluated for genetic predisposition for phaeochromocytoma, 95 (66%) were positive. Unrecognised PPGL during pregnancy (odds ratio 27·0; 95% CI 3·5-3473·1), abdominal or pelvic tumour location (11·3; 1·5-1440·5), and catecholamine excess at least ten-times the upper limit of the normal range (4·7; 1·8-13·8) were associated with adverse outcomes. For patients diagnosed during pregnancy, α-adrenergic blockade therapy was associated with fewer adverse outcomes (3·6; 1·1-13·2 for no α-adrenergic blockade vs α-adrenergic blockade), whereas surgery during pregnancy was not associated with better outcomes (0·9; 0·3-3·9 for no surgery vs surgery). INTERPRETATION:Unrecognised and untreated PPGL was associated with a substantially higher risk of either maternal or fetal complications. Appropriate case detection and counselling for premenopausal women at risk for PPGL could prevent adverse pregnancy-related outcomes. FUNDING:US National Institutes of Health. 10.1016/S2213-8587(20)30363-6
Off-label Use of Direct Oral Anticoagulants Compared With Warfarin for Left Ventricular Thrombi. Robinson Austin A,Trankle Cory R,Eubanks Grayson,Schumann Christopher,Thompson Paul,Wallace Ryan L,Gottiparthi Shouri,Ruth Benjamin,Kramer Christopher M,Salerno Michael,Bilchick Kenneth C,Deen Cody,Kontos Michael C,Dent John JAMA cardiology Importance:Left ventricular (LV) thrombi can arise in patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies. Anticoagulation is thought to reduce the risk of stroke or systemic embolism (SSE), but there are no high-quality data on the effectiveness of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) for this indication. Objective:To compare the outcomes associated with DOAC use and warfarin use for the treatment of LV thrombi. Design, Setting, and Participants:A cohort study was performed at 3 tertiary care academic medical centers among 514 eligible patients with echocardiographically diagnosed LV thrombi between October 1, 2013, and March 31, 2019. Follow-up was performed through the end of the study period. Exposures:Type and duration of anticoagulant use. Main Outcomes and Measures:Clinically apparent SSE. Results:A total of 514 patients (379 men; mean [SD] age, 58.4 [14.8] years) with LV thrombi were identified, including 300 who received warfarin and 185 who received a DOAC (64 patients switched treatment between these groups). The median follow-up across the patient cohort was 351 days (interquartile range, 51-866 days). On unadjusted analysis, DOAC treatment vs warfarin use (hazard ratio [HR], 2.71; 95% CI, 1.31-5.57; P = .01) and prior SSE (HR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.22-3.72; P = .01) were associated with SSE. On multivariable analysis, anticoagulation with DOAC vs warfarin (HR, 2.64; 95% CI, 1.28-5.43; P = .01) and prior SSE (HR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.17-3.66; P = .01) remained significantly associated with SSE. Conclusions and Relevance:In this multicenter cohort study of anticoagulation strategies for LV thrombi, DOAC treatment was associated with a higher risk of SSE compared with warfarin use, even after adjustment for other factors. These results challenge the assumption of DOAC equivalence with warfarin for LV thrombi and highlight the need for prospective randomized clinical trials to determine the most effective treatment strategies for LV thrombi. 10.1001/jamacardio.2020.0652
Response: Differences in Clinical Outcomes between Patients with and without Hypoglycemia during Hospitalization: A Retrospective Study Using Real-World Evidence (Diabetes Metab J 2020;44:555-65). Lee Jeongmin,Kim Hun-Sung Diabetes & metabolism journal 10.4093/dmj.2020.0215
Clinicopathological characteristics and prognostic factors for the recurrence of abdominal desmoid tumors: a retrospective study of 113 patients from two Chinese hospitals. Zhou Si-Cheng,Pei Wei,Sun Zhen,Zhou Zhi-Xiang,Wang Xi-Shan,Liang Jian-Wei,Feng Qiang Chinese medical journal 10.1097/CM9.0000000000001333
Perioperative anesthetic management and factors affecting outcome in robotized stereotactic assisted (ROSA) intracranial procedures: A retrospective study. Khandelwal Ankur,Kapoor Indu,Mahajan Charu,Sharma Hanjabam Barun,Prabhakar Hemanshu Journal of clinical anesthesia 10.1016/j.jclinane.2020.109717
Letter: Differences in Clinical Outcomes between Patients with and without Hypoglycemia during Hospitalization: A Retrospective Study Using Real-World Evidence (Diabetes Metab J 2020;44:555-65). Kim Sung-Woo Diabetes & metabolism journal 10.4093/dmj.2020.0188
Skin and soft-tissue infections associated with Aeromonas species in French Guiana: an 11-year retrospective study. Devos M,Sainte-Rose V,Kallel H,Mayence C,Ouedraogo H,Djossou F,Demar M,Couppié P,Blaizot R Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV 10.1111/jdv.16365
Dermatological infections in organ transplant recipients: a retrospective study on 222 patients. Ciccarese G,Trave I,Herzum A,Gariazzo L,Cozzani E,Rebora A,Parodi A,Drago F Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV 10.1111/jdv.15153
Authors' Reply: Passive Versus Active Intra-Abdominal Drainage Following Pancreaticoduodenectomy: A Retrospective Study Using the American College of Surgeons NSQIP Database. Lemke M,Martel G,Bertens K A World journal of surgery 10.1007/s00268-021-06257-3
Associations between clinical variables and treatment regimens and hair density and calibre in female androgenetic alopecia patients: a retrospective study of 602 patients. Tuan H,Yin L,Lo Sicco K,Shapiro J Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV 10.1111/jdv.17281
Lambda laser nymphoplasty: retrospective study of 231 cases. Smarrito Stéphane Plastic and reconstructive surgery 10.1097/01.prs.0000437239.53671.6f
Comment on "Clinical Importance of Mean Corpuscular Volume as a Prognostic Marker After Esophagectomy for Esophageal Cancer: A Retrospective Study". Mao Qi-Jiang,Yan Pei-Jian,Liang Yue-Long Annals of surgery 10.1097/SLA.0000000000004158
Efficacy and safety of sugammadex in anesthesia of cardiac surgery: A retrospective study. Journal of clinical anesthesia 10.1016/j.jclinane.2020.109845
Letter in response to article in journal of infection: "Clinical characteristics of 345 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 in Japan: A multicenter retrospective study". Miyazawa Daisuke The Journal of infection 10.1016/j.jinf.2020.09.030
Periorificial lesions associated with poor prognosis in patients with localized vitiligo: A retrospective study of 126 patients. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.12.043
Letter to the editor: Clinical features of patients infected with COVID-19 with elevated liver biochemistries: A multicenter, retrospective study. Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) 10.1002/hep.32506
Papillomatosis confluens et reticularis (Morbus Gougerot-Carteaud) - a retrospective study of 25 patients. Weins Andreas Benedikt,Biedermann Tilo,Mempel Martin,Schnopp Christina Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG 10.1111/ddg.14364
The importance of sample size calculation in a retrospective study of recurrent and non-recurrent acute pancreatitis. Saudi journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association 10.4103/sjg.sjg_309_22
Overtransfusion after unexpected intraoperative hemorrhage: A retrospective study. Corpman David,Bakhtary Sara,Manuel Solmaz P Journal of clinical anesthesia 10.1016/j.jclinane.2020.109720
A retrospective study of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis diagnosis and clinical presentation. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 10.1016/j.jaad.2021.09.055
Queries regarding retrospective study design and the recruitment of people with psychiatric disorders. Brain, behavior, and immunity 10.1016/j.bbi.2022.05.002
A retrospective study on 464 bullous pemphigoid patients in Northeast China. Chinese medical journal 10.1097/CM9.0000000000001744