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Management of endocrine disorders in pregnancy Part I--thyroid and parathyroid disease. van der Spuy Z M,Jacobs H S Postgraduate medical journal 10.1136/pgmj.60.702.245
Study on the changes in TSH, TPO-Ab and other indicators due to Vitamin D deficiency in Pregnant Women with subclinical hypothyroidism in the first trimester. Pakistan journal of medical sciences OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of vitamin D deficiency on the levels of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab), interleukin-1 (IL-1) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in pregnant women with early pregnancy complicated by subclinical hypothyroidism. METHODS:A total of 172 pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism in the first trimester diagnosed and treated in a given hospital from August 2014 to May 2018 were selected, and their levels of vitamin D were determined. Depending on the abnormality of their vitamin D levels, the study participants were divided into two groups: the study group (vitamin D≤20 ng/L) and the control group (vitamin D>20 ng/L). The levels of TSH, TPO-Ab, IL-1 and hsCRP in the two groups were measured. RESULTS:The levels of TSH, hsCRP and TPO-Ab in the study group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The comparison between the two groups in terms of IL-1 showed no statistically significant difference. CONCLUSION:Vitamin D deficiency in the first trimester is associated with in an increased level of TSH in the first trimester, thereby aggravating subclinical hypothyroidism. The mechanism may be associated with the impact of vitamin D deficiency on hs-CRP and other body inflammation indicators, as well as on thyroid autoantibodies and other immune indicators, but has no effect on IL-1 levels. 10.12669/pjms.36.6.1982
Investigating the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and thyroid function in second-trimester pregnant women. Pan Ying,Zhong Shao,Liu Qin,Wang Cai-Bo,Zhu Wen-Hua,Shen Xian-An,Lu Bing,Shen Li-Wen,Zeng Yanjun Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology This study aims to explore the correlation between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and thyroid hormones during the second trimester. In total, 277 pregnant women at 13-28 weeks of gestation were enrolled. According to the level of thyrotropic-stimulating hormone, they were divided into a reduced TSH group, a normal TSH group and an elevated TSH group. In this study, we found that the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was as high as 94.58%. The 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in the reduced TSH group was lower than that in the normal thyroid function group (p = .0005), and the 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in the elevated TSH group was higher than that in normal TSH group (p=.0339). A positive correlation was observed between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and thyrotropic-stimulating hormone (r = 0.3034, p = .0000). Furthermore, 25-hydroxyvitamin D was negatively correlated with the free thyroxine level (r = -0.1286, p = .0323) as well as the free triiodothyronine level (r = 0.1247, p = .0380). These data suggest that the relationships between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and thyroid parameters were characterized during the second trimester. Pregnant women in the second-trimester who are diagnosed with transient hyperthyroidism should be evaluated for the possibility of vitamin D deficiency. 10.1080/09513590.2017.1393659
Relationship between Vitamin D Level and Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Patients with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Clinical laboratory BACKGROUND:The aim was to investigate the relationship between the vitamin D (VitD) level and the incidence rate of subclinical hypothyroidism in patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in early pregnancy. METHODS:Ninety eligible patients who underwent physical examination from March 2015 to September 2017 were selected. The levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-VD), free thyroxine (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) were measured. The correlations of VitD level with those of thyroid function-related indices were analyzed. RESULTS:The serum 25-OH-VD level was (17.82 ± 3.45) ng/mL in the 90 GDM patients in early pregnancy, including 64.44% patients in VitD deficiency group, 22.22% patients in VitD insufficiency group, and 13.33% in VitD sufficiency group. No significant differences in the levels of serum FT4, FT3, and TSH were found among different VitD groups (p > 0.05), but the level of TPOAb gradually decreased (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in the incidence rate of subclinical hypothyroidism among different VitD groups (p > 0.05). VitD level was not correlated with those of FT4, FT3, and TSH (p > 0.05), but negatively correlated with that of TPOAb (p < 0.05). An increase of TPOAb level raised the risk of VitD deficiency in pregnant women (p < 0.05). Patients suffered from significant 25-OH-VD deficiency in spring and winter (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS:GDM patients in early pregnancy display VitD deficiency, and their serum 25-OH-VD level is affected by seasons and not significantly related to subclinical hypothyroidism. However, the increased level of TPOAb may raise the risk of VitD deficiency in pregnant women. 10.7754/Clin.Lab.2022.220711
Thyroid Function and 25 (OH) Vitamin D Level among Sudanese Women in Early Pregnancy. Musa Imad R,Rayis Duria A,Ahmed Mohmamed A,Khamis Ammar H,Nasr Abubakr M,Adam Ishag Open access Macedonian journal of medical sciences AIM:A cross-sectional study was conducted at Saad Abualila Hospital (Khartoum, Sudan) to evaluate the vitamin D levels and thyroid function among pregnant Sudanese women (132) in early pregnancy. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted at Saad Abualila hospital (Khartoum, Sudan) during the period from March to July 2015. Women who were in early pregnancy with a singleton pregnancy were approached to participate in the study after signing informed consent. A sample size of 132 participants was calculated guided by the normal interval of thyroid function in Sudanese women in the first trimester and not the level of 25(OH) vitamin D. The 25 - hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) vitamins levels were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay on an Elecsys 2010 Analyzer (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany). RESULTS:The mean (SD) of age, gravidity and gestational age was 27.6 (5.5) years, 2.2 (1.6) and 10.4 (2.2) weeks, respectively. The mean (SD) of the body mass index (BMI) and haemoglobin was 27.1 (5.2) kg/m and 10.8 (1.1) g/dl, respectively. Median (interquartile) values of TSH, FT3, and FT4 were 1.164 IU/ml (0.079 -2.177 IU/ml), 4.639 nmol/l (3.843 - 6.562 nmol/l), and 16.86 pmol/l (13.02 - 31.48 pmol/l), respectively. There was no significant correlation between vitamin D levels and TSH, FT3 and FT4. CONCLUSION:There is no correlation between 25 (OH) vitamin D levels and thyroid function during early pregnancy among Sudanese pregnant women, despite prevalent vitamin D deficiency among these women. 10.3889/oamjms.2018.125