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The pathophysiology and treatment of glaucoma: a review. Weinreb Robert N,Aung Tin,Medeiros Felipe A JAMA IMPORTANCE:Glaucoma is a worldwide leading cause of irreversible vision loss. Because it may be asymptomatic until a relatively late stage, diagnosis is frequently delayed. A general understanding of the disease pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment may assist primary care physicians in referring high-risk patients for comprehensive ophthalmologic examination and in more actively participating in the care of patients affected by this condition. OBJECTIVE:To describe current evidence regarding the pathophysiology and treatment of open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. EVIDENCE REVIEW:A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library, and manuscript references for studies published in English between January 2000 and September 2013 on the topics open-angle glaucoma and angle-closure glaucoma. From the 4334 abstracts screened, 210 articles were selected that contained information on pathophysiology and treatment with relevance to primary care physicians. FINDINGS:The glaucomas are a group of progressive optic neuropathies characterized by degeneration of retinal ganglion cells and resulting changes in the optic nerve head. Loss of ganglion cells is related to the level of intraocular pressure, but other factors may also play a role. Reduction of intraocular pressure is the only proven method to treat the disease. Although treatment is usually initiated with ocular hypotensive drops, laser trabeculoplasty and surgery may also be used to slow disease progression. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:Primary care physicians can play an important role in the diagnosis of glaucoma by referring patients with positive family history or with suspicious optic nerve head findings for complete ophthalmologic examination. They can improve treatment outcomes by reinforcing the importance of medication adherence and persistence and by recognizing adverse reactions from glaucoma medications and surgeries. 10.1001/jama.2014.3192
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Alzheimer's disease and any dementia: A multi-generation cohort study in Sweden. Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association INTRODUCTION:We examined the extent to which attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neurodevelopmental disorder, is linked with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and any dementia, neurodegenerative diseases, across generations. METHODS:A nationwide cohort born between 1980 and 2001 (index persons) were linked to their biological relatives (parents, grandparents, uncles/aunts) using Swedish national registers. We used Cox models to examine the cross-generation associations. RESULTS:Among relatives of 2,132,929 index persons, 3042 parents, 171,732 grandparents, and 1369 uncles/aunts had a diagnosis of AD. Parents of individuals with ADHD had an increased risk of AD (hazard ratio 1.55, 95% confidence interval 1.26-1.89). The associations attenuated but remained elevated in grandparents and uncles/aunts. The association for early-onset AD was stronger than late-onset AD. Similar results were observed for any dementia. DISCUSSION:ADHD is associated with AD and any dementia across generations. The associations attenuated with decreasing genetic relatedness, suggesting shared familial risk between ADHD and AD. 10.1002/alz.12462
Contemporary antiretrovirals and body-mass index: a prospective study of the RESPOND cohort consortium. Bansi-Matharu Loveleen,Phillips Andrew,Oprea Cristiana,Grabmeier-Pfistershammer Katharina,Günthard Huldrych F,De Wit Stephane,Guaraldi Giovanni,Vehreschild Jorg J,Wit Ferdinand,Law Matthew,Wasmuth Jan-Christian,Chkhartishvili Nikoloz,d'Arminio Monforte Antonella,Fontas Eric,Vesterbacka Jan,Miro Jose M,Castagna Antonella,Stephan Christoph,Llibre Josep M,Neesgaard Bastian,Greenberg Lauren,Smith Colette,Kirk Ole,Duvivier Claudine,Dragovic Gordana,Lundgren Jens,Dedes Nikos,Knudsen Andreas,Gallant Joel,Vannappagari Vani,Peters Lars,Elbirt Daniel,Sarcletti Mario,Braun Dominique L,Necsoi Coca,Mussini Cristina,Muccini Camilla,Bolokadze Natalie,Hoy Jennifer,Mocroft Amanda,Ryom Lene The lancet. HIV BACKGROUND:Weight gain effects of individual antiretroviral drugs are not fully understood. We investigated associations between a prespecified clinically significant increase (>7%) in body-mass index (BMI) and contemporary antiretroviral use. METHODS:The International Cohort Consortium of Infectious Diseases (RESPOND) is a prospective, multicohort collaboration, including data from 17 well established cohorts and over 29 000 people living with HIV. People with HIV under prospective follow-up from Jan 1, 2012, and older than 18 years were eligible for inclusion. Each cohort contributed a predefined minimum number of participants related to the size of the specific cohort (with a minimum of 1000 participants). Participants were required to have CD4 cell counts and HIV viral load measurement in the 12 months before or within 3 months after baseline. For all antiretroviral drugs received at or after RESPOND entry, changes from pre-antiretroviral BMI levels (baseline) were considered at each BMI measurement during antiretroviral treatment. We used logistic regression to identify individual antiretrovirals that were associated with first occurrence of a more than 7% increase in BMI from pre-antiretroviral BMI. We adjusted analyses for time on antiretrovirals, pre-antiretroviral BMI, demographics, geographical region, CD4 cell count, viral load, smoking status, and AIDS at baseline. RESULTS:14 703 people were included in this study, of whom 7863 (53·5%) had a more than 7% increase in BMI. Compared with lamivudine, use of dolutegravir (odds ratio [OR] 1·27, 95% CI 1·17-1·38), raltegravir (1·37, 1·20-1·56), and tenofovir alafenamide (1·38, 1·22-1·35) was significantly associated with a more than 7% BMI increase, as was low pre-antiretroviral BMI (2·10, 1·91-2·31 for underweight vs healthy weight) and Black ethnicity (1·61, 1·47-1·76 vs White ethnicity). Higher CD4 count was associated with a reduced risk of BMI increase (0·97, 0·96-0·98 per 100 cells per μL increase). Relative to lamivudine, dolutegravir without tenofovir alafenamide (OR 1·21, 95% CI 1·19-1·32) and tenofovir alafenamide without dolutegravir (1·33, 1·15-1·53) remained independently associated with a more than 7% increase in BMI; the associations were higher when dolutegravir and tenofovir alafenamide were used concomitantly (1·79, 1·52-2·11, and 1·70, 1·44-2·01, respectively). INTERPRETATION:Clinicians and people with HIV should be aware of associations between weight gain and use of dolutegravir, tenofovir alafenamide, and raltegravir, particularly given the potential consequences of weight gain, such as insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and hypertension. FUNDING:The CHU St Pierre Brussels HIV Cohort, The Austrian HIV Cohort Study, The Australian HIV Observational Database, The AIDS Therapy Evaluation in the Netherlands national observational HIV cohort, The EuroSIDA cohort, The Frankfurt HIV Cohort Study, The Georgian National AIDS Health Information System, The Nice HIV Cohort, The ICONA Foundation, The Modena HIV Cohort, The PISCIS Cohort Study, The Swiss HIV Cohort Study, The Swedish InfCare HIV Cohort, The Royal Free HIV Cohort Study, The San Raffaele Scientific Institute, The University Hospital Bonn HIV Cohort and The University of Cologne HIV Cohorts, ViiV Healthcare, and Gilead Sciences. 10.1016/S2352-3018(21)00163-6
Safety and immunogenicity of CoronaVac in people living with HIV: a prospective cohort study. The lancet. HIV BACKGROUND:People living with HIV might have a poor or delayed response to vaccines, mainly when CD4 cell counts are low, and data concerning COVID-19 vaccines in this population are scarce. This prospective cohort study assessed the safety and immunogenicity of the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine CoronaVac in people with HIV compared with people with no known immunosuppression. METHODS:In this prospective cohort study, adults (aged ≥18 years) living with HIV who were regularly followed up at the University of Sao Paulo HIV/AIDS outpatient clinic in Sao Paulo, Brazil, were included in the study. Eligibility for people with HIV was independent of antiretroviral use, HIV viral load, or CD4 cell count. Adults with no known immunosuppression with CoronaVac vaccination history were included as a control group. CoronaVac was given intramuscularly in a two-dose regimen, 28 days apart. Blood was collected before vaccine administration and 6 weeks after the second dose (day 69). Immunogenicity was assessed at baseline (day 0), before second vaccine (day 28), and 6 weeks after second vaccine dose (day 69) through SARS-CoV-2 IgG titre and seroconversion, neutralising antibody (NAb) positivity and percentage activity, and factor increase in IgG geometric mean titres (FI-GMT). We investigated whether HIV status and CD4 count (<500 or ≥500 cells per μL) were associated with CoronaVac immunogenicity by use of multivariable models adjusted for age and sex. FINDINGS:Between Feb 9, 2021, and March 4, 2021, 776 participants were recruited. Of 511 participants included, 215 (42%) were people with HIV and 296 (58%) were people with no known immunosuppression. At 6 weeks after the second vaccine dose (day 69), 185 (91%) of 204 participants with HIV and 265 (97%) of 274 participants with no known immunosuppression had seroconversion (p=0·0055). 143 (71%) of 202 participants with HIV were NAb positive compared with 229 (84%) of 274 participants with no known immunosuppression (p=0·0008). Median IgG titres were 48·7 AU/mL (IQR 26·6-88·2) in people with HIV compared with 75·2 AU/mL (50·3-112·0) in people with no known immunosuppression (p<0·0001); and median NAb activity was 46·2% (26·9-69·7) compared with 60·8% (39·8-79·9; p<0·0001). In people with HIV who had CD4 counts less than 500 cells per μL seroconversion rates, NAb positivity, and NAb activity were lower than in those with CD4 counts of at least 500 cells per μL. In multivariable models for seroconversion, NAb positivity, IgG concentration, and NAb activity after a complete two-dose regimen, adjusted for age and sex, people with HIV who had CD4 counts of at least 500 cells per μL and people with no known immunosuppression had higher immunogenicity than did people with HIV with CD4 counts less than 500 cells per μL. No serious adverse reactions were reported during the study. INTERPRETATION:Immunogenicity following CoronaVac in people with HIV seems strong but reduced compared with people with no known immunosuppression. Our findings highlight the need for strategies to improve vaccine immunogenicity in people with HIV. FUNDING:Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP), Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq), and B3-Bolsa de Valores do Brasil. 10.1016/S2352-3018(22)00033-9
Effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on primary care-recorded mental illness and self-harm episodes in the UK: a population-based cohort study. The Lancet. Public health BACKGROUND:The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected population mental health. We aimed to assess temporal trends in primary care-recorded common mental illness, episodes of self-harm, psychotropic medication prescribing, and general practitioner (GP) referrals to mental health services during the COVID-19 emergency in the UK. METHODS:We did a population-based cohort study using primary care electronic health records from general practices registered on the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). We included patient records from Jan 1, 2010, to Sept 10, 2020, to establish long-term trends and patterns of seasonality, but focused primarily on the period January, 2019-September, 2020. We extracted data on clinical codes entered into patient records to estimate the incidence of depression and anxiety disorders, self-harm, prescriptions for antidepressants and benzodiazepines, and GP referrals to mental health services, and assessed event rates of all psychotropic prescriptions and self-harm. We used mean-dispersion negative binomial regression models to predict expected monthly incidence and overall event rates, which were then compared with observed rates to assess the percentage reduction in incidence and event rates after March, 2020. We also stratified analyses by sex, age group, and practice-level Index of Multiple Deprivation quintiles. FINDINGS:We identified 14 210 507 patients from 1697 UK general practices registered in the CPRD databases. In April, 2020, compared with expected rates, the incidence of primary care-recorded depression had reduced by 43·0% (95% CI 38·3-47·4), anxiety disorders by 47·8% (44·3-51·2), and first antidepressant prescribing by 36·4% (33·9-38·8) in English general practices. Reductions in first diagnoses of depression and anxiety disorders were largest for adults of working age (18-44 and 45-64 years) and for patients registered at practices in more deprived areas. The incidence of self-harm was 37·6% (34·8-40·3%) lower than expected in April, 2020, and the reduction was greatest for women and individuals aged younger than 45 years. By September, 2020, rates of incident depression, anxiety disorder, and self-harm were similar to expected levels. In Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, rates of incident depression and anxiety disorder remained around a third lower than expected to September, 2020. In April, 2020, the rate of referral to mental health services was less than a quarter of the expected rate for the time of year (75·3% reduction [74·0-76·4]). INTERPRETATION:Consequences of the considerable reductions in primary care-recorded mental illness and self-harm could include more patients subsequently presenting with greater severity of mental illness and increasing incidence of non-fatal self-harm and suicide. Addressing the effects of future lockdowns and longer-term impacts of economic instability on mental health should be prioritised. FUNDING:National Institute for Health Research and Medical Research Council. 10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30288-7
Metabolomic Analysis of Coronary Heart Disease in an African American Cohort From the Jackson Heart Study. JAMA cardiology Importance:African American individuals have disproportionate rates of coronary heart disease (CHD) but lower levels of coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical CHD, than non-Hispanic White individuals. African American individuals may have distinct metabolite profiles associated with incident CHD risk compared with non-Hispanic White individuals, and examination of these differences could highlight important processes that differ between them. Objectives:To identify novel biomarkers of incident CHD and CAC among African American individuals and to replicate incident CHD findings in a multiethnic cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants:This analysis targeted plasma metabolomic profiling of 2346 participants in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS), a prospective population-based cohort study that included 5306 African American participants who were examined at baseline (2000-2004) and 2 follow-up visits. Replication of CHD-associated metabolites was sought among 1588 multiethnic participants from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), a prospective population-based multiethnic cohort study of 161 808 postmenopausal women who were examined at baseline (1991-1995) and ongoing follow-up visits. Regression analyses were performed for each metabolite to examine the associations with incident CHD and CAC scores. Data were collected from the WHI between 1994 and 2009 and from the JHS between 2000 and 2015. All data were analyzed from November 2020 to August 2021. Exposures:Plasma metabolites. Main Outcomes and Measures:Incident CHD was defined as definite or probable myocardial infarction or definite fatal CHD in both the JHS and WHI cohorts. In the JHS cohort, silent myocardial infarction between examinations (as determined by electrocardiography) and coronary revascularization were included in the incident CHD analysis. Coronary artery calcium was measured using a 16-channel computed tomographic system and reported as an Agatston score. Results:Among 2346 African American individuals in the JHS cohort, the mean (SD) age was 56 (13) years, and 1468 individuals (62.6%) were female. Among 1588 postmenopausal women in the WHI cohort, the mean (SD) age was 67 (7) years; 217 individuals (13.7%) self-identified as African American, 1219 (76.8%) as non-Hispanic White, and 152 (9.6%) as other races or ethnicities. In the fully adjusted model including 1876 individuals, 46 of 303 targeted metabolites were associated with incident CHD (false discovery rate q <0.100). Data for 32 of the 46 metabolites were available in the WHI cohort, and 13 incident CHD-associated metabolites from the JHS cohort were replicated in the WHI cohort. A total of 1439 participants from the JHS cohort with available CAC scores received metabolomic profiling. Nine metabolites were associated with CAC scores. Minimal overlap was found between the results from the incident CHD and CAC analyses, with only 3 metabolites shared between the 2 analyses. Conclusions and Relevance:This cohort study identified metabolites that were associated with incident CHD among African American individuals, including 13 incident CHD-associated metabolites that were replicated in a multiethnic population and 9 novel metabolites that included N-acylamides, leucine, and lipid species. These findings may help to elucidate common and distinct metabolic processes that may be associated with CHD among individuals with different self-identified race. 10.1001/jamacardio.2021.4925
Type 2 diabetes and incidence of cardiovascular diseases: a cohort study in 1·9 million people. Shah Anoop Dinesh,Langenberg Claudia,Rapsomaniki Eleni,Denaxas Spiros,Pujades-Rodriguez Mar,Gale Chris P,Deanfield John,Smeeth Liam,Timmis Adam,Hemingway Harry The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:The contemporary associations of type 2 diabetes with a wide range of incident cardiovascular diseases have not been compared. We aimed to study associations between type 2 diabetes and 12 initial manifestations of cardiovascular disease. METHODS:We used linked primary care, hospital admission, disease registry, and death certificate records from the CALIBER programme, which links data for people in England recorded in four electronic health data sources. We included people who were (or turned) 30 years or older between Jan 1, 1998, to March 25, 2010, who were free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. The primary endpoint was the first record of one of 12 cardiovascular presentations in any of the data sources. We compared cumulative incidence curves for the initial presentation of cardiovascular disease and used Cox models to estimate cause-specific hazard ratios (HRs). This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01804439). FINDINGS:Our cohort consisted of 1 921 260 individuals, of whom 1 887 062 (98·2%) did not have diabetes and 34 198 (1·8%) had type 2 diabetes. We observed 113 638 first presentations of cardiovascular disease during a median follow-up of 5·5 years (IQR 2·1-10·1). Of people with type 2 diabetes, 6137 (17·9%) had a first cardiovascular presentation, the most common of which were peripheral arterial disease (reported in 992 [16·2%] of 6137 patients) and heart failure (866 [14·1%] of 6137 patients). Type 2 diabetes was positively associated with peripheral arterial disease (adjusted HR 2·98 [95% CI 2·76-3·22]), ischaemic stroke (1·72 [1·52-1·95]), stable angina (1·62 [1·49-1·77]), heart failure (1·56 [1·45-1·69]), and non-fatal myocardial infarction (1·54 [1·42-1·67]), but was inversely associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm (0·46 [0·35-0·59]) and subarachnoid haemorrhage (0·48 [0·26-0.89]), and not associated with arrhythmia or sudden cardiac death (0·95 [0·76-1·19]). INTERPRETATION:Heart failure and peripheral arterial disease are the most common initial manifestations of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes. The differences between relative risks of different cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes have implications for clinical risk assessment and trial design. FUNDING:Wellcome Trust, National Institute for Health Research, and Medical Research Council. 10.1016/S2213-8587(14)70219-0
Ethnicity-specific BMI cutoffs for obesity based on type 2 diabetes risk in England: a population-based cohort study. The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:National and global recommendations for BMI cutoffs to trigger action to prevent obesity-related complications like type 2 diabetes among non-White populations are questionable. We aimed to prospectively identify ethnicity-specific BMI cutoffs for obesity based on the risk of type 2 diabetes that are risk-equivalent to the BMI cutoff for obesity among White populations (≥30 kg/m). METHODS:In this population-based cohort study, we used electronic health records across primary care (Clinical Practice Research Datalink) linked to secondary care records (Hospital Episodes Statistics) from a network of general practitioner practices in England. Eligible participants were aged 18 years or older, without any past or current diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, had a BMI of 15·0-50·0 kg/m and complete ethnicity data, were registered with a general practitioner practice in England at any point between Sept 1, 1990, and Dec 1, 2018, and had at least 1 year of follow-up data. Patients with type 2 diabetes were identified by use of a CALIBER phenotyping algorithm. Self-reported ethnicity was collapsed into five main categories. Age-adjusted and sex-adjusted negative binomial regression models, with fractional polynomials for BMI, were fitted with incident type 2 diabetes and ethnicity data. FINDINGS:1 472 819 people were included in our study, of whom 1 333 816 (90·6%) were White, 75 956 (5·2%) were south Asian, 49 349 (3·4%) were Black, 10 934 (0·7%) were Chinese, and 2764 (0·2%) were Arab. After a median follow-up of 6·5 years (IQR 3·2-11·2), 97 823 (6·6%) of 1 472 819 individuals were diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. For the equivalent age-adjusted and sex-adjusted incidence of type 2 diabetes at a BMI of 30·0 kg/m in White populations, the BMI cutoffs were 23·9 kg/m (95% CI 23·6-24·0) in south Asian populations, 28·1 kg/m (28·0-28·4) in Black populations, 26·9 kg/m (26·7-27·2) in Chinese populations, and 26·6 kg/m (26·5-27·0) in Arab populations. INTERPRETATION:Revisions of ethnicity-specific BMI cutoffs are needed to ensure that minority ethnic populations are provided with appropriate clinical surveillance to optimise the prevention, early diagnosis, and timely management of type 2 diabetes. FUNDING:National Institute for Health Research. 10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00088-7
Sex Differences in Atrial Fibrillation Risk: The VITAL Rhythm Study. JAMA cardiology Importance:Women have a lower incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with men in several studies, but it is unclear whether this sex difference is independent of sex differences in prevalent cardiovascular disease (CVD), body size, and other risk factors. Objective:To examine sex differences in AF incidence and whether AF risk factors differ by sex in a contemporary cohort of men and women without prevalent CVD. Design, Setting, and Participants:This was a prospective cohort analysis within the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL) Rhythm Study, a randomized trial that examined the effect of vitamin D and ω-3 fatty acid supplementation on incident AF among men 50 years or older and women 55 years or older without a prior history of prevalent AF, CVD, or cancer at baseline. Data were analyzed from September 29, 2020, to June 29, 2021. Exposures:Sex, height, weight, body mass index (BMI), body surface area (BSA), and other AF risk factors at study enrollment. Main Outcomes and Measures:Incident AF confirmed by medical record review. Results:A total of 25 119 individuals (mean [SD] age, 67.0 [7.1] years; 12 757 women [51%]) were included in this study. Over a median (IQR) follow-up of 5.3 (5.1-5.7) years, 900 confirmed incident AF events occurred among 12 362 men (495 events, 4.0%) and 12 757 women (405 events, 3.2%). After adjustment for age and treatment assignment, women were at lower risk for incident AF than men (hazard ratio [HR], 0.68; 95% CI, 0.59-0.77; P < .001). The inverse association between female sex and AF persisted after adjustment for race and ethnicity, smoking, alcohol intake, hypertension, diabetes (type 1, type 2, gestational), thyroid disease, exercise, and BMI (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.63-0.85; P <.001). However, female sex was positively associated with AF when height (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.14-1.72; P = .001), height and weight (HR 1.49, 95% CI, 1.21-1.82; P <.001), or BSA (HR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.06-1.49; P = .009) were substituted for BMI in the multivariate model. In stratified models, risk factor associations with incident AF were similar for women and men. Conclusions and Relevance:In this cohort study, findings suggest that after controlling for height and/or body size, women without CVD at baseline were at higher risk for AF than men, suggesting that sex differences in body size account for much of the protective association between female sex and AF. These data underscore the importance of AF prevention in women. 10.1001/jamacardio.2022.2825
Pancreatic islet transplantation in type 1 diabetes: 20-year experience from a single-centre cohort in Canada. The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:Islet transplantation offers an effective treatment for selected people with type 1 diabetes and intractable hypoglycaemia. Long-term experience, however, remains limited. We report outcomes from a single-centre cohort up to 20 years after islet transplantation. METHODS:This cohort study included patients older than 18 years with type 1 diabetes undergoing allogeneic islet transplantation between March 11, 1999, and Oct 1, 2019, at the University of Alberta Hospital (Edmonton, AB, Canada). Patients who underwent islet-after-kidney transplantation and islet transplantation alone or islet transplantation before whole-pancreas transplantation (follow-up was censored at the time of whole-pancreas transplantation) were included. Patient survival, graft survival (fasting plasma C-peptide >0·1 nmol/L), insulin independence, glycaemic control, and adverse events are reported. To identify factors associated with prolonged graft survival, recipients with sustained graft survival (≥90% of patient follow-up duration) were compared with those who had non-sustained graft survival (<90% of follow-up duration). Multivariate binary logistic regression analyses were done to determine predictors of sustained graft survival. FINDINGS:Between March 11, 1999, and Oct 1, 2019, 255 patients underwent islet transplantation and were included in the analyses (149 [58%] were female and 218 [85%] were White). Over a median follow-up of 7·4 years (IQR 4·4-12·2), 230 (90%) patients survived. Median graft survival was 5·9 years (IQR 3·0-9·5), and graft failure occurred in 91 (36%) patients. 178 (70%) recipients had sustained graft survival, and 77 (30%) had non-sustained graft survival. At baseline, compared with patients with non-sustained graft survival, those with sustained graft survival had longer median type 1 diabetes duration (33·5 years [IQR 24·3-41·7] vs 26·2 years [17·0-35·5]; p=0·0003), median older age (49·4 years [43·5-56·1] vs 44·2 years [35·4-54·2]; p=0·0011), and lower median insulin requirements (0·53 units/kg per day [0·45-0·67] vs 0·59 units/kg per day [0·48-0·70]; p=0·032), but median HbA concentrations were similar (8·2% [7·5-9·0] vs 8·5% [7·8-9·2]; p=0·23). 201 (79%) recipients had insulin independence, with a Kaplan-Meier estimate of 61% (95% CI 54-67) at 1 year, 32% (25-39) at 5 years, 20% (14-27) at 10 years, 11% (6-18) at 15 years, and 8% (2-17) at 20 years. Patients with sustained graft survival had significantly higher rates of insulin independence (160 [90%] of 178 vs 41 [53%] of 77; p<0·0001) and sustained improvements in glycaemic control mixed-main-effects model group effect, p<0·0001) compared with those with non-sustained graft survival. Multivariate analyses identified the combined use of anakinra plus etanercept (adjusted odds ratio 7·5 [95% CI 2·7-21·0], p<0·0001) and the BETA-2 score of 15 or higher (4·1 [1·5-11·4], p=0·0066) as factors associated with sustained graft survival. In recipients with sustained graft survival, the incidence of procedural complications was lower (23 [5%] of 443 infusions vs 17 [10%] of 167 infusions; p=0·027), whereas the incidence of cancer was higher (29 of [16%] of 178 vs four [5%] of 77; p=0·015) than in those with non-sustained graft survival; most were skin cancers (22 [67%] of 33). End-stage renal disease and severe infections were similar between groups. INTERPRETATION:We present the largest single-centre cohort study of long-term outcomes following islet transplantation. Although some limitations with our study remain, such as the retrospective component, a relatively small sample size, and the absence of non-transplant controls, we found that the combined use of anakinra plus etanercept and the BETA-2 score were associated with improved outcomes, and therefore these factors could inform clinical practice. FUNDING:None. 10.1016/S2213-8587(22)00114-0
Long-term Outcomes of Tetralogy of Fallot: A Study From the Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium. Smith Clayton A,McCracken Courtney,Thomas Amanda S,Spector Logan G,St Louis James D,Oster Matthew E,Moller James H,Kochilas Lazaros JAMA cardiology Importance:Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is a surgically repairable form of cyanotic congenital heart disease. Multicenter data for long-term survival following repair are sparse. Objective:To evaluate the long-term transplant-free survival of TOF by surgical strategy adjusted for era and patient characteristics. Design, Setting, and Participants:Retrospective cohort study enriched with data from the National Death Index and the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network through 2014. Multicenter cohort from the Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium (PCCC), a large, US-based clinical registry for interventions for congenital heart disease. The cohort included patients with adequate identifiers for linkage with the National Death Index and the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network who were enrolled in the PCCC registry between 1982 and 2003 and survived surgical repair of simple TOF. Data were analyzed between September 2015 and April 2018. Exposures:We examined patient-associated and surgery-associated risk factors affecting survival. Main Outcomes and Measures:We analyzed the transplant-free survival during early (<6 years) and late (≥6 years) phase after TOF surgical repair. Results:Of the 3283 patients who survived repair for simple TOF and met the study's inclusion criteria, 56.4% were male and 43.6% were female. Twenty-five-year survival following TOF repair was 94.5%. Multivariable analysis demonstrated increased risk of early mortality with staged repair (HR, 2.68; 95% CI, 1.59-4.49) and non-valve-sparing operation (HR, 3.76; 95% CI, 1.53-9.19). Presence of a genetic abnormality was associated with increased risk of death both in the early (HR, 3.64; 95% CI, 2.05-6.47) and late postoperative phase (HR, 4.41; 95% CI, 2.62-7.44). Conclusions and Relevance:Long-term survival after simple TOF repair is excellent. Staged repair and non-valve-sparing operations were negatively associated with survival in the early postrepair phase but not the late postrepair phase. These data are important for patients with repaired TOF and their caretakers and may guide surgical strategies for optimizing the long-term outcomes of this population. 10.1001/jamacardio.2018.4255
Associations between integrase strand-transfer inhibitors and cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV: a multicentre prospective study from the RESPOND cohort consortium. The lancet. HIV BACKGROUND:Although associations between older antiretroviral drug classes and cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV are well described, there is a paucity of data regarding a possible association with integrase strand-transfer inhibitors (INSTIs). We investigated whether exposure to INSTIs was associated with an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. METHODS:RESPOND is a prospective, multicentre, collaboration study between 17 pre-existing European and Australian cohorts and includes more than 32 000 adults living with HIV in clinical care after Jan 1, 2012. Individuals were eligible for inclusion in these analyses if they were older than 18 years, had CD4 cell counts and HIV viral load measurements in the 12 months before or within 3 months after baseline (latest of cohort enrolment or Jan 1, 2012), and had no exposure to INSTIs before baseline. These individuals were subsequently followed up to the earliest of the first cardiovascular disease event (ie, myocardial infarction, stroke, or invasive cardiovascular procedure), last follow-up, or Dec 31, 2019. We used multivariable negative binomial regression to assess associations between cardiovascular disease and INSTI exposure (0 months [no exposure] vs >0 to 6 months, >6 to 12 months, >12 to 24 months, >24 to 36 months, and >36 months), adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. RESPOND is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04090151, and is ongoing. FINDINGS:29 340 people living with HIV were included in these analyses, of whom 7478 (25·5%) were female, 21 818 (74·4%) were male, and 44 (<1%) were transgender, with a median age of 44·3 years (IQR 36·2-51·3) at baseline. As of Dec 31, 2019, 14 000 (47·7%) of 29 340 participants had been exposed to an INSTI. During a median follow-up of 6·16 years (IQR 3·87-7·52; 160 252 person-years), 748 (2·5%) individuals had a cardiovascular disease event (incidence rate of 4·67 events [95% CI 4·34-5·01] per 1000 person-years of follow-up). The crude cardiovascular disease incidence rate was 4·19 events (3·83-4·57) per 1000 person-years in those with no INSTI exposure, which increased to 8·46 events (6·58-10·71) per 1000 person-years in those with more than 0 months to 6 months of exposure, and gradually decreased with increasing length of exposure, until it decreased to similar levels of no exposure at more than 24 months of exposure (4·25 events [2·89-6·04] per 1000 person-years among those with >24 to 36 months of exposure). Compared with those with no INSTI exposure, the risk of cardiovascular disease was increased in the first 24 months of INSTI exposure and thereafter decreased to levels similar to those never exposed (>0 to 6 months of exposure: adjusted incidence rate ratio of 1·85 [1·44-2·39]; >6 to 12 months of exposure: 1·19 [0·84-1·68]; >12 to 24 months of exposure: 1·46 [1·13-1·88]; >24 to 36 months of exposure: 0·89 [0·62-1·29]; and >36 months of exposure: 0·96 [0·69-1·33]; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION:Although the potential for unmeasured confounding and channelling bias cannot fully be excluded, INSTIs initiation was associated with an early onset, excess incidence of cardiovascular disease in the first 2 years of exposure, after accounting for known cardiovascular disease risk factors. These early findings call for analyses in other large studies, and the potential underlying mechanisms explored further. FUNDING:The CHU St Pierre Brussels HIV Cohort, The Austrian HIV Cohort Study, The Australian HIV Observational Database, The AIDS Therapy Evaluation in the Netherlands National Observational HIV cohort, The EuroSIDA cohort, The Frankfurt HIV Cohort Study, The Georgian National AIDS Health Information System, The Nice HIV Cohort, The ICONA Foundation, The Modena HIV Cohort, The PISCIS Cohort Study, The Swiss HIV Cohort Study, The Swedish InfCare HIV Cohort, The Royal Free HIV Cohort Study, The San Raffaele Scientific Institute, The University Hospital Bonn HIV Cohort and The University of Cologne HIV Cohorts, ViiV Healthcare, and Gilead Sciences. 10.1016/S2352-3018(22)00094-7
Comparison of Universal Genetic Testing vs Guideline-Directed Targeted Testing for Patients With Hereditary Cancer Syndrome. JAMA oncology IMPORTANCE:Hereditary factors play a key role in the risk of developing several cancers. Identification of a germline predisposition can have important implications for treatment decisions, risk-reducing interventions, cancer screening, and germline testing. OBJECTIVE:To examine the prevalence of pathogenic germline variants (PGVs) in patients with cancer using a universal testing approach compared with targeted testing based on clinical guidelines and the uptake of cascade family variant testing (FVT). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:This prospective, multicenter cohort study assessed germline genetic alterations among patients with solid tumor cancer receiving care at Mayo Clinic cancer centers and a community practice between April 1, 2018, and March 31, 2020. Patients were not selected based on cancer type, disease stage, family history of cancer, ethnicity, or age. EXPOSURES:Germline sequencing using a greater than 80-gene next-generation sequencing platform. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Proportion of PGVs detected with a universal strategy compared with a guideline-directed approach and uptake of cascade FVT in families. RESULTS:A total of 2984 patients (mean [SD] age, 61.4 [12.2] years; 1582 [53.0%] male) were studied. Pathogenic germline variants were found in 397 patients (13.3%), including 282 moderate- and high-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes. Variants of uncertain significance were found in 1415 patients (47.4%). A total of 192 patients (6.4%) had incremental clinically actionable findings that would not have been detected by phenotype or family history-based testing criteria. Of those with a high-penetrance PGV, 42 patients (28.2%) had modifications in their treatment based on the finding. Only younger age of diagnosis was associated with presence of PGV. Only 70 patients (17.6%) with PGVs had family members undergoing no-cost cascade FVT. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:This prospective, multicenter cohort study found that universal multigene panel testing among patients with solid tumor cancer was associated with an increased detection of heritable variants over the predicted yield of targeted testing based on guidelines. Nearly 30% of patients with high-penetrance variants had modifications in their treatment. Uptake of cascade FVT was low despite being offered at no cost. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.6252
Association of Ablative Radiation Therapy With Survival Among Patients With Inoperable Pancreatic Cancer. JAMA oncology IMPORTANCE:Surgical resection has been considered the only curative option for patients with pancreatic cancer. Nonoperative local treatment options that can provide a similar benefit are needed. Emerging radiation techniques that address organ motion have enabled curative radiation doses to be given in patients with inoperable disease. OBJECTIVE:To determine the association of hypofractionated ablative radiation therapy (A-RT) with survival for patients with locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) treated with a novel radiation planning and delivery technique. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:This cohort study included 119 consecutive patients treated with A-RT between June 2016 and February 2019 and enrolled in a prospectively maintained database. Patients were treated with a standardized technique within a large academic cancer center regional network. All patients with localized, unresectable, or medically inoperable pancreatic cancer with tumors of any size and less than 5 cm luminal abutment with the primary tumor were eligible. INTERVENTIONS:Ablative RT (98 Gy biologically effective dose) was delivered using standard equipment. Respiratory gating, soft tissue image guidance, and selective adaptive planning were used to address organ motion and limit the dose to surrounding luminal organs. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:The primary outcome was overall survival (OS). Secondary outcomes included incidence of local progression and progression-free survival. RESULTS:Between 2016 and 2019, 119 patients (59 men, median age 67 years) received A-RT, including 99 with T3/T4 and 53 with node-positive disease, with a median carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) level greater than 167 U/mL. Most (116 [97.5%]) received induction chemotherapy for a median of 4 months (0.5-18.4). Median OS from diagnosis and A-RT were 26.8 and 18.4 months, respectively. Respective 12- and 24-month OS from A-RT were 74% (95% CI, 66%-83%) and 38% (95% CI, 27%-52%). Twelve- and 24-month cumulative incidence of locoregional failure were 17.6% (95% CI, 10.4%-24.9%) and 32.8% (95% CI, 21.6%-44.1%), respectively. Postinduction CA19-9 decline was associated with improved locoregional control and survival. Grade 3 upper gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 10 patients (8%) with no grade 4 to 5 events. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:This cohort study of patients with inoperable LAPC found that A-RT following multiagent induction therapy for LAPC was associated with durable locoregional tumor control and favorable survival. Prospective randomized trials in patients with LAPC are warranted. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.0057
Age-dependent and sex-dependent disparity in mortality in patients with adrenal incidentalomas and autonomous cortisol secretion: an international, retrospective, cohort study. The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:The association between cortisol secretion and mortality in patients with adrenal incidentalomas is controversial. We aimed to assess all-cause mortality, prevalence of comorbidities, and occurrence of cardiovascular events in uniformly stratified patients with adrenal incidentalomas and cortisol autonomy (defined as non-suppressible serum cortisol on dexamethasone suppression testing). METHODS:We conducted an international, retrospective, cohort study (NAPACA Outcome) at 30 centres in 16 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older with an adrenal incidentaloma (diameter ≥1 cm) detected between Jan 1, 1996, and Dec 31, 2015, and availability of a 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test result from the time of the initial diagnosis. Patients with clinically apparent hormone excess, active malignancy, or follow-up of less than 36 months were excluded. Patients were stratified according to the 0800-0900 h serum cortisol values after an overnight 1 mg dexamethasone suppression test; less than 50 nmol/L was classed as non-functioning adenoma, 50-138 nmol/L as possible autonomous cortisol secretion, and greater than 138 nmol/L as autonomous cortisol secretion. The primary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Secondary endpoints were the prevalence of cardiometabolic comorbidities, cardiovascular events, and cause-specific mortality. The primary and secondary endpoints were assessed in all study participants. FINDINGS:Of 4374 potentially eligible patients, 3656 (2089 [57·1%] with non-functioning adenoma, 1320 [36·1%] with possible autonomous cortisol secretion, and 247 [6·8%] with autonomous cortisol secretion) were included in the study cohort for mortality analysis (2350 [64·3%] women and 1306 [35·7%] men; median age 61 years [IQR 53-68]; median follow-up 7·0 years [IQR 4·7-10·2]). During follow-up, 352 (9·6%) patients died. All-cause mortality (adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities, and previous cardiovascular events) was significantly increased in patients with possible autonomous cortisol secretion (HR 1·52, 95% CI 1·19-1·94) and autonomous cortisol secretion (1·77, 1·20-2·62) compared with patients with non-functioning adenoma. In women younger than 65 years, autonomous cortisol secretion was associated with higher all-cause mortality than non-functioning adenoma (HR 4·39, 95% CI 1·93-9·96), although this was not observed in men. Cardiometabolic comorbidities were significantly less frequent with non-functioning adenoma than with possible autonomous cortisol secretion and autonomous cortisol secretion (hypertension occurred in 1186 [58·6%] of 2024 patients with non-functioning adenoma, 944 [74·0%] of 1275 with possible autonomous cortisol secretion, and 179 [75·2%] of 238 with autonomous cortisol secretion; dyslipidaemia occurred in 724 [36·2%] of 1999 patients, 547 [43·8%] of 1250, and 123 [51·9%] of 237; and any diabetes occurred in 365 [18·2%] of 2002, 288 [23·0%] of 1250, and 62 [26·7%] of 232; all p values <0·001). INTERPRETATION:Cortisol autonomy is associated with increased all-cause mortality, particularly in women younger than 65 years. However, until results from randomised interventional trials are available, a conservative therapeutic approach seems to be justified in most patients with adrenal incidentaloma. FUNDING:Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, Associazione Italiana per la Ricerca sul Cancro, Università di Torino. 10.1016/S2213-8587(22)00100-0
Association Between Cumulative Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Exposure During Young Adulthood and Middle Age and Risk of Cardiovascular Events. JAMA cardiology Importance:Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Most observational studies on the association between LDL-C and CVD have focused on LDL-C level at a single time point (usually in middle or older age), and few studies have characterized long-term exposures to LDL-C and their role in CVD risk. Objective:To evaluate the associations of cumulative exposure to LDL-C, time-weighted average (TWA) LDL-C, and the LDL-C slope change during young adulthood and middle age with incident CVD later in life. Design, Setting, and Participants:This cohort study analyzed pooled data from 4 prospective cohort studies in the US (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study, Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort, and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis). Participants were included if they had 2 or more LDL-C measures that were at least 2 years apart between ages 18 and 60 years, with at least 1 of the LDL-C measures occurring during middle age at 40 to 60 years. Data from 1971 to 2017 were collected and analyzed from September 25, 2020, to January 10, 2021. Exposures:Cumulative exposure to LDL-C, TWA LDL-C, and LDL-C slope from age 18 to 60 years. Main Outcomes and Measures:Incident coronary heart disease (CHD), ischemic stroke, and heart failure (HF). Results:A total of 18 288 participants were included in this study. These participants had a mean (SD) age of 56.4 (3.7) years and consisted of 10 309 women (56.4%). During a median follow-up of 16 years, 1165 CHD, 599 ischemic stroke, and 1145 HF events occurred. In multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models that adjusted for the most recent LDL-C level measured during middle age and for other CVD risk factors, the hazard ratios for CHD were as follows: 1.57 (95% CI, 1.10-2.23; P for trend = .01) for cumulative LDL-C level, 1.69 (95% CI, 1.23-2.31; P for trend <.001) for TWA LDL-C level, and 0.88 (95% CI, 0.69-1.12; P for trend = .28) for LDL-C slope. No association was found between any of the LDL-C variables and ischemic stroke or HF. Conclusions and Relevance:This cohort study showed that cumulative LDL-C and TWA LDL-C during young adulthood and middle age were associated with the risk of incident CHD, independent of midlife LDL-C level. These findings suggest that past levels of LDL-C may inform strategies for primary prevention of CHD and that maintaining optimal LDL-C levels at an earlier age may reduce the lifetime risk of developing atherosclerotic CVD. 10.1001/jamacardio.2021.3508
Outcomes of Patients With Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia Treated With β-Blockers. JAMA cardiology Importance:Patients with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) may experience life-threatening arrhythmic events (LTAEs) despite β-blocker treatment. Further complicating management, the role of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in CPVT is debated. Objective:To investigate the long-term outcomes of patients with RYR2 CPVT treated with β-blockers only and the cost to benefit ratio of ICD. Design, Settings, and Participants:This prospective cohort study conducted from January 1988 to October 2020 with a mean (SD) follow-up of 9.4 (7.5) years included patients who were referred to the Molecular Cardiology Clinics of ICS Maugeri Hospital, Pavia, Italy. Participants included consecutive patients with CPVT who were carriers of a pathogenic or likely pathogenic RYR2 variant with long-term clinical follow-up. Exposures:Treatment with selective and nonselective β-blocker only and ICD implant when indicated. Main Outcome and Measures:The main outcome was the occurrence of the first LTAE while taking a β-blocker. LTAE was defined as a composite of 3 hard end points: sudden cardiac death, aborted cardiac arrest, and hemodynamically nontolerated ventricular tachycardia. Results:The cohort included 216 patients with RYR2 CPVT (121 of 216 female [55%], median [IQR] age 14, [9-30] years). During a mean (SD) follow-up of 9.4 (7.5) years taking β-blockers only, 28 of 216 patients (13%) experienced an LTAE (annual rate, 1.9%; 95% CI, 1.3-2.7). In multivariable analysis, experiencing either an LTAE (hazard ratio [HR], 3.3; 95% CI, 1.2-8.9; P = .02) or syncope before diagnosis (HR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.8-11.1; P = .001) and carrying a C-terminal domain variant (HR, 18.1; 95% CI, 4.1-80.8; P < .001) were associated with an increased LTAE risk during β-blocker therapy only. The risk of LTAE among those taking selective β-blockers vs nadolol was increased 6-fold (HR, 5.8; 95% CI, 2.1-16.3; P = .001). Conversely, no significant difference was present between propranolol and nadolol (HR, 1.8; 95% CI, 0.4-7.3; P = .44). An ICD was implanted in 79 of 216 patients (37%) who were followed up for a mean (SD) of 8.6 (6.3) years. At the occurrence of LTAE, ICD carriers were more likely to survive (18 of 18 [100%]) than non-ICD carriers (6 of 10 [60%]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance:In this cohort study, selective β-blockers were associated with a higher risk of LTAE as compared with nadolol. Independently from treatment, LTAE and syncope before diagnosis and C-terminal domain variants identified patients at higher risk of β-blocker failure, and the ICD was associated with reduced mortality in high-risk patients with CPVT. 10.1001/jamacardio.2022.0219
Association of Sitting Time With Mortality and Cardiovascular Events in High-Income, Middle-Income, and Low-Income Countries. JAMA cardiology Importance:High amounts of sitting time are associated with increased risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in high-income countries, but it is unknown whether risks also increase in low- and middle-income countries. Objective:To investigate the association of sitting time with mortality and major CVD in countries at different economic levels using data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology study. Design, Setting, and Participants:This population-based cohort study included participants aged 35 to 70 years recruited from January 1, 2003, and followed up until August 31, 2021, in 21 high-income, middle-income, and low-income countries with a median follow-up of 11.1 years. Exposures:Daily sitting time measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Main Outcomes and Measures:The composite of all-cause mortality and major CVD (defined as cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or heart failure). Results:Of 105 677 participants, 61 925 (58.6%) were women, and the mean (SD) age was 50.4 (9.6) years. During a median follow-up of 11.1 (IQR, 8.6-12.2) years, 6233 deaths and 5696 major cardiovascular events (2349 myocardial infarctions, 2966 strokes, 671 heart failure, and 1792 cardiovascular deaths) were documented. Compared with the reference group (<4 hours per day of sitting), higher sitting time (≥8 hours per day) was associated with an increased risk of the composite outcome (hazard ratio [HR], 1.19; 95% CI, 1.11-1.28; Pfor trend < .001), all-cause mortality (HR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.10-1.31; Pfor trend < .001), and major CVD (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.10-1.34; Pfor trend < .001). When stratified by country income levels, the association of sitting time with the composite outcome was stronger in low-income and lower-middle-income countries (≥8 hours per day: HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.16-1.44) compared with high-income and upper-middle-income countries (HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 0.98-1.19; P for interaction = .02). Compared with those who reported sitting time less than 4 hours per day and high physical activity level, participants who sat for 8 or more hours per day experienced a 17% to 50% higher associated risk of the composite outcome across physical activity levels; and the risk was attenuated along with increased physical activity levels. Conclusions and Relevance:High amounts of sitting time were associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality and CVD in economically diverse settings, especially in low-income and lower-middle-income countries. Reducing sedentary time along with increasing physical activity might be an important strategy for easing the global burden of premature deaths and CVD. 10.1001/jamacardio.2022.1581
Frailty index and all-cause and cause-specific mortality in Chinese adults: a prospective cohort study. The Lancet. Public health BACKGROUND:The fraily index is a useful proxy measure of accelerated biological ageing and in estimating all-cause and cause-specific mortality in older individuals in European and US populations. However, the predictive value of the frailty index in other populations outside of Europe and the USA and in adults younger than 50 years is unknown. We aimed to examine the association between the frailty index and mortality in a population of Chinese adults. METHODS:In this prospective cohort study, we used data from the China Kadoorie Biobank. We included adults aged 30-79 years from ten areas (five urban areas and five rural areas) of China who had no missing values for the items that made up the frailty index. We did not exclude participants on the basis of baseline morbidity status. We calculated the follow-up person-years from the baseline date to either the date of death, loss to follow-up, or Dec 31, 2017, whichever came first, through linkage with the registries of China's Disease Surveillance Points system and local residential records. Active follow-up visits to local communities were done annually for participants who were not linked to any established registries. Causes of death from official death certificates were supplemented, if necessary, by reviewing medical records or doing standard verbal autopsy procedures. The frailty index was calculated using 28 baseline variables, all of which were health status deficits measured by use of questionnaires and physical examination. We defined three categories of frailty status: robust (frailty index ≤0·10), prefrail (frailty index >0·10 to <0·25), and frail (frailty index ≥0·25). The primary outcomes were all-cause mortality and cause-specific mortality in Chinese adults aged 30-79 years. We used a Cox proportional hazards model to estimate the associations between the frailty index and all-cause and cause-specific mortality, adjusting for chronological age, education, and lifestyle factors. FINDINGS:512 723 participants, recruited between June 25, 2004, and July 15, 2008, were followed up for a median of 10·8 years (IQR 10·2-13·1; total follow-up 5 551 974 person-years). 291 954 (56·9%) people were categorised as robust, 205 075 (40·0%) people were categorised as prefrail, and 15 694 (3·1%) people were categorised as frail. Women aged between 45 years and 79 years had a higher mean frailty index and a higher prevalence of frailty than did men. During follow-up, 49 371 deaths were recorded. After adjustment for established and potential risk factors for death, each 0·1 increment in the frailty index was associated with a higher risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR] 1·68, 95% CI 1·66-1·71). Such associations were stronger among younger adults than among older adults (p<0·0001), with HRs per 0·1 increment of the frailty index of 1·95 (95% CI 1·87-2·03) for those younger than 50 years, 1·80 (1·76-1·83) for those aged 50-64 years, and 1·56 (1·53-1·59) for those 65 years and older. After adjustments, there was no difference between the sexes in the association between the frailty index and all-cause mortality (p=0·75). For each 0·1 increment of the frailty index, the corresponding HRs for risk of death were 1·89 (95% CI 1·83-1·94) from ischaemic heart disease, 1·84 (1·79-1·89) from cerebrovascular disease, 1·19 (1·16-1·22) from cancer, 2·54 (2·45-2·63) from respiratory disease, 1·78 (1·59-2·00) from infection, and 1·78 (1·73-1·83) from all other causes. INTERPRETATION:The frailty index is associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality independent of chronological age in younger and older Chinese adults. The identification of younger adults with accelerated ageing by use of surrogate measures could be useful for the prevention of premature death and the extension of healthy active life expectancy. FUNDING:The National Natural Science Foundation of China, the National Key R&D Program of China, the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology, the Kadoorie Charitable Foundation, and the Wellcome Trust. 10.1016/S2468-2667(20)30113-4
Immune-Mediated Diseases Associated With Cancer Risks. JAMA oncology IMPORTANCE:Immune regulation is important for carcinogenesis; however, the cancer risk profiles associated with immune-mediated diseases need further characterization. OBJECTIVE:To assess the prospective association of 48 immune-mediated diseases with the risk of total and individual cancers and the prospective association of organ-specific immune-mediated diseases with the risk of local and extralocal cancers. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:This prospective cohort study used data from the UK Biobank cohort study on adults aged 37 to 73 years who were recruited at 22 assessment centers throughout the UK between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010, with follow-up through February 28, 2019. EXPOSURES:Immune-mediated diseases. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:The association of immune-mediated diseases with risk of cancer was assessed with multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs after adjusting for various potential confounders using time-varying Cox proportional hazards regression. Heterogeneity in the associations of organ-specific immune-mediated diseases with local and extralocal cancers was assessed using the contrast test method. RESULTS:A total of 478 753 participants (mean [SD] age, 56.4 [8.1] years; 54% female) were included in the study. During 4 600 460 person-years of follow-up, a total of 2834 cases of cancer were documented in 61 496 patients with immune-mediated diseases and 26 817 cases of cancer in 417 257 patients without any immune-mediated diseases (multivariable HR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.04-1.12). Five of the organ-specific immune-mediated diseases were significantly associated with higher risk of local but not extralocal cancers: asthma (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.14-1.56), celiac disease (HR, 6.89; 95% CI, 2.18-21.75), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (HR, 6.94; 95% CI, 3.94-12.25), primary biliary cholangitis (HR, 42.12; 95% CI, 20.76-85.44), and autoimmune hepatitis (HR, 21.26; 95% CI, 6.79-66.61) (P < .002 for heterogeneity). Nine immune-mediated diseases were associated with an increased risk of cancers in the involved organs (eg, asthma with lung cancer [HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.14-1.57; P < .001] and celiac disease with small intestine cancer [HR, 6.89; 95% CI, 2.18-21.75; P = .001]); 13 immune-mediated diseases were associated with an increased risk of cancer in the near organs (eg, Crohn disease with liver cancer: [HR, 4.01; 95% CI, 1.65-9.72; P = .002]) or distant organs (eg, autoimmune hepatitis with tongue cancer [HR, 27.75; 95% CI, 3.82-199.91; P = .001]) or in different systems (eg, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura with liver cancer [HR, 11.96; 95% CI, 3.82-37.42; P < .001]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:In this cohort study, immune-mediated diseases were associated with an increased risk of total cancer. Organ-specific immune-mediated diseases had stronger associations with risk of local cancers than extralocal cancers. The associations for individual immune-mediated diseases were largely organ specific but were also observed for some cancers in the near and distant organs or different systems. Our findings support the role of local and systemic immunoregulation in cancer development. 10.1001/jamaoncol.2021.5680
Risks and burdens of incident diabetes in long COVID: a cohort study. The lancet. Diabetes & endocrinology BACKGROUND:There is growing evidence suggesting that beyond the acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection, people with COVID-19 could experience a wide range of post-acute sequelae, including diabetes. However, the risks and burdens of diabetes in the post-acute phase of the disease have not yet been comprehensively characterised. To address this knowledge gap, we aimed to examine the post-acute risk and burden of incident diabetes in people who survived the first 30 days of SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS:In this cohort study, we used the national databases of the US Department of Veterans Affairs to build a cohort of 181 280 participants who had a positive COVID-19 test between March 1, 2020, and Sept 30, 2021, and survived the first 30 days of COVID-19; a contemporary control (n=4 118 441) that enrolled participants between March 1, 2020, and Sept 30, 2021; and a historical control (n=4 286 911) that enrolled participants between March 1, 2018, and Sept 30, 2019. Both control groups had no evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Participants in all three comparison groups were free of diabetes before cohort entry and were followed up for a median of 352 days (IQR 245-406). We used inverse probability weighted survival analyses, including predefined and algorithmically selected high dimensional variables, to estimate post-acute COVID-19 risks of incident diabetes, antihyperglycaemic use, and a composite of the two outcomes. We reported two measures of risk: hazard ratio (HR) and burden per 1000 people at 12 months. FINDINGS:In the post-acute phase of the disease, compared with the contemporary control group, people with COVID-19 exhibited an increased risk (HR 1·40, 95% CI 1·36-1·44) and excess burden (13·46, 95% CI 12·11-14·84, per 1000 people at 12 months) of incident diabetes; and an increased risk (1·85, 1·78-1·92) and excess burden (12·35, 11·36-13·38) of incident antihyperglycaemic use. Additionally, analyses to estimate the risk of a composite endpoint of incident diabetes or antihyperglycaemic use yielded a HR of 1·46 (95% CI 1·43-1·50) and an excess burden of 18·03 (95% CI 16·59-19·51) per 1000 people at 12 months. Risks and burdens of post-acute outcomes increased in a graded fashion according to the severity of the acute phase of COVID-19 (whether patients were non-hospitalised, hospitalised, or admitted to intensive care). All the results were consistent in analyses using the historical control as the reference category. INTERPRETATION:In the post-acute phase, we report increased risks and 12-month burdens of incident diabetes and antihyperglycaemic use in people with COVID-19 compared with a contemporary control group of people who were enrolled during the same period and had not contracted SARS-CoV-2, and a historical control group from a pre-pandemic era. Post-acute COVID-19 care should involve identification and management of diabetes. FUNDING:US Department of Veterans Affairs and the American Society of Nephrology. 10.1016/S2213-8587(22)00044-4