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Chronic pain: an update on burden, best practices, and new advances. Cohen Steven P,Vase Lene,Hooten William M Lancet (London, England) Chronic pain exerts an enormous personal and economic burden, affecting more than 30% of people worldwide according to some studies. Unlike acute pain, which carries survival value, chronic pain might be best considered to be a disease, with treatment (eg, to be active despite the pain) and psychological (eg, pain acceptance and optimism as goals) implications. Pain can be categorised as nociceptive (from tissue injury), neuropathic (from nerve injury), or nociplastic (from a sensitised nervous system), all of which affect work-up and treatment decisions at every level; however, in practice there is considerable overlap in the different types of pain mechanisms within and between patients, so many experts consider pain classification as a continuum. The biopsychosocial model of pain presents physical symptoms as the denouement of a dynamic interaction between biological, psychological, and social factors. Although it is widely known that pain can cause psychological distress and sleep problems, many medical practitioners do not realise that these associations are bidirectional. While predisposing factors and consequences of chronic pain are well known, the flipside is that factors promoting resilience, such as emotional support systems and good health, can promote healing and reduce pain chronification. Quality of life indicators and neuroplastic changes might also be reversible with adequate pain management. Clinical trials and guidelines typically recommend a personalised multimodal, interdisciplinary treatment approach, which might include pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, integrative treatments, and invasive procedures. 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00393-7
Transition from acute to chronic pain after surgery. Glare Paul,Aubrey Karin R,Myles Paul S Lancet (London, England) Over the past decade there has been an increasing reliance on strong opioids to treat acute and chronic pain, which has been associated with a rising epidemic of prescription opioid misuse, abuse, and overdose-related deaths. Deaths from prescription opioids have more than quadrupled in the USA since 1999, and this pattern is now occurring globally. Inappropriate opioid prescribing after surgery, particularly after discharge, is a major cause of this problem. Chronic postsurgical pain, occurring in approximately 10% of patients who have surgery, typically begins as acute postoperative pain that is difficult to control, but soon transitions into a persistent pain condition with neuropathic features that are unresponsive to opioids. Research into how and why this transition occurs has led to a stronger appreciation of opioid-induced hyperalgesia, use of more effective and safer opioid-sparing analgesic regimens, and non-pharmacological interventions for pain management. This Series provides an overview of the epidemiology and societal effect, basic science, and current recommendations for managing persistent postsurgical pain. We discuss the advances in the prevention of this transitional pain state, with the aim to promote safer analgesic regimens to better manage patients with acute and chronic pain. 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)30352-6